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Chapter 6. Etruscan and Roman Art
Transcript of Chapter 6. Etruscan and Roman Art
Etruscan and Roman Art
^Early Empire 27BCE-180CE
^Late Empire 180-395
Keep in mind that the Greek period overlaps somewhat with the Roman Republic...
The CLASSICAL GREEK PERIOD was 480-320BCE
The GREEK HELLENISTIC PERIOD was 320-30BCE
it is no wonder that we see common characteristics in style and artwork
just as in all the previous cultures that we have studied, art will continue
to develop and change over time.
Sometimes making a node to the past while other times breaking with tradition.
Rome was the first superpower
history of the world.
Small groups of people who spoke the common language of Latin settled in the hilltops of central Italy.
The hilltop villages grew in size and would eventually become the city of Rome.
How did Rome become ...well, Rome?
to encourage growth and simplify administration of the government, Rome undertook an extensive building program that was unprecedented in size and complexity
The Romans incorporated, imported and employed Greek architecture
used the Greek Order
imported Greek art
employed Greek artists
notice the Ionic columns
Forum Borium (cattle market),
Rome, 2nd Century BCE
At it's height...
the Empire spanned across Europe as far as northwest Scotland, the Middle East & Northern Africa
Roman culture appreciated and adapted Greek Art for its own uses....BUT... they had many strengths in the arts themselves and used that knowledge as visual propaganda for the state and Roman Imperial Authority as well as recording historical events.
The Romans appreciated
sculptors created statues of officials in ceremonial pose and sculptures of private individuals
which led to more advanced development in the art of portraiture.
The Republican Period
Early Rome was governed by a series of kings and an advisory board called a Senate. The Senate was made up of upper-class citizens...(didn't we see this
in Greek culture??)
Roman artists...taking their cues from the Greeks sought to base images on careful observation...
and it's because of this careful observation
and the use of coins (economically and politically) that we know how Julius Caesar looked!
On the opposite side are symbols of strength, sea superiority and agriculture.
Placing the image of a living ruler on one side
of a coin & a symbol of the country or an important event was a new idea.
One in which Caesar's successors would adopt and continue.
Head of Julius Caesar
The practice or STYLE of rendering a figure
in an accurate depiction is called
Naturalism or Realism.
This is a
bronze of Aulus
Metellus. He was a Roman official whose
name we know because it is inscribed on the hem of his robe.
Here, he is captured addressing a gathering with his arms outstretched and raised.
This pose expresses his authority and persuasiveness.
He wears the toga, characteristic of
Roman officials. According to your text, these large statues were often placed on top of columns as memorials to the individuals.
Roman architecture served a dual purpose...religious and domestic
Rome constructed temples, FORUMS (central administrative centers),
BASILICAS (commercial centers), racetracks, theaters, public baths, apartment buildings and water systems
The Republic's religious architecture
favored urban temples in the middle
of dense commercial areas
This temple was perhaps dedicated to Portunus.
Portunus was the Roman God of protection for the harbors.
The temple sits on the banks of the Tiber river and in 872CE was turned into a christian church.
The Romans applied the Greek order with the Ionic columns on the porch
Features of the temple
Elements of Roman Architecture
The arch was important because it allowed for the displacement of weight... first to the curving sides and then to the ground below.
A barrel vault is the simplest form of a vault and resembles a barrel or tunnel cut lengthwise in half. The effect is that of a structure composed of continuous semicircular or pointed sections.[
round arch- an arch formed in a continuous curve
The basic unit of Roman
architecture is the round arch
In Rome, this developed into a what is known architecturally as a vault. A Vault is an arched form used to provide a space with a ceiling or roof.
Here are arches and vaults of various kinds. For our purposes, let's focus on
the simple round arch, the barrel vault and the groin vault.
The use of the round arch together with a sound knowledge of building materials enabled Romans to achieve unprecedented successes in the construction of imposing structures for public use. The
Roman Aquaducts are a good example of the round arch.
When a round arch is lengthened, the
new formation is called a barrel vault
when two barrel vaults intersect
each other at right angles, the result
is a groin vault
As city dwellers, Romans thought about buildings which
would help with housing, transport, the storage of food and the delivery of water
The Pont du Gard an aqueduct in Nimes located in the South of France was constructed by the Roman Empire.
At the time of building, it provided about 100 gallons of water a day for every person in Nimes.
The fundamental element of the aqueduct was
the round arch.
900 feet long and raised about 160 feet above the Gard River.
On the second shelf was a roadbed which supported the water trough.
Since it was utilitarian, the aqueduct
was left undecorated and scaffolding was
left during construction to allow for repairs.
Building for the masses
one of the most famous of Roman structures was the Roman aqueduct. The aqueduct was a large series of connected structures or conduits which brought water to the areas.
Most Romans lived in 2 or 3 story apartment buildings
many lived in houses behind or above rows of shops.
gardens were valued by the Romans...many contained fruit
and nut bearing trees.
wealthy individuals often had more than one garden
and several rooms which connected to a central atrium
which was an unroofed space with a pool for catching rainwater...
sometimes this water was drained into a deep cistern and reused.
This house was named in honor of the Italian royal couple, Umberto and Margherita of Savoy, on the occasion of their silver wedding anniversary in 1893, the same year in which the house was discovered.
Built in the 2nd century B.C. and distinguished by its high atrium with four large columns which supported the roof . There are two gardens. The first is in line with the atrium and has its own private bath-house and the second features an open-air swimming pool, a large kitchen and garden and an elegant living room. The latter was decorated with a mosaic floor.
HOUSE OF THE SILVER WEDDING - POMPEII
virtual Roman house
can you name the architectural elements
in the Roman house?
Everyday Roman Life....
Antiquities offer vivid glimpses of many aspects of ancient life
The Early Empire Period (27 BC – 180 AD)
“The Age of Augustus”
Augustus was the son of Julius Caesar.
He was declared the 1st emperor of Rome in 27 BC, this marks beggining Of the Early Empire Period.
City of Pompeii
The city of Pompeii was encapsulated in volcanic ash from Mt. Vesuvius in 79 BC. It was rediscovered in the late 18th century AD very well preserved.
High and low relief, free-standing sculpture, bronze casting, vase art, mosaic, cameo, coin art, fine jewelry and metalwork, funerary sculpture, perspective drawing, caricature, genre and portrait painting, landscape painting, architectural sculpture, and trompe l’oeil painting—all were developed or refined by Ancient Greek artists and copied & adapted by the Romans. In other words, they put their own mark on them.
A dedicatory inscription, called a cursus honorum, detailed the subject's honors and life achievements, as well as his lineage and notable ancestors. These inscriptions typically accompanied public portraits and were a uniquely Roman feature of commemoration.
In the Republic, public sculpture included honorific portrait statues of political officials or military commanders erected by the order of their peers in the Senate. These statues were typically erected to celebrate a noted military achievement, usually in connection with an official triumph, or to commemorate some worthy political achievement, such as the drafting of a treaty.
The express mention of the subject's family history reflects the great influence that family history had on a Roman's political career. The Romans believed that ancestry was the best indicator of a man's ability, and so if you were the descendant of great military commanders, then you, too, had the potential to be one as well.
This Roman bust which did include the shoulders was a change from Greek busts of emperors.
1st century b.c.; Republican
H. 14.37 in. (36.5 cm)
The traditional Roman concept of virtue called for old-fashioned morality, a serious responsible public bearing and courageous endurance in the field of battle. Prestige came as a result of age, experience, and competition among equals within the established political system. These are the values expressed in portraits of grim-faced, middle-aged men.
Roman cultural identity was also structured around a profound respect for family and ancestry, and a principal funerary practice involved the public display of portraits of distinguished ancestors at the funeral of family members.
Mosaics were popular on Roman Floors...
not only were they beautiful as
decoration...they were waterproof &
Materials were marble, stone and
many were made with small pieces of stone or glass called tesserae
Heraklitos. The Unswept Floor, mosaic, 2nd century CE
These were representational, historical and illusionist...all the makings of ancient Roman Art
Representational...THe unswept Floor is a mocaic copy of an illusionist painting found in a prominent Roman home.
Heraklitos (the artist) used the technique of trompe l'oeil (meaning to fool the eye) to represent a Roman floor littered with table droppings from an earlier meal.
................................................Notice a mouse sits among the table scraps!
illusionist- has the appearance of reality created by using certain pictorial means ...like perspective and realism
Roman interior walls were made of smooth
plaster with few architectural features.
artist's painted decorations with pigments soaked into
a solution of lime, soap and sometimes wax.
to create illusions of realism and depth...Artists modeled shallow architectural features such as moldings and columns
...as time moved on, decorations became more and more elaborate creating more elaborate illusions
How did Roman artists create the illusion of space?
1. intuitive perspective- architectural details follow diagonal lines that the eye interprets as parallel lines RECEDING into the distance...this is not Renaissance perspective...just intuition!!!
2. atmospheric perspective- colors become slightly grayer in the background...giving a hazy appearance...in other words....
COLOR, COLOR, COLOR
bUT I will let these two illusionist demonstrate the concept.
***notice the red...popular
at the time and came to be
known as "Pompeian Red".
***notice the illusion of depth***
After Augustus, rulers such as Tiberius
and Nero followed.
After Nero's death, Vespasian, Titus and Domitian instituted the Flavian Rule...
The Flavian's loved over the top sporting events
which led to the construction of enormous arenas
most notably the Colosseum
The Colosseum of Rome...originally known as the
Flavan amphitheater built by the Flavan's
Built of travertine, tufa block and
for the first time CONCRETE faced with stone.
at the top is a wall like structure called
an attic story
A New Material...
Basically an enormous entertainment center...
Capable of seating 50,000 spectators, the Colosseum was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles. As well as the mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology. The building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era.
The surviving part of the outer wall's monumental façade comprises three stories of superimposed arcades surmounted by a podium on which stands a tall attic story, both of which are pierced by windows interspersed at regular intervals.
The Roman's used the Greek order. The arcades are framed by half-columns of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders, while the attic is decorated with Corinthian pilasters. Each of the arches in the second- and third-floor arcades framed statues, probably honoring divinities and other figures from Classical mythology.
The Arch of Titus
Building Rome's Colosseum
Domitian commissioned the Arch of Titus to honor
his brother and memorialize the triumph of the Romans over the Jewish war in 70 CE. Although his reign was short, Titus made a good impression on the Roman citizens and was a very well-liked leader. The Arch has survived longer than any other Ancient Roman Arch.
Notice how well you can
see the letters...graphic designers and architects will
copy this style...because it can
be seen from far away
This is a relief in the passageway of the Arch of Titus. Created by Emperor Domination to honor the victories of his dead brother, Titus.
Constructed from marble and measuring approx. 6'8" this became the "model" for triumphal arches.
This relief shows soldiers caring the spoils of the siege of Jerusalem (70AD)through the streets of Rome.
Notice the depth of the relief.
A Funny thing happened on the way to the Forum...
The Forum (a Latin word meaning open space or market place) was the administrative and corporate heart of Rome. Generally this word referred to the open space in any Roman town where business, judicial, civic, or religious activities were conducted. A typical forum might be surrounded by temples, shops, and basilicas (large, covered structures used for various meetings).
Forum of Trajan...
referred to as Trajan's Market
3 stories of markets and shops
A basilica was a public building of ancient Rome having a central nave with an apse at one or both ends and two side aisles formed by rows of columns, which was used as a courtroom or assembly hall.
"The collective structures and spaces that make up the Forum of Trajan exemplifies the finest in imperial city planning, satisfying both the needs of the citizens and the imperial desire for impressive public works and propaganda."
!! New !!
The Pantheon is a magnificent ancient temple in Rome that was later converted into the church. Dating from 125 AD, this is the most complete ancient building in Rome.
Until the 20th century, the Pantheon was the largest concrete structure in the world.
Michelangelo studied its great dome before starting work on the dome of St. Peter's Basilica.
The Pantheon was originally dedicated to pan theos, "all the gods." When it became a church, it was dedicated to the Virgin Mary and all the martyrs.
The Pantheon is the burial place of several important Italians (including the artist Raphael), and remains an active church. a major tourist destination and a popular place for weddings.
The Pantheon was completely reconstructed in 125 AD by Hadrian, a cosmopolitan emperor who had traveled widely in the East. Hadrian himself is credited with the basic plan, an architectural design that was unique for the time.
Hadrian had this stone wall built in
England to protect his northern frontier
8-10' thick and 20' high
towers are located at every mile
17 large camps housed forces which were ready to respond
camps were laid out in a grid pattern like Roman cities with administrative headquarters, hospitals and granaries
Art is dependent....
The development of art depended
on private as well as public funds or loyal patronage
and when someone is paying for your services then
you tend to want to please...
Romans began to demand a realistic likeness in
portrait busts. Here are two examples:
Portrait of a Flavian Woman
This portrait bust of a young woman is notable for its elegance and delicate rendering of the differing textures of hair and flesh.
****Note the drill work on the young woman's
In the following portrait of Marcus Aurelius, the sculptor, in keeping with contemporary practice, used a drill to render the emperor's long hair and beard and even to accentuate the pupils of his eyes, creating bold patterns of light and shadow across his face. Portraits of aged emperors were not new, but this was one of the first in which a Roman emperor appears weary, saddened, and even worried. This is a sign of the end of the classical period of art in Rome.
The Late Empire
Rome became a civilization in transition. The beginning of the decline for Rome...politically & economically came under the reign of Commodus
people began migrating across Roman borders disrupting
soon the army controlled the government
during this turmoil, Roman artists stopped representing
the natural world and started emphasizing the symbolic or at least the general characteristics of their subjects. Artists began using simplified GEOMETRIC forms and by the beginning of the 4th century, a new style of abstract art appears in Rome
Basilica Nova or New Basilica
The Basilica Nova, was called the Basilica of Constantine & the Basilica of Maxenus at different points in the buildings history. It remains today, one of the most impressive architecturally innovative structures still surviving from late antiquity.
The basilica is larger than any other building in the Forum
orientation of the building changed with different emperors
This was the last important imperial government building erected in Rome...& the function was an administrative center
But even though Rome is having a tough time...building continues...
added by Constantine
added by Constantine
Constantine the Great
Best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine reversed the persecutions of his predecessor, Diocletian, and issued the Edict of Milan in 313, which proclaimed religious toleration throughout the empire.
Constantine also transformed the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium into a new imperial residence, Constantinople, which would remain the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire for over one thousand years.
The Arch of Constantine is a large triumphal arch in Rome next to the Colosseum. This arch is religiously significant because it commemorates the battle that led the Emperor Constantine to convert to Christianity, thereby changing the religious landscape of the western world.
Sculpture: She-Wolf c.500BCE
This is the most famous symbol of Rome.
Created from the mythological story
of Romulus and Remus.
The story goes that Romulus and his twin brother, Remus were abandoned by their mother.
The She-Wolf found and raised the boys.
In honor of their rescue, they (the twins) later decided to build a city near the spot where the wolf had rescued them.
They named this city, Rome.
The Etruscan People
The Etruscan people inhabited the boot-shaped Italian peninsula known as Etruria.
How is Greek art and the Etruscan art different?
While Greek art represented man in the nude, Etruscan art did not.
Etruscan art was greatly influenced by the Greeks
The Etruscan's were excellent monument makers
instead of stone, they used terracotta which required much technical and physical skill and the Etruscan understood the long firing process required for terracotta.
Travis Owens @ Jugtown pottery
~Pottery is a tradition handed down
from generation to generation.
In North Carolina...
Area: Catawba Valley
Potter: Mark Hewitt
The Greek order in Rome
Augustus was clearly the greatest Emperor in all of Roman history, and the title "Father of his Country" was well-deserved. He made many wise and clear decisions throughout the provinces, boasting that he had transformed Rome "from a city of brick into a city of marble."
Alexander the Great
Augustus in Roman war dress
The Responsive Eye (Op Art Movement) with Mike Wallace
Pottery dates to ancient civilizations
as well as to our present day
and present location.
The Burial Chamber
Tomb of the Reliefs
Carved to represent a typical Etruscan home
Sarcophagus of a reclining couple
Apollo from the Temple of Minerva
This was important
for many reasons...
Example of "High Relief"
What is one contemporary art version of trompe l'oeil?
The Op (Optical) Art Movement in the 1965.
It was all in the numbers!
Thanks for your attention.
Hope you enjoyed the presentation
many new things!
Burlon Craig Face Jug
Potter, Burlon Craig
Now... we can call this
How did the Etruscan's approach the afterlife?
imagine representing life like while they were alive...
this is what you see in their tombs.
All this... so they could be familiar and comfortable in the "afterlife".
A sarcophagus would be considered a modern day "coffin".
A wonderful example of sculptural relief.
Notice how strong and confident he looks...just what you want in an emperor.
...We have incorporated the same idea...somewhat... in Statuary Hall at the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C.
Very Simple arch...
remember the summerians...they were the first to create the arch
An arch is defined as a curved shape in the vertical plane that spans an opening...doesn't necessarily have a ceiling.
Look at all those arches
The Roman Colosseum
Reconstructed Drawing of the Forum
Ch. 6 Etruscan and Roman Art
The icon of Rome's foundation, a life-size bronze statue of a she-wolf with two human infants suckling her, is about 1,700 years younger than its city, Rome's officials admitted on Saturday. The official announcement, made at the Capitoline Museums, where the 30 inch-high bronze is the centerpiece of a dedicated room, quashes the belief that the sculpture was adopted by the earliest Romans as a symbol for their city.