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Christianity Presentation #1

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John Crow

on 17 June 2015

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Transcript of Christianity Presentation #1

Christianity Presentation #1
The Wait for a Messiah
The Wait for a Messiah
Jewish scripture promises a messiah, or a new leader (political/military)
The LORD your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your own brothers. You must listen to him. For this is what you asked of the LORD your God at Horeb on the day of the assembly when you said, "Let us not hear the voice of the LORD our God nor see this great fire anymore, or we will die.“ The LORD said to me: "What they say is good. I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brothers; I will put my words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I command him. Deuteronomy 18:15-18 (NIV)
Isaiah 40:1-5,9 - the Messiah would be preceded by a messenger
Isaiah 7:14 - foreshadowed the virgin birth
Micah 5:1-2 - the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem
Jeremiah 23:5 - the Messiah would be a descendant of King David
Isaiah 35:4-6 - He would perform miracles
Isaiah 53:1-3 – the Messiah would be rejected
John the Baptist
John the Baptist
John the Baptist, identified as the cousin of Jesus
Led baptism movement at Jordan river
Lives as austere life
Called for people to repent
Also spoke of the coming messiah
Baptizes Jesus – descending dove
Imprisoned in 36CE by Herod Antipas
John criticized Herod for divorcing his wife, and unlawfully taking his brother’s wife, Herodias
On Herod’s birthday, Salome danced for him and in return he promised her anything she wanted
Herodias told her daughter to ask for John the Baptist’s head on a silver platter
Herod had John the Baptist executed
Jesus Christ According to Gospels
Born c. 5-0 BCE
Died c. 29-33 CE
Born in Bethlehem
Born of a virgin mother
Born in the line of David
Preached peace
Healed the sick
Raised the dead
Was rejected, crucified, and died
Became resurrected and ascended to heaven
Jesus (Non-Gospel Sources)
Paul (Saul) of Tarsus
Was a Pharisaic Jew and Roman citizen
Rabbinical education in Jerusalem
Persecuted Christians – claimed to be at Stephen's martyrdom
c. 35 CE, Saul has conversion experience on road to Damascus
Paul (Saul) of Tarsus
Early Christian Community
Was initially considered a Jewish sect
Controversy with Paul’s conversion of gentiles
Was circumcision required?
Mosaic dietary laws?
Once original apostles began to die, a need for stories to be written down
Various accounts, gospels, epistles, etc. circulated
Christians refused to pay homage to Roman emperor in temple
Persecution sporadic
Nero persecutes Christians 64-68 CE and blames them for the Burning of Rome
Early Persecution
Baptism became foundational
Requirement?
Profess Jesus was Lord
Communal meal Agape feasts
Tight community that supported each other in devout living
Early Christian Community
The Blood of the Martyrs…
Rumors of misconduct:
Atheism
Incest
Cannibalism
Other periods of persecution
Domitian
Marcus Aurelius
Decius
Early Persecution
Under Constantine the persecution ends and a new phase begins
The Persecution Ends…
Persecution also helped church grow
Some followed laws and paid homage
Some resisted and were martyred
The courage of the martyrs encouraged others to join
Some Christians actually wanted to by martyred to show devotion
… is the Seed of the Church
Most severe persecution by Diocletian 303 CE
Revoked all the rights of Christians and demanded everyone pay homage to Rome
Persecution varied by location Devastated Christian community
“Salome with the Head of St John the Baptist,” Andrea Solari (b. ca. 1460, Milano, d. 1525, Pavia)
We know very little of Jesus outside the Gospels
A few sentences from:
Josephus
Pliny the Younger
Tacitus
Suetonius
Mention of a Jewish/Christian trouble makers and Christian activity
At conversion instructed to preach to the gentiles
Traveled all around the Mediterranean sea
Was arrested in Jerusalem c. 57CE
Held for two years
Was transferred to Rome c. 60CE
Executed for treason mid-60s CE
"The Conversion of Saint Paul," (c. 1600) Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio
"Apostle St Paul," 1610-14, El Greco
Nero’s Persecution
"Christian Dirce," 1897, Henryk Siemiradzki
"The Martyrs in the Catacombs," 1855, Jules-Eugene Lenepveu
Jesus (Non-Gospel Sources)
Nero fastened the guilt . . . on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of . . . Pontius Pilatus, and a most mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judaea, the first source of the evil, but even in Rome. . . .
Tacitus, Annals 15.44 ca. 64 CE

On the eve of the Passover Yeshu was hanged. For forty days before the execution took place, a herald . . . cried, "He is going forth to be stoned because he has practiced sorcery and enticed Israel to apostasy."
Babylonian Talmud ca. 70-200 CE.
Jesus (Non-Gospel Sources)
They were in the habit of meeting on a certain fixed day before it was light, when they sang in alternate verses a hymn to Christ, as to a god, and bound themselves by a solemn oath, not to any wicked deeds, but never to commit any fraud, theft or adultery, never to falsify their word, nor deny a trust when they should be called upon to deliver it up; after which it was their custom to separate, and then reassemble to partake of food--but food of an ordinary and innocent kind.
Pliny the Younger, Pliny, Letters, vol. II, X:96 written ca. 112
Jesus (Representations-Race)
"The Real Face of Jesus?" BBC Library, 2002
"The Entombment," 1507. Raffaello Sanzio, a.k.a. Raphael
(b. 1483, Urbino, d. 1520, Rome)
Black Jesus
Asian Jesus
Jesus (Representations-Gender)
Masculine
Effeminate
Female
Full transcript