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Performance Enhancing Substances

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Danielle Nyman

on 23 October 2013

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Transcript of Performance Enhancing Substances

Performance Enhancing Substances
Temptations to Cheat
-Desire to Win
-Desire to Make it to 'Next Level'
-Enhance Skill Development
-Build muscle mass/ increase strength
-look up to pro's who do it
-quicker recovery time
-Similar to effects of testosterone in the body
-increase protein production within cells,
especially skeletal muscle

Performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) are substances used by athletes to improve their performances in sporting activities.
Substances that are readily available to the consumer market and do not offer unfair competitive advantage over the opponent.
Substances that are outlawed from certain sports that provide an unfair advantage to the competitor.
Urine and Blood Testing
-Sample bottle A and B
-If A comes back positive, then Bottle B is tested to be sure of previous results
Saliva Testing
-Can generally detect use during the previous few days. They're becoming more prevalent because of their convenience.
Hair Testing
-When drug metabolites are in the blood, they'll end up in the blood vessels, including those in the head, and get filtered through the hair
Masking Drugs
-Diluting the Sample
-Substitute fluids
-Catheters with clean urine
Ben Johnson
-set consecutive 100 meters world records at the 1987 World Championships in Athletics and the 1988 Summer Olympics, but he was disqualified for doping, losing the Olympic title and both records.
Lance Armstrong
- had won the Tour de France a (then) record seven consecutive times between 1999 and 2005. Disqualified from those races and banned from competitive cycling for life for doping offenses by the United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) in 2012.

-impaired liver function
-breast formation (gynecomastia)
-increase in estrogen
-erectile dysfunction
-increased aggression & sex drive
("Roid Rage")
-male pattern baldness

-hair loss
-facial hair growth
-increased sex drive
-irregularities of the menstrual cycle
-development of masculine facial
-increased coarseness of the skin

NBA Drug Policy
All players are subject to
four (4) random tests each season
(from October 1 to June 30). All players are also subject to
two (2) random tests each off-season
(from July 1 to September 30). All such tests are scheduled and conducted by an independent, third-party entity and are
without prior notice to the player.
The NBA and the NBPA are not involved in the scheduling of any tests or the selection of players for testing.

More importantly, if the NBA receives information a player may be
with drugs, that player can be brought, within 24 hours, before an independent medical expert with the power to order a
rigorous course of testing.
There is also a special course of treatment that allows NBA drug offenders to
turn themselves in
voluntarily, and as long as they abide by certain protocols,
avoid punishment.

For a first doping offense in the NBA, it’s a 20-game suspension. A second failure calls for 45 games. A third positive test results in banishment from the league.

In contrast, a first failed test for “drugs of abuse” -- cocaine, speed, heroin, LSD and the like -- results in instant disqualification from the league. In some cases, most recently Chris Andersen, such players are later reinstated.

Professional Sport League Policies
Anabolic steroids were first produced in the 1930's, and have since been used to medically increase muscle mass, bone mass and appetite in chronically sick patients .
NFL Policy

The NFL can perform
random drug testing year round
. Every player in the league gets tested
at least once a year
through urine sampling

First: A four game suspension without pay.
Second incident: Eight game suspension, no salary.
Third: One year suspension, no pay.

NHL Policy

NHL testing occurs randomly
up to three times a year
and is done through urine analysis. Testing takes place on team's off days during the regular season. No testing is done during the playoffs or off season.

First Incidence: 20 game suspension without pay.
Second: 60 games without pay
Third: Lifetime ban.
Olympic Policy

Olympic athletes can be
randomly tested 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, no exceptions.
The test consists of both blood and urine -- to nab those who are taking HGH. The
first five finishers
of each Olympic event are
immediately tested
following their heat.


First incidence: If an athlete tests positive they are given a two year ban from all Olympic competitions.
Second incidence: Lifetime ban.
Oral Pills
Topical Creams
Pharmacological Aids
Blood Doping
Introduction to PED's
Human Growth Hormone
- produced in the body in the pituitary gland
-stimulates body to produce & release insulin
-results in cartilage cells, bone,
muscle & organ growth
-enhances the power of anabolic steroids

Side effects: diabetes, cardiovascular problems,
joint pain, osteoporosis, abnormal organ size

-commonly used to treat
musculosketeletal injuries
-reduce inflamation, pain, & swelling

"There are two classes of
that are pertinent in the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries; narcotic analgesics

"Accurate diagnosis is required to decide if the use of a prohibited substance is indicated.
In addition to a history and physical exam consistent with the diagnosis, imaging studies may be necessary to determine the exact nature of the injury and to
establish necessity for the use of prohibited substances."
According to the WADA...
Erythropoietin (EPO)
-released from kidneys to stimulate red blood cell production
-increases the amount of
oxygen red blood cells
can carry
Nutritional Supplements
B-increases energy production, detoxifies

C-helps with ATP production, wound healing,
muscle repair

D-fights infections, reduces inflammation
Meal Replacements
Whether powder, bar or drink, meal replacements provide athletes with the convenience of easy nutrition.
-naturally produced in the human body from amino acids
-transported in the blood for use by muscles
- approx. 95% of body's creatine is located in skeletal muscle
- helps supply energy to cells in the body, primarily muscle

Athletes who take creatine as a supplement should only take between 3-5 grams a day to saturate muscles. If taken in this dosage, creatine can be quite beneficial.
Healthy Eating For Athletes
Super foods
5 Endurance and 5 Strength
Athletes achieve peak performance by training and eating a variety of foods.
Athletes gain most from the amount of carbohydrates stored in the body.
Fat also provides body fuel; use of fat as fuel depends on the duration of the exercise and the condition of the athlete.
Exercise may increase the athlete’s need for protein.
Water is a critical nutrient for athletes. Dehydration can cause muscle cramping and fatigue.

5 Endurance Super Foods
1) Cherries- antioxidant, anti-inflammatory
2) Kale- Vitamins: A, K, B6, antioxidant
3) Walnuts- Protein, Fiber, Vitamins B & E
4) Whey- Protein, Amino Acids
5) Banana's- Potassium, vitamin B6, anti-inflammatory
5 Strength Super Foods
1) Raw Chocolate- magnesium, chromium, B vitamins antioxidants
2) Maca Powder- it is an adaptogen, sterols
3)Hemp Seeds- chlorophyll, calcium, magnesium, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, fiber, iron, potassium, riboflavin, niacin and thiamine
4) Goji Berries- antioxidants, minerals, and contain 18 amino acids, 500x more Vitamin C than Oranges
5) Spirulina- chlorphyll, salts, phytonutrients, and enzymes, vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, K, and E
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
-Reduces inflammation, improves cardiovascular
-Helps athletes recover from workouts
-Athletes and those with body composition goals should start with 3,000 mg of fish oil spread out in 2-3 servings (it only lasts in the body about 8 hours) and work toward taking up to 6,000 mg per day.

-if taken within 10 minutes of training, will reduce the amount of stress hormones (mainly cortisol) released
-only need 8-1.4 grams of protein per 1 kg of lean mass each day
-too much is bad
-right amount repairs tissues and reduces muscle soreness
-should be consumed within 10 minutes of activity for maximum results
MLB Policy
f a party has reasonable cause to believe a player has been abusing banned substances in the past 12 months the player will be subject to an immediate urine and/or blood specimen collection no later than 48 hours after the reasonable cause notification was provided.

Follow Up Testing
-Performance Enhancing Substances: Three (3) unannounced tests the over the 12 months following violation.
-Stimulants: Six (6) unannounced tests the over the 12 months following violation.

1st Violation- 50 game suspension
2nd Violation- 100 game suspension
3rd Violation-Permanent suspension from Major and Minor league
baseball. *May be reinstated after 2 years*

*Players may also be subject to salary retentions in all instances*

Keep in mind when taking a dietary supplement, choose your company wisely. As many of you may be aware, several supplements are banned by professional sports organizations (NFL, NCAA, MLB, etc). There are many sound companies that make quality products.
In fact, EAS was recently granted the first NSF certification for NFL players that ensures there will be no cross-contamination in supplements, reducing the likelihood that athletes will not unknowingly take banned substances. Several companies are working to achieve this NSF certification as well; hopefully many will follow EAS' lead.

Thanks for listening!
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