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Transcript of Module 14
Knowledge Construction/Concept Learning
~ focuses on knowledge construction. It is a theory of knowledge that argues that humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between their experiences and their ideas.
2 Views of Constructivism
also called Cognitive Constructivism.
internal construction of knowledge.
It is largely based on Piaget's theory.
Proponents of this type choose child-centered and discovery learning.
They believe the learners should be allowed to discover principles through their own exploration rather than direct instruction by the teacher.
• Individual Constructivism
• Social Constructivism
Characteristics of Constructivism
1. Learners construct understanding
2. New learning depends on current understanding
3. Learning is facilitated by social interaction
4. Meaningful learning occurs within authentic learning tasks.
is a way of grouping or categorizing objects or events in our mind.
A concept of teach, includes a group of tasks such as model, discuss, illustrate, explain, assist, etc.
Kinds of Concepts
• Concepts as Feature Lists
• Concepts as Prototypes
•Concepts as Excemplars
is one that is present in many positive instances but not essential for concept membership. For example, a mother is loving. Being loving is feature commonly present in the concept mother. But a mother may not be loving.
So "being loving" is only a
not a defining one.
Concepts as Prototypes
is an idea or a visual image of a "typical" example. It is usually formed based on the positive instances that learners encounter most often.
Knowledge exist in a social context and is initially shared with others instead of being represented solely in the mind of an individual. It is based on Vygotsky's theory. Here, construction of knowledge is shared by two or more people.
Concepts as Feature Lists
Learning a concept involves learning specific features that characterize positive instance of the concept. included here are
is a characteristic present in all instances.
Example, a triangle has three sides. Having three sides is a defining feature of a triangle. Because all triangles should have three sides. If one doesn't, then it is not a triangle.
Concepts as Exemplars
represent a variety of examples. It allows learners to know that an example under a concept may have a variability.
Making Concept-learning Effective
•Provide a clear definition of the concept
•Make the defining features very concrete and prominent
•Give a variety of positive instances
•Give negative instances
•Cite a "best example" or a prototype
•Provide opportunity for learners to identify positive and negative instances
•Ask learners to think of their own example of the concept
•Point out how concepts can be related to each other
is an organized body of knowledge about something. It is like a file of information you hold in your mind about something.
is a schema that includes a series of predictable events about a specific activity.
Schemas and Scripts
Applying Construtivism in Facilitating Learning
• Aim to make learners understand a few key ideas in an
in-depth manner, rather than taking up so many topics
• Give varied examples.
• Provide opportunities for experimentation.
• Provide lots of opportunities for quality interaction.
• Have lots of hands-on activities.
• Relate your topic to real life situations.
• Do not depend on the explanation method all the time.