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CHEMISTRY?! TOK?!

BOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOM
by

Vaish Vishnuthasan

on 7 September 2013

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Transcript of CHEMISTRY?! TOK?!

CHEMISTRY
0
Theory of Knowledge
Theory of Knowledge
KNOWLEDGE
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Natural Science
CHEMISTRY
by
by
Vaish Vishnuthasan
...the science that deals with the composition and properties of substances and various elementary forms of matter.
"The central science"
"The central science"
differences
similarities
?
CHEMISTRY
Vaish Vishnuthasan
KNOWLEDGE
EMPIRICAL
Acquired by senses
If necessary, enhanced by technology
Beyond the direct limits
THEORETICAL
Provide explanations to chemical and physical observations
Modelling of the outer electrons
Following process:
1. Guess it
2.
Compute the consequences of the guesses to see what would be implied if the law was right.
If it disagrees with experiment, it is wrong.
Reliability
Reliability
...the maintenance of quality through time
...the maintenance of quality through time
R
AI
=
f(
R ,
S
R ,
M
R ,
I
R )
DP
DEFINITION
DEFINITION
MATHEMATICAL
MATHEMATICAL
METHOD
APPARATUS
METHOD
APPARATUS
+
-
?
/
%
=
*
^
~
#
W
K
AYS
F
NOWING
O
PERCEPTION
Benzene ring...
Benzene ring...
...IB Diploma Programme
...IB Diploma Programme
INDUCTION
HOW
DO INDIVIDUAL OBSERVATIONS
LEAD TO THEORIES & SCIENTIFIC LAWS OF NATURE
?
All solid oxides are alkalis. All gaseous oxides are acidic.
All metal oxides are alkalis. All non-metal oxides are acidic.
PROBLEM
PROBLEM
OF INDUCTION
OF INDUCTION
WHAT FORM OF REASONING
IS USED TO JUSITFY
INDUCTION
?
Karl Popper (1902 - 1994)
Karl Popper (1902 - 1994)
Verification

vs.

Falsification
Verification vs.
Falsification
DEDUCTION
All solid oxides are alkalis. All gaseous oxides are acidic.
All metal oxides are alkalis. All non-metal oxides are acidic.
PHOSPHORUS OXIDE
PHOSPHORUS OXIDE
Starting points
Starting points
PREMISES
PREMISES
KEY TO SCIENCE
ALL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE IS
PROVISIONAL
WHEN YOUR
RESULTS DON'T
MATCH UP...?
SAME
DATA
DIFFERENT
HYPOTHESIS
SAME

DATA
DIFFERENT

HYPOTHESIS
REJECTING ANOMALOUS RESULTS:
CONFIRMATION BIAS
CONFIRMATION BIAS
REJECTING ANOMALOUS RESULTS:
Are the models and theories that scientists use merely pragmatic instruments or do they actually describe the natural world?
Are the models and theories that scientists use merely pragmatic instruments or do they actually describe the natural world?
CH
CH
4
4
THE WAVE NATURE
OF ELECTRONS
DIFFRACTION GRATING
PATTERN
ELECTRON DIFFRACTION
PATTERN
PSEUDOSCIENCE OF
PSEUDOSCIENCE OF
ALCHEMY
ALCHEMY
500 years on...?
Robert Boyle
"The Sceptical Chymist"
BIOLOGY
CHEMISTRY
PHYSICS
REDUCTIONISM
How does chemical knowledge
change with time?
change with time?
How does chemical knowledge
.
PARADIGM
SHIFTS
SCIENCE
EXTRAORDINARY
SCIENCE
NORMAL
ISAAC NEWTON
JOHN DALTON
CHARLES DARWIN
CHARLES DARWIN
ALBERT EINSTEIN
ISAAC NEWTON
JOHN DALTON
ALBERT EINSTEIN
AT MIC THEORY
AT MIC THEORY
PROGRESSION
"One of the ways of stopping science would be to only experiment in the region where you know the law"
- Richard Feynman
"A new scientific theory does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die out and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it"
- Max Planck
PARTICLE
WAVE
LANGUAGE
C H
C H
7 16
7 16
IUPAC NOMENCLATURE
OXIDATION NUMBERS
BALANCED EQUATIONS
should be a tool and not an obstacle to knowledge.
- Florence Kefeder
knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief knwoledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief
knowledge
belief knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge
belief
knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief knowledge belief
CHEMISTRY ...
...ETHICS
RIGHT
vs.

WRONG
RISK

vs.
BENEFITS
SOCIETY
BENEFITS
RISKS
Full transcript