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Transcript of Andrew Jackson
Indian Removal Act
Pressed by Jackson, Congress passes the Force Bill
Paid off the entire national debt, the only time in U.S. history that has been accomplished
The French government agrees to a treaty settling spoliation claims by the United States dating back to the Napoleonic Wars
Wins reelection to the presidency
Andrew Jackson (Old Hickory)
March 4, 1845 to March 3, 1849
Tariff of 1846 (Walker Tariff)
signs into law the Independent Treasury, which he calls a “Constitutional Treasury,”
Iowa is admitted as a free state, making it the twenty-ninth state in the Union
General Winfield Scott takes Mexico City, adding pressure to the Mexican government to submit to the demands of President Polk and sign a treaty of peace
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the Mexican War
Wisconsin is admitted as a free state, making it the thirtieth state in the Union
James Knox Polk (Young Hickory)
March 4, 1857 to March 3, 1861
Congress passes the English Bill
Minnesota joins union
Oregon joins union
James Buchanan (Old Buck)
March 5, 1849 to July 9, 1850
General Zachary Taylor defeats the Mexicans under General Santa Anna at the Battle of Buena Vista. Taylor's victory cements his growing acclaim as a national hero and helps propel him to the 1848 Whig nomination for President
Zachary Taylor (Old, Rough, and Ready)
July 9, 1850 to March 3, 1853
Fugitive Slave Bill
Compromise of 1850
California enters the union as the thirty-first state
Names Brigham Young, president of the Mormon Church, governor of the Utah territory
Millard Fillmore (The American Louis Philippe)
Franklin Pierce (Young Hickory of the Granite Hills)
March 4, 1853 to March 3, 1857
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
The Canadian Reciprocity Treaty
Congress declares that foreign coins are no longer considered legal tender in the United States
Treaty of Kanagawa
March 4, 1861 to April 15, 1865
Searching for a way to finance the war, the House of Representatives passes the Morrill Tariff and excise taxes
Battle of Bull Run
The Union endorses the use of volunteers for the war and offers a $100 bonus for at least two years of service
Slavery is abolished in District of Columbia
Abraham Lincoln (Honest Abe; Illinois Rail Splitter)
April 15, 1865 to March 3, 1869
Issues 2 proclamations summarizing his recommendations for the restoration of Confederate states to the Union
May 2, 1865
"Swing around the circle"
August 28, 1866
Close of the Civil War is celebrated in Washington
May 23, 1865-December 13, 1901
Mississippi enacts a Black Code
Decemeber 4, 1865
Congress readmits Tennessee to the Union
July 24, 1866
Nebraska joins the union
March 1, 1867
The House of Representatives votes to impeach Johnson, focusing on his breach of the Tenure of Office Act
February 24, 1868
March 4, 1869 to March 3, 1877
Virginia is readmitted to the Union
Texas is readmitted
Mississippi is readmitted
The federal election law passes
an indian appropriation act is passed
establishes the first civil service commission
Ku Klux Klan bill enacted
becomes the first President to veto a private pension bill
signs the civil rights act of 1875
Battle of Little Big Horn
Ulysses Simpson Grant (Hero of Appomattox)
March 4, 1877 to March 3, 1881
Cincinnati Republicans ran him for the House of
Representatives. He accepted the nomination,
but would not campaign, explaining, "an officer
fit for duty who at this crisis would abandon his
post to electioneer... ought to be scalped.“
• Safe liberalism, party loyalty, and a good war
record made Hayes an acceptable Republican
candidate in 1876. He opposed Governor
Samuel J. Tilden of New York.
• Hayes insisted that his appointments must be
made on merit, not political considerations. For
his Cabinet he chose men of high caliber, but
outraged many Republicans because one
member was an ex-Confederate and another
had bolted the party as a Liberal Republican in
• Hayes pledged protection of the rights of
Negroes in the South, but at the same time
advocated the restoration of "wise, honest, and
peaceful local self-government." This meant the
withdrawal of troops.
Rutherford Brichard Hayes (Dark-Horse President)
March 4, 1881 to September 19, 1881
Garfield was elected to the Ohio Senate in 1859
as a Republican. During the secession crisis, he
advocated coercing the seceding states back
into the Union.
• President Lincoln persuaded him to resign his
commission: It was easier to find major generals
than to obtain effective Republicans for
Congress. Garfield repeatedly won re-election
for 18 years, and became the leading
Republican in the House.
• As President, Garfield strengthened Federal
authority over the New York Customs House,
stronghold of Senator Roscoe Conkling, who was
leader of the Stalwart Republicans and dispenser
of patronage in New York.
James Abram Garfield
March 4, 1885 to March 3, 1889 and March 4, 1893 to March 3, 1897
Cleveland won the Presidency with the
combined support of Democrats and reform
Republicans, the "Mugwumps”.
• He angered the railroads by ordering an
investigation of western lands they held by
Government grant. He forced them to return
81,000,000 acres. He also signed the
Interstate Commerce Act, the first law
attempting Federal regulation of the
• Elected again in 1892, Cleveland faced an
acute depression. He dealt directly with the
Treasury crisis rather than with business
failures, farm mortgage foreclosures, and
unemployment. He obtained repeal of the
mildly inflationary Sherman Silver Purchase
Act and, with the aid of Wall Street,
maintained the Treasury's gold reserve.
Grover Cleveland (Veto Mayor; Veto President)
March 4, 1889 to March 3, 1893
In the 1880's he served in the United States
Senate, where he championed Indians.
homesteaders, and Civil War veterans.
n the Presidential election, Harrison received
100,000 fewer popular votes than Cleveland, but
carried the Electoral College 233 to 168.
The first Pan American Congress met in
Washington in 1889, establishing an information
center which later became the Pan American
Union. At the end of his administration Harrison
submitted to the Senate a treaty to annex
Hawaii; to his disappointment, President
Cleveland later withdrew it.
Benjamin Harrison (Kid Gloves Harrison; Little Ben)
September 19, 1881 to March 3, 1885
President Grant in 1871 appointed him Collector
of the Port of New York.
• To the indignation of the Stalwart Republicans,
the onetime Collector of the Port of New York
became, as President, a champion of civil
service reform. Public pressure, heightened by
the assassination of Garfield, forced an unwieldy
Congress to heed the President.
• In 1883 Congress passed the Pendleton Act,
which established a bipartisan Civil Service
Commission, forbade levying political
assessments against officeholders, and provided
for a "classified system" that made certain
Government positions obtainable only through
competitive written examinations. The system
protected employees against removal for
• Arthur also tried to lower tariff rates so the
Government would not be embarrassed by
annual surpluses of revenue.
• The Arthur Administration enacted the first
general Federal immigration law.
Chester Alan Arthur (The Gentleman Boss; Elegant Arthur)
March 4, 1897 to September 14, 1901
When McKinley became President, the
depression of 1893 had almost run its course
and with it the extreme agitation over silver.
Deferring action on the money question, he
called Congress into special session to enact
the highest tariff in history.
• Public indignation brought pressure upon the
President for war. Unable to restrain
Congress or the American people, McKinley
delivered his message of neutral intervention
in April 1898. Congress thereupon voted
three resolutions tantamount to a
declaration of war for the liberation and
independence of Cuba.
• In the 100-day war, the United States
destroyed the Spanish fleet outside Santiago
harbor in Cuba, seized Manila in the
Philippines, and occupied Puerto Rico
William McKinley (Idol of Ohio)
September 14, 1901 to March 3, 1909
During the Spanish-American War, Roosevelt was
lieutenant colonel of the Rough Rider Regiment.
• As President, Roosevelt held the ideal that the
Government should be the great arbiter of the
conflicting economic forces in the Nation,
especially between capital and labor,
guaranteeing justice to each and dispensing
favors to none.
• Roosevelt emerged spectacularly as a "trust
buster" by forcing the dissolution of a great
railroad combination in the Northwest. Other
antitrust suits under the Sherman Act followed.
• Some of Theodore Roosevelt's most effective
achievements were in conservation. He added
enormously to the national forests in the West,
reserved lands for public use, and fostered great
Theodore Roosevelt (TR;Trust-Buster;Teddy)
March 4, 1909 to March 3, 1913
President McKinley sent him to the Philippines in
1900 as chief civil administrator. Sympathetic
toward the Filipinos, he improved the economy,
built roads and schools, and gave the people at
least some participation in government.
• Taft did not believe in the stretching of
Presidential powers. He once commented that
Roosevelt "ought more often to have admitted
the legal way of reaching the same ends.“
• Taft alienated many liberal Republicans who
later formed the Progressive Party, by defending
the Payne-Aldrich Act which unexpectedly
continued high tariff rates
• A trade agreement with Canada, which Taft
pushed through Congress, would have pleased
eastern advocates of a low tariff, but the
Canadians rejected it. He further antagonized
Progressives by upholding his Secretary of the
Interior, accused of failing to carry out Roosevelt's conservation policies.
William Howard Taft
March 4, 1921 to August 2, 1923
• He served in the state Senate and as
Lieutenant Governor, and unsuccessfully ran
for Governor. He delivered the nominating
address for President Taft at the 1912
• In 1914 he was elected to the Senate, which
he found "a very pleasant place.“
• By 1923 the postwar depression seemed to
be giving way to a new surge of prosperity,
and newspapers hailed Harding as a wise
statesman carrying out his campaign
• "Less government in business and more buisness in government."
Warren Gamaliel Harding
March 4, 1913 to March 3, 1921
He was nominated for President at the 1912
Democratic Convention and campaigned
on a program called the New Freedom,
which stressed individualism and states'
rights. In the three-way election he received
only 42 percent of the popular vote but an
overwhelming electoral vote.
• The first was a lower tariff, the Underwood
Act; attached to the measure was a
graduated Federal income tax.
• The passage of the Federal Reserve Act
provided the Nation with the more elastic
money supply it badly needed.
• In 1914 antitrust legislation established a
Federal Trade Commission to prohibit unfair
• One new law prohibited child labor; another
limited railroad workers to an eight hour day
Woodrow Wilson (Schoolmaster in Politics)
August 3, 1923 to March 3, 1929
He refused to use Federal economic power
to check the growing boom or to ameliorate
the depressed condition of agriculture and
certain industries. His first message to
Congress in December 1923 called for
isolation in foreign policy, and for tax cuts,
economy, and limited aid to farmers.
• He rapidly became popular. In 1924, as the
beneficiary of what was becoming known as
"Coolidge prosperity," he polled more than
54 percent of the popular vote.
• In his Inaugural he asserted that the country
had achieved "a state of contentment
seldom before seen," and pledged himself to
maintain the status quo. In subsequent years
he twice vetoed farm relief bills, and killed a
plan to produce cheap Federal electric
power on the Tennessee River.
Calvin Coolidge (Silent Cal)
March 4, 1929 to March 3, 1933
• President Wilson appointed Hoover head of the
Food Administration. He succeeded in cutting
consumption of foods needed overseas and
avoided rationing at home, yet kept the Allies fed.
• After the Armistice, Hoover, a member of the
Supreme Economic Council and head of the
American Relief Administration, organized
shipments of food for starving millions in central
Europe. He extended aid to famine-stricken Soviet
Russia in 1921.
• After capably serving as Secretary of Commerce
under Presidents Harding and Coolidge, Hoover
became the Republican Presidential nominee in
• After the crash Hoover announced that while he
would keep the Federal budget balanced, he
would cut taxes and expand public works
• In 1947 President Truman appointed Hoover to a
commission, which elected him chairman, to
reorganize the Executive Departments. He was
appointed chairman of a similar commission by
President Eisenhower in 1953.
Herbert Clark Hoover
January 20, 1961 to November 22, 1963
Kennedy issues an executive order creating a temporary Peace Corps and asks Congress to authorize the program permanently. March 01, 1961
Kennedy pledges that the Unites States will land a man on the moon by the end of the decade. May 25, 1961
Kennedy halts virtually all trade with Cuba. February 03, 1962
U.S. Supreme Court rules that segregation in transportation facilities is unconstitutional. February 26, 1962
Kennedy announces the reduction of U.S. import duties as part of an agreement to promote international trade. March 07, 1962
Kennedy lifts the naval blockade of Cuba. November 20, 1962
The Supreme Court rules in Gideon v. Wainwright that states must supply counsel in criminal cases for individuals who cannot afford it. March 18, 1963
Kennedy signs a limited nuclear test-ban treaty with the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom. October 07, 1963
John Fitzgerald Kennedy (JFK, Jack)
January 20, 1953 to January 20, 1961
Eisenhower signs the Submerged Lands Act. May 22, 1953
Eisenhower signs the Refugee Relief Act of 1953, August 07, 1953
U.S. and Japan sign a mutual defense agreement March 08, 1954
Eisenhower signs the St. Lawrence Seaway Bill. May 13, 1954
The United States signs the SEATO Pact. September 08, 1954
Approves U-2 spy flights over the Soviet Union. May 31, 1956
Eisenhower signs the Federal Aid Highway Act June 29, 1956
Eisenhower signs the Social Security Act August 01, 1956
Eisenhower proposes the “Eisenhower Doctrine” January 05, 1957
Eisenhower signs the Civil Rights Act of 1957 September 09, 1957
Eisenhower orders federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, to end the school desegregation crisis. September 24, 1957
Signs a bill making Alaska the forty-ninth state. July 07, 1958
Signs the National Defense Education Act. September 02, 1958
Orders the withdrawal of the last U.S. Marines from Lebanon. October 25, 1958
Signs a bill admitting Hawaii as the fiftieth state. March 18, 1959
Signs the Landrum-Griffin Act, legislation meant to combat growing corruption in labor organizations.September 14, 1959
Eisenhower signs the Civil Rights Act of 1960. May 06, 1960
Dwight David Eisenhower (Ike)
March 4, 1933 to April 12, 1945
He was elected President in November 1932, to the first of four terms. By March there were 13,000,000 unemployed, and almost every bank was closed. In his first "hundred days," he proposed, and Congress enacted, a sweeping program to bring recovery to business and agriculture, relief to the unemployed and to those in danger of losing farms and homes, and reform, especially through the establishment of the Tennessee Valley Authority.
• Roosevelt responded with a new program of reform:
Social Security, heavier taxes on the wealthy, new
controls over banks and public utilities, and an en
work relief program for the unemployed.
• In 1936 he was re-elected by a top-heavy margin.
Feeling he was armed with a popular mandate, he
sought legislation to enlarge the Supreme Court, which had been invalidating key New Deal measures. Roosevelt lost the Supreme Court battle, but a revolution in constitutional law took place. Thereafter the Government could legally regulate the economy.
• "good neighbor" policy
• Also sought through neutrality legislation to keep the United States out of the war in Europe
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR)
April 12, 1945 to January 20, 1953
The U.S. drops an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan. August 06, 1945
The U.S. drops an atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. August 09, 1945
Truman shows Congress 21-point plan for Reconversion. Sept. 06, 1945
Truman signs the Employment Act. February 20, 1946
Truman delivers “Truman Doctrine” speech to Congress, March 12, 1947
Truman creates the Federal Employee Loyalty Program March 21, 1947
Truman signs the “Truman Doctrine” appropriation May 22, 1947
Truman addresses the NAACP, the first President to do so. June 29, 1947
Truman proposes the “Fair Deal” January 05, 1949
12 nations sign the North Atlantic Treaty. April 04, 1949
The Soviet Union lifts the Berlin blockade. May 12, 1949
Truman signs the Housing Act,July 15, 1949
Truman signs the 1950 Social Security Amendments, expanding coverage and increasing benefits. August 28, 1950
Truman signs the Revenue Act of 1950, increasing corporation and income taxes. September 23, 1950
Truman signs the Mutual Security Act, authorizing more than $7 billion for foreign economic, military, and technical aid. October 10, 1951
Truman signs an Executive Order directing the secretary of commerce to seize steel mills in order to prevent a strike by steel workers. April 08, 1952
Harry S. Truman
November 22, 1963 to January 20, 1969
Addresses a joint session of Congress calling on legislators to fulfill Kennedy's legacy and pass civil rights and tax legislation. November 27, 1963
24th Amendment to the Constitution is ratified January 23, 1964
Signs The Civil Rights Act of 1964. July 02, 1964
Signs the Economic Opportunity Act August 30, 1964
Calls for voting rights legislation. March 15, 1965
Signs the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. April 11, 1965
Signs legislation creating Medicare and Medicaid. July 30, 1965
Signs the Voting Rights Act into law. August 05, 1965
25th Amendment to the Constitution is ratified February 10, 1967
Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ)
January 20, 1969 to August 9, 1974
Signs the Selective Service Reform bill November 26, 1969
The administration announces that it will seek to end de jure segregation. March 24, 1970
Signs executive order ending occupational and parental deferments for the draft. April 23, 1970
Approves and signs the Postal Reorganization Act August 12, 1970
Signs the Occupational Health and Safety Act of 1970 December 29, 1970
Signs a Wage-Price Controls Bill May 18, 1971
Signs an Emergency Employment Act, earmarking $2.25 billion for the creation of public service jobs at state and local levels. July 12, 1971
A voice-activated taping system in the Executive Office Building (EOB) becomes operational. Taping also begins on phone conversations held in the Oval Office, the EOB, and the Lincoln Sitting Room. April 06, 1971
Nixon declares a 90-day freeze on wages and prices, known as Phase One of his economic program. August 15, 1971
Nixon admits responsibility for the Watergate affair on television, but continues to assert no prior knowledge of it. April 30, 1973
Nixon resigns the presidency, effective at noon the next day, in a televised address. August 08, 1974
Richard Millhous Nixon
January 20, 1981 to January 20, 1989
Reagan lifts a grain embargo imposed on Soviet Union by President Carter. April 24, 1981
Reagan signs the tax cut into law. August 13, 1981
Reagan signs the tax cut into law. August 13, 1981
Reagan imposes economic sanctions on Poland following that government's imposition of martial law. December 28, 1981
Reagan signs the Tax Equity & Fiscal Responsibility Act (TEFRA). September 03, 1982
President Reagan signs the Social Security Reform Bill into law. April 20, 1983
Ronald Wilson Reagan
(The Gipper; The Great Communicator; Dutch)
January 20, 1989 to January 20, 1993
Semi-Automatic Rifle Ban
Fair Labor Standards Amendments
New Anti-Drug Law
Americans with Disabilities Act
Clean Air Act
Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty
Immigration Act of 1990
Civil Rights Act
Soviet Union Dissolves
Tiananmen Square Massacre
Berlin Wall falls
Arms Reduction Agreement
George Herbert Walker Bush (Poppy)
January 20, 1977 to January 20, 1981
Carter invokes the Taft-Hartley Act to end a strike by coal miners. March 09, 1978
Carter approves development of the MX missile. June 07, 1979
Carter signs the second Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT II) with the USSR. The U.S. Senate never ratifies the controversial treaty, although both nations voluntarily comply with its terms. June 18, 1979
Carter gets the lowest approval rating of any President in three decades. September 14, 1979
The U.S. Olympic Committee votes to boycott the Moscow summer Olympics, April 22, 1980
James Earl Carter Jr. (Jimmy)
August 9, 1974 to January 20, 1977
Forms the Economic Policy Board September 30, 1974
Signs the Federal Elections Campaign Act of 1974 October 15, 1974
Signs the Privacy Act of 1974 January 01, 1975
Signs the Tax Reduction Act of 1975 March 29, 1975
Signs the Energy Policy Conservation Act December 22, 1975
Signs a treaty with the Soviet Union limiting underground nuclear testing. May 28, 1976
Grants Richard Nixon a full pardon; his approval rating slips to 49 percent. September 08, 1974
Gerald Rudolph Ford (Jerry)
January 20, 1993 to January 20, 2001
Signs the Family Medical Leave Act
Don't Ask, Don't Tell
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act
North American Free Trade Agreement
ends the nineteen-year old trade embargo against Vietnam
Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act
Congressional Accountability Act
William Jefferson Clinton (Bill)
The cartoon warns that William Moody will be a judicial tool by which Roosevelt can expand federal powers at the expense of state control through new “constructions of the Constitution.” On the right, Secretary of War William Howard Taft sits studying the “Simplified Constitution” while waiting his turn for the next appointment to the Supreme Court
This cartoon pokes fun at the girth of William Howard Taft. Uncle Sam is amused to see the rotund candidate, whose weight fluctuated around 300 pounds, try unsuccessfully to fit into President Theodore Roosevelt's Rough-Rider uniform. Beneath the mirth, however, is a serious criticism that Taft was slavishly mimicking Roosevelt's political positions in order to gain the presidency.
This cartoon shows the idea of the common campaigning problems the Progressive, Republican, and Democrat parties faced before the election. The election was a four-way battle between Woodrow Wilson, Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Eugene Victor Debs. A notable symbol found in this cartoon is the eager and pensive expressions on all three candidates. This symbol epitomized their uneasy thoughts and the emotions that followed prior to the election. This cartoon is trying to show the idea that presidents are as competitive and inspired as anybody else in the face of a contest or, in their case, election.
This political cartoon emphasizes how Woodrow Wilson, who is portrayed here, is blowing an idealistic bubble that is labeled the League of Nations. Like most bubbles, it will probably burst. Hence, his idealistic venture, which he virtually destroyed by selecting a negotiating team that omitted Senators and his opposition party, would fail due to America never ratifying the treaty. Instead, America ratified a separate treaty with the Germans in 1921, which was signed by President Warren G. Harding.
This cartoon depicts the candidates' attitudes: James M. Cox, who supported the League and Wilson's conduct of the war, wants the issue out in the open, in the parlor, while Harding points to the attic (34B-1067073).
In late summer 1920 the Presidential contest between Democratic nominee James M. Cox and Republican nominee Warren G. Harding was beginning to intensify. However, the dominant news story was not the campaign—it was baseball sensation Babe Ruth’s unstoppable first season with the New York Yankees. In this cartoon both Presidential candidates are shown pondering Ruth’s secret of success with the White House being their “real home plate.”
Coolidge is a cook with a stew of Republican principles. He is making a stew to please all kinds of groups such a women, radicals and taxpayers
Vice President Calvin Coolidge became president upon the death of Warren Harding in 1923. This cartoon shows Warren Harding’s ghost placing a pen in Calvin’s hand to begin writing his own history
The cartoon depicts a man who did not save money but blew it all on the stock market. He is being question by a squirrel as to his decision. It simultaneously reprimands and sympathizes with the men and women who lost their money in the stock market crash. The “Wise Economist” in this cartoon is a squirrel, representing how the wise man would store money for a darker future when he had the ability, as a squirrel does with nuts. The man is meant to represent all those impacted by the bank failures.
A political cartoon showing a perception that Herbert Hoover did not have a handle on the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl. Notice the donkey in the background who is heckling Hoover. The donkey is an image associated with the Democratic Party. Hoover was a republican.
This cartoon depicts FDR mixing various people and programs together in a huge “democratic recovery broth” as part of his New Deal. The man sitting by Roosevelt represents the people that thought he was attempting to create too many programs, more than he could handle. Many believed that this great mixture of opposing ideas would cause his recovery plan to sink. However, this cartoon, while satirizing FDR’s efforts to mix so many different ideas, ones that could possibly fail, also brings light to what many consider the genius of Roosevelt’ presidency.
This cartoon portrayed the republican view of Franklin Delano Roosevelt after both the New Deal and the Second New Deal. 1940 was a year that was significant because FDR had both passed most of his recovery programs and was deciding to seek re-election for an unprecedented third term. This criticized the sheer amount of power that FDR had and his “defiance of the constitution” in doing these things. The robe and crown FDR wore in the picture symbolized this “king-like” status as a leader. The main point of this picture is to convince the viewer that FDR had too much power and that FDR needed to be stopped. It is a significant picture because it gives the viewer perspective on the minority view in the Great Depression.
President Harry S. Truman, the Democratic Presidential nominee in the election of 1948, was widely forecast to lose by a large margin to Republican nominee Thomas E. Dewey. This cartoon shows the prevailing public opinion of the time, just days before the election took place. Despite several polls predicting a landslide victory for Dewey, Truman won the election, one of the biggest political upsets in U.S. history.
In this cartoon, Partymiller caricatures the two major party candidates, Democrat Harry S. Truman and Republican Thomas Dewey, suggesting they were beholden to Wall Street. By implication, Henry Wallace, who Partymiller and newspaper publisher J.W. Gitt favored, was promoted as independent of such influences.
Throughout his political career, Dwight Eisenhower refused to take a public stand against Senator Joseph McCarthy's aggressive anti-communist campaign. The feather represents Eisenhower's gentle nature while the butcher knife represents how cut throat politics are
President Dwight Eisenhower was frequently accused of failure to provide leadership on domestic problems. Among Herb Block's criticisms of the administration was Eisenhower's lack of support for the Supreme Court's 1954 ruling for desegregation.
Kennedy was not enormously popular in Cuba. JFK launched the botched "Bay of Pigs" invasion of the country in an effort to depose Communist President Fidel Castro.
This cartoon shows the president in a collar that symbolizes the fact that he is a slave to capitalism and fascism. The text at the bottom reads "a different dog, but the same collar," indicating the supposedly liberal Kennedy is really no different than any of the presidents who came before him.
When Kennedy was murdered, all the cartoonists abruptly stopped their attacks and turned into huge Kennedy-fans. In the immediate aftermath of his death, many memorial toons were churned out, mourning America's lost angel.
JFK's death also saw the rise of a lot of people who tried to profit off the assassination in some way. Writing quick, crappy memoirs of the president was one surefire money-maker, a practice this particular cartoonist seems seems to find offensive.
After being elected president, in his 1965 inaugural address President Lyndon B. Johnson called for the creation of a “Great Society,” supporting new social programs, including anti-poverty projects. In his “guns and butter” policies, the butter projects at home did better than the gun policies in Vietnam. By the end of his term in office, his growing budget for “Health, Education, and Welfare” represented the greatest social advances since the New Deal.
This 1968 political cartoon captures the struggle of Lyndon B. Johnson's time as President. While Johnson dreamed of a "Great Society," his presidency was haunted by the specter of Vietnam. Much of the funding he hoped to spend on social reforms went towards war in southeast Asia.
this cartoon was pointing out excessive use of government power to wiretap or otherwise investigate the activities of citizens an administration felt were at odds with its policies. In 1970, the Civil Service Commission admitted to having a Security Investigations Index with over 10 million entries, and the armed forces revealed surveillance of Americans involved in anti-Vietnam war activities.
In his 1968 bid for the presidency, Richard Nixon announced to the war-weary country that he had a secret plan to end the Vietnam War. When he ran for re-election four years later, American troops were still fighting in Indochina, with casualties continuing to climb.
the cartoon shows Cosmos, Michael Wolsey, Arabesque and Jenny Sparks, marching in lockstep behind Chip Berlet, carrying a poison pen, a banner advertising the Ford Foundation's money, and marching orders from the FBI . They're marching toward a castle bearing the name "Kennebunkport Warning" and flying the twin flags of "9/11 Truth" and "Stop War".The artist is saying "These people are all taking money from the Ford Foundation, working under instructions from the FBI, and spreading vicious lies to undermine the Kennebunkport Warning, in order to prevent the unification of the peace and 9/11-truth movements."
This cartoon pokes fun at the fact that he was barely in the White House for two years and spent the majority of that time cleaning up the mess left behind by its previous occupant. In fact, next to pardoning Richard Nixon, most would say that President Ford is probably best remembered for tumbling down the stairs of Air Force One during a visit to Austria. The media has dubbed Gerald Ford the "Accidental President", in part because he was the only unelected Commander-in-Chief in American history (unless of course, you're including George W. Bush) but also because he was the one who introduced Donald Rumsfeld and Dick Cheney to the upper echelons of power; meaning that while it's been over 30 years since President Ford left office, the ghosts of his brief Administration continue to haunt the White House to this day.
As U.S. dependence on foreign oil grew, President Jimmy Carter focused on energy conservation. He called his energy campaign the "moral equivalent of war," which critics shortened to "MEOW." In his 1978 State of the Union message, Carter reiterated the need for an energy bill, but could not rally support. The Reagan Administration scuttled the policy, even removing the solar panels Carter had installed in the White House. A generation later, the U.S. imports half of its oil from abroad, and has requested OPEC members to lower prices by increasing exports.
On July 14, 1978, the Soviet government imprisoned Anatoly Shcharansky, a dissident accused of supplying secret material to a reporter for the Los Angeles Times. The trial began on July 10, just two days before the start of U.S.-Soviet strategic arms limitation talks in Geneva. The trial captured public attention because Shcharansky had been promoting the cause of Jewish emigration from the Soviet Union. In addition, Shcharansky's countryman Alexander Ginzburg, manager of a fund for political prisoners, received a sentence of hard labor on July 13. President Jimmy Carter spoke out against the trials but said that American athletes would not boycott the Moscow Olympics. He reversed this decision in 1980 after the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan.
This cartoon has Ronald and Nancy Reagan in a send up of Grant Wood’s classic American Gothic pose, made during the 1980s farm crisis when thousands of farm families were losing their farms to foreclosures, and as some charged, to Reagan policies
President Bill Clinton, Sen. Bob Dole and Rep. Newt Gingrich joined together in passing the unfair trade agreements- NAFTA and GATT. When it came to Globalism, they acted as one. President Clinton bailed out the Mexican Peso funding Mexico over $20 Billion dollars. The workers not only lost their jobs but actually paid out money as taxpayers to ship their jobs outside the USA. Millions were now "un-netted" , "missing in action" from any kind of reporting as the unemployment stats were "cooked" too. Only about 33 to 40 % of all workers qualified for unemployment insurance and so the Bureau of Labor Statistics bypassed the unemployment offices to get their statistics by calling 50,000 households a month with dubious questions. In the end, the stock market lost trillions of dollars in value while the American Worker slipped into a silent depression with a new working poor class created. The American Dream faded away as many lost everything they worked and save for their entire lives. And a church bulletin in our city read, "Success is reaching Social Security age before having to declare bankruptcy." as personal bankruptcies broke records almost every year.
Democratic frustrations in the race for the "Presidential Chair" are again parodied in the sequel or companion to "Balloon Ascension to the Presidential Chair" . Here the ascent of the Democrats is foiled as their balloon explodes, dumping Polk and his vice-presidential running-mate George M. Dallas into Salt River. Henry Clay seems to have punctured the balloon with a flag staff. Already in the water are former Democratic warhorses Martin Van Buren and Andrew Jackson. "Salt River" was a colloquialism for political misfortune or failure. Polk, falling, says: "This is the worst "bust" that I ever went upon!" Van Buren, spouting water: "This salt water makes me spout like a whale." Jackson, waving his cane: "By the eternal! I told them there was too much gas in their balloon." On the left Whig candidates Clay and Frelinghuysen rise triumphantly toward the Presidential Chair in a balloon adorned with an American eagle. Clay says, "Good-bye Polk, you'll find it much easier travelling in that direction!" Frelinghuysen waves to supporters who cheer him from below, "Hurrah! hurrah for the people's choice! They mount upward like eagles!"
The cartoon is critical of Polk's public advocacy of the 54.40 parallel as the northern boundary of American territory in Oregon. The cartoon also alludes to widespread uncertainty as to the course the secretive Polk would actually pursue on the issue. The artist invokes the specter of an earlier Democratic president, Andrew Jackson, as the inspiration for what he considers Polk's rash and autocratic handling of the dispute.
Standing at the foot of Polk's bed in a cloud of smoke is a devil, who, concealing himself behind the mask and hat of Andrew Jackson, commands the sleeping Polk, "Child of my adoption, on whom my mantle hath fallen, swear never to take your toe off that line should you deluge your country with seas of blood, produce a servile insurrection and dislocate every joint of this happy and prosperous union!!!" Polk, slumbering in a large canopied bed, has one toe on the 54.40 line of a map of Oregon which lies on floor. Also next to bed is a potted "Poke" weed (a pun on his name) and a table with his readings: "Art of War, Calvin's Works, Practical Piety," and "Life of Napoleon." Polk answers the devil, "I do my venerated and lamented chieftain! I do, by the eternal!" (The vow "By the eternal" was a well-known Jacksonism.)At left, dressed in nightshirts, three cabinet members steal into the room. They are (left to right) George Bancroft, James Buchanan, and Robert J. Walker. Treasury Secretary Walker carries a "Tariff" document, no doubt the controversial and recently introduced tariff bill of which he was generally considered the architect, and comments, "It seems to me there's the devil to pay with the president; yet behold his great toe, greater than any Pope's fixed firmly on the line 54.40. Patriotic even in dreams!"Behind Walker Secretary of State Buchanan, holding a candle and a portfolio marked "Packenham Correspondence," says, "There's certainly a strong smell of brimstone in the room! Perhaps his excellency has been practising pyrotechnics previous to commencing his campaign." The "Packenham Correspondence" refers to Buchanan's July 1845 note to British ambassador Richard Pakenham, wherein the forty-ninth parallel was proposed as a compromise. Pakenham's response, a rejection, touched off Polk's pursuit (at least temporarily) of a more hard-line stance, claiming the 54.40 boundary. "I guess there's a screw loose here! I wonder what Polk's going to do!" muses Navy Secretary Bancroft.
was in the Mex.
The large amount of skulls emphasizes
Zachary Taylor’s war
This shows the intensity of the
election of 1848 between Taylor
and Cass. Cass falling down
symbolizes his loss in the election.
This shows how Fillmore was a
mediator between the abolitionists
and the pro-slavery forces. The
weapons emphasize how intense
the two’s fight was, and the fact
that Fillmore put himself in the
middle put him in a positive light
This cartoon is critical of the divisive or sectionalist appeal of the other two presidential contenders in the 1856 race.
Holding four aces and a large cauldron of “Union Soup” Buchanan vows, “I have fairly beaten them at their own game, and now that I have became possessed of this great “Reservoir” I will see that each and Every State of this great and glorious Union receives its proper Share of this sacred food.” Fremont has tripped over a “Rock of Disunion” and fallen to the ground, still holding his large spoon “Abolition.” He laments, “Oh, that I had been born a dog!–This is too much for mortal man to bear. Had I not stumbled over that “Blasted” rock I might have reached the fount of my ambition and with this good ladle ‘Deal’ to the North, and leave the South to ‘Shuffle & Cut’ off their mortal coil, by starvation, I shall have to ‘Pass’!” Behind Fremont, Fillmore wanders blindfolded, holding a Know Nothing lantern (reflecting his party’s nativist affiliation) and a spoon. He despairs, “I regret to say that ‘Going It Blind’ is a loosing Game, I did hope that I would be able to dip my spoon in the Pot without much difficulty.–My Hand is played out–’Buck’ wins, and I am satisfied–Four aces can’t be beat! and Buck holds them.”
This cartoon symbolizes the signing
of the Kansas Nebraska act. The
dialogue of the African American
goes along with the events going
on in the background that he has
endured throughout the slavery
This race symbolizes the election of
1852. The usage of the gamecock
shows that Winfield Scott was
winning at some point during the
race and the goose represents
Pierce’s association with Polk
This shows Buchanan’s failed attempt
to keep a balance between the North
and South on the Mason Dixon line. The
emphasis of his struggle shows how unfit
and unsuccessful Buchanan was is this
James Buchanan is depicted as a poor bachelor in his squalid quarters. Here he sits in a small, dimly lit chamber, on a rickety chair near a small cot. A cracked mirror hangs on the wall in the background, and his foot rests upon a stool with a spool and scissors. A needle and thread in his hand, Buchanan examines a ragged coat on which he has evidently just sewn a patch marked "Cuba." This is a reference to his authorship of the Ostend Manifesto of 1854. Buchanan says, "My Old coat was a very fashionable Federal coat when it was new, but by patching and turning I have made it quite a Democratic Garment. That Cuba patch to be sure is rather unsightly but it suits Southern fashions at this season, and then." Buchanan's words here suggest that the desire to extend American slave territory motivated his Ostend designs on Cuba.
The emphasis of Lincoln’s legs shows
how much of an advantage Lincoln
has in the Political Race against Bell,
Breckinridge and Douglas. The
usage of the White House shows
that the race is the Presidential
Election of 1860.
Rival presidential nominees Lincoln and Douglas are matched in a footrace, in which Lincoln's long stride is a clear advantage. Both sprint down a path toward the U.S. Capitol, which appears in the background right. They are separated from it by a rail fence, a reference to Lincoln's popular image as a rail-splitter. Douglas, whose characteristic shortness is here exaggerated to dwarfish dimensions, wonders aloud, "How can I get over this Rail Fence." Over his shoulder he carries a cane on which hangs a jug marked "M.C.," which probably refers to the Missouri Compromise, repealed in 1854 largely through Douglas's efforts. As he runs, playing cards spill from his pockets (suggesting perhaps a penchant for gambling).
Lincoln, whose height is equally exaggerated, runs along beside him waving his hat and carrying a rail-splitter's maul over his shoulder. He says confidently, "It [i.e., the rail fence] can't stop me for I built it." From the fence on the far right a black youth taunts Douglas, "You can find me in dis yer Fence Massa Duglis." The last is evidently a reference to the slavery question central to the election campaign.
This Joseph E. Baker cartoon print shows Vice President Andrew Johnson sitting atop a globe, attempting to stitch together the map of the United States with needle and thread. Abraham Lincoln stands, right, using a split rail to position the globe. Johnson warns, “Take it quietly Uncle Abe and I will draw it closer than ever.” While Lincoln commends him, “A few more stitches Andy and the good old Union will be mended.
This cartoon pronounces the death of the Democratic party. The undertaker is August Belmont, the national chairman of the Democratic party. The woman represents Irish-Catholic immigrants, a major voting bloc for the party. Her dark-skinned face may be flushed or it may convey the common notion in 19th-century America that Irish-Catholics were not "white." The boy's stick and clothes suggest the violence and poverty associated with Irish-Catholics by their detractors. The miniature heads on the casket include (back row, l-r, beginning with 2nd from left): Salmon Chase, Andrew Johnson, George McClellan, George Pendleton, Horatio Seymour, and Andrew Jackson. The bespectacled miniature head in front is probably Congressman James Brooks
The massive amount of people
surrounding Grant symbolize all of
the corruption that surrounded his
presidency. The usage of the
government as cake creates a
sense of desire, tying together with everyone "wanting a piece"
This cartoon was used to show that Grant was unfit for a 3rd term. Grant
carried unwanted and corrupt weight, and was also tied to many rings (aka scandals) that ruined his administration
The struggle for the election, as shown in a political cartoon titled: "Where two ride a donkey, one must go afoot." N.Y.Daily Graphic Feb. 16, 1877
Political cartoon showing Hayes prevailing in disputed Election. N.Y.Daily Graphic Feb. 26, 1877
President Rutherford B. Hayes is leaving the baby of Civil Service Reform on the doorstep of President-elect James Garfield. Civil Service was the cause of social reformers through the latter half of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century as well. Up until that time, political machines like Tammany Hall’s democratic party or Mark Hanna’s Republican Party, had handed out jobs like Halloween candy to the faithful. ”To the victor go the spoils,” in Andrew Jackson’s words. But government was failing to respond to the growing needs of the people. Ultimately, through the tireless work of thousands of reformers, this baby grew up in the form of Civil Service examinations and other means to assure quality in government.
This shows Garfield’s path to the
White House. Since he is so large,
and he has tools and muscles, it
shows that the presidential election
wasn’t very hard to win. The scythe
shows Garfield’s tactics in winning
In this cartoon, you see Arthur handing out jobs to Republican cronies who were part of the Conkling machine or Stalwart faction. Once Hayes got into office in 1878, he promptly fired Arthur and attempted to reform the corrupt patronage system. Yet, as you well know, Arthur was right back on the ticket and elected VP in 1881. Interestingly enough, Arthur is credited with passing civil service reform (much to the chagrin of old friend Senator Conkling.) He was rejected by his party after that.
President Chester A. Arthur suffers from dealing with the feuding factions of the Republican party.
This cartoon shows Susan B. Anthony chasing after President Grover Cleveland in her fight for women's right to vote
In this political cartoon Grover Cleveland’s scandalous secret is not only exposed to the audience, but it is exploited in a way that casts Grover Cleveland as cowardly. The article alleged that Cleveland was the father of an illegitimate 9-year-old child, and that he’d been paying the mother for years to keep her quiet. The child is visibly upset, but the words read, “I want my Pa!” instead of “Where’s my Pa?” This, as the title of the cartoon does, suggests that the child is “another one for Cleveland.” Cleveland is shown looking discombobulated –almost drunken—as he tries to cover his ears and ignore the cries from his child. Cleveland is depicted as shaken and visibly trying to tune the child out, thus he is cowardly in the face of his secret. The child’s mother—the woman, Maria Halpin, whom Cleveland’s affair was with, is shown hiding her face in shame. Perhaps she is portrayed as such because of the allegations that Cleveland paid for her silence over the years.
This 1888 political cartoon by Puck Magazine’s Joseph Keppler shows President Benjamin Harrison standing on the party’s “High Tariff” platform, with party bosses in the New York “Conkling Machine” hoisting their pick, Levi Parsons Morton (the nation’s 22nd VP), up onto the national stage. You’ll note the platform is symbolically being held up by moneybags emblazoned with the initials “L.P.M.”