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Neira Ardaneshwari Budiono

on 4 February 2013

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Transcript of Malaria

What is Malaria? Cause Life
Cycle Vector Mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by protists of the genus Plasmodium. Malaria Neira, Natashia, Jessica, Geoffrey 11G Widespread in tropical and subtropical regions in a broad band around the equator. jawejkae Signs, Symptoms
and Severe Effects Headache Chills Bleeding problems Flu Nausea Fever Cough Repeated vomiting Muscle sores
Yellowing of the skin Whites of the eyes Diarrhea Shock Begins typically 8 - 25 days after infection. Paroxysm a cyclical occurrence of sudden coldness followed by rigor and then fever and sweating, occurring every few days. DEATH abnormal posturing, failure of the eyes to turn in the same direction, seizures. Neurological problems Coma Complications Respiratory
problems Pneumonia Severe anaemia Malaria
in Pregnant Women Stillbirths Infant mortality Low birth weight Metabolic
acidosis the body produces too much acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body. It could lead to coma, even death. Pulmonary
edema is fluid accumulation in the air spaces and parenchyma of the lungs. It leads to impaired gas exchange and may cause respiratory failure. Key Factors Economic Poverty increases the risk of malaria.
Those in poverty do not have financial capabilities to prevent or treat the disease. Costs of healthcare
Working days lost
Days lost in education
Decreased productivity due to brain damage
Loss of investment and tourism Social Raise awareness of the disease and educate people Biological Use mosquito
repellents Use of insecticides (especially in pools of stagnant water to kill the larvae) Cure Ways to prevent Wearing long-sleeved shirts and trousers
during night Sleeping under mosquito nets Housing conditions Vector's (Anopheles mosquito) preference to reproduce in tropical areas No effective vaccine currently exists Ideal habitats
for mosquito
larvae Rainfall Stagnant
water Warm
temperatures WHY? Plasmodium (protist)
Single-celled parasite
Multiplies in: red blood cells of humans and mosquito intestines 216 000 000 cases
655 500 deaths
Annually Getting bitten by an infected mosquito Receive infected blood during blood transfusion Mother to child
pregnancy How to Get Infected P. ovale P. falciparum P. vivax P. malariae P. knowlesi The 5 Species Death Most lethal
Causes most infections and deaths
Has the most severe effects on brain and nervous system
Causes over 75% of all deaths
Prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa Widest distribution
Second most dangerous
Prevalent in Southeast Asia and Latin America
Can remain dormant in the liver for a period of time before causing symptoms Third in prevalence
High fever and chills
SE Asia, Africa, South and Central America Very rare
Can live in the liver up until 4 years before relapsing
West African region Mainly infects primates
May also infect humans
Southeast Asia Sporozoites grow, divide into thousands of haploid cells (merozoites) per liver cell. Merozoites enter the blood stream, beginning a cycle of:
Invading red blood cells
Asexual replication
Release of new merozoites Some of the merozoite-infected blood cells leave the cycle of asexual multiplication.

They develop into sexual forms of the parasite (male and female gametocytes), circulating the blood stream. Life
Cycle Infected female Anopheles mosquito bites on a human.

Malaria parasite (sporozoites) enter the body and invade the liver. Some remain dormant for extended periods of time, causing relapses weeks/months later. Thousands of cells become parasite-infected.
Leads to illness and complications lasting for months if not treated. When a mosquito bites an infected human, it ingests the gametocytes. In the mosquito gut, the infected human blood cells burst, releasing the gametocytes, which develop further into mature sex cells called gametes. Male and female gametes fuse to form diploid zygotes, which develop into actively moving ookinetes that burrow into the mosquito midgut wall and form oocysts. 8 - 15 days Growth and division of each oocyst produces thousands of active haploid forms called sporozoites. Mosquito takes a blood meal, injecting the sporozoites from its salivary glands into the human bloodstream . The oocyst bursts, releasing sporozoites into the body cavity of the mosquito.
They travel to and invade the mosquito salivary glands. The cycle restarts..... Quinine Sulfadoxine+Pyrimethamine
(Fansidar) Mefloquine Artemisinin The bark of a tree
Treats mild malaria
Kills the parasite
Side effects: sweating, dizziness, headaches. Chloroquine Prevent/treat malaria infections
Kills parasites
Side effects: diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea (discomfort in the upper stomach, likely to vomit.) Atovaquone+proguanil
(Malarone) Treats mild malaria
Prevents Plasmodium to reproduce.
Side effects: stomach pain, headache, vomiting. Prevents growth and reproduction of parasites.
Side effects: Insomnia, headache, depression. Prevent or treat malaria.
Kills parasite
Side effects: Vomiting, Diarrhea, Headaches. Lowers fever
Lowers the blood levels of the parasite.
Made from herbs (Chinese traditional medicine) Doxycycline Common antibiotic used for various infections.
Should not be used alone (Doxycycline effect is delayed)
Decreases bacteria’s ability to make protein.
Side effects; Diarrhea, skin reaction to sunlight, itching. Loss of loved ones / members of the community The education level of the household heads Vulnerability (children and pregnant women) Agriculture creates large areas of stagnant water suitable for mosquitoes breeding. Female Anopheles mosquitoes.

Only female mosquitoes take a blood meal, as they need to produce eggs. Differently from the human host, the mosquito host does not suffer noticeably from the presence of the parasites. Thank you for your kind attention. Questions Why is Malaria most common in countries near the equator?
State the vector of Malaria. Why are male mosquitoes of this genus unable to transmit Malaria to humans?
Name 2 of the most lethal Plasmodium species. State which one causes the most deaths.
State 2 ways in which a country's economic growth can be severed by Malaria. Diagnosis Microscopic examination of blood, saliva and urine
Polymerase chain reaction
A history of subjective fever as the indication
Biochemical technology in molecular biology to amplify a single or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
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