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Audio for Video

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by

Tim Dougherty

on 24 March 2015

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Transcript of Audio for Video

Pan
(stereo left/right)









Fader
Low frequency (bass) wavelengths are long




High frequency (treble) wavelengths are short
Microphones
Mixers
Acoustics
Signal Flow

Audio for Video
Sound travels in “waves”, tiny bursts of wind energy called “compressions and rarefactions”
Sonic Theory
Amplitude: The distance between the peaks.
Think of amplitude as loudness.
Frequency: The speed at which the waves repeat. Think of frequency as pitch.
Frequency and Amplitude
Wavelength (Frequency)
Dynamic Mics have a small diaphragm attached to a coil that is sensitive to sound pressure waves. The diaphragm moves back-and-forth as it comes into contact with sound waves. This motion is converted into electrical energy.
Dynamic (Moving Coil) Microphone
Durable
Inexpensive
Passive (no power required)
Small
Very sensitive
Require DC power
Condenser mics have two plates charged with electricity. One acts as the diaphragm, moving back and forth, and the other is fixed. When the distance between the plates changes, electrical energy is created called “fluxuating capacitance”.
Condenser Microphone
Speakers work in the opposite way, converting electrical energy into sound waves, pushing air out to your ears. Most speakers use a moving coil diaphragm.
Speaker Diaphragm
Occur when sound bounces off hard, smooth objects, such as walls, furniture, etc.

Creates ‘room noise’

Avoid excessive room noise by placing the mic as close as possible to your subject
Reflections
Omnidirectional Cardioid Supercardioid (Shotgun)
Microphone Pickup Patterns
Handheld mic (“stick mic”)


Lavalier mic (“lav”)


Supercardioid mic (“shotgun”)
Microphone Types
Microphone Mixer
The path an audio signal takes from sound source to speaker
Signal Path
Signal Processing

Analog meters peak at +10
Optimal levels set to 0








Peak at 0
Optimal levels set to -20
Analog vs. Digital Meters
Audio is “clipping”, that’s bad!!


Slightly above optimal;
watch out for clipping


Ok, but volume may be too low
“Clipping” occurs when audio gain is too high.

Optimal Digital level is -20 db

Optical Analog level is 0 db
Distortion
Toft ATB-16a Console
Input Gain
(aka 'trim')

Highs
Trim, EQ
Toft ATB-16a Console
Line Input (1/4” TRS)












Mic Input (XLR)
Channel Inputs (rear of console)
Toft ATB-16a Console
Aux Sends
Toft ATB-16a Console
Solo
Mute




Bus Assigns
Pan, Fader, Buss Assigns
Toft ATB-16a Console
Busses
Toft ATB-16a Console
1. Using the Patch Bay, patch tone to channel 16



2. Set tone to 0 dB VU on the master VU meters




3. Set Sony DSR-2000 Recorder to -20 dB
Calibrating Audio Levels
Now, open your ears!
Equalizer (EQ)
Fine control over bass, midrange, and treble
Limiter
Compressor
Effects Processor
Reduces the 'dynamic range' (the range between the quietest and loudest sounds) by lowering the volume of the loudest sounds.
Reduces the dynamic range by lowering the volume of the loudest sounds and raising the volume of the quietest sounds.
Reverb, delay, noise reduction, etc.
Analog Meters (Toft Mixer)
Digital Meters (Video Recorder)
Red
Yellow
Green
Busses
Toft ATB-16a Console
Phantom power
Mic / Line Switch
Sweep
Sweep
High pass (rumble) filter
EQ on/off
High Midrange
Low Midrange
Lows
Used to combine and mix multiple audio sources, including:

Microphones
Video Decks
CD
DVD
iPod, etc.
Full transcript