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Veronica's and Aziliz' GIS course for MCMS
Transcript of Veronica's and Aziliz' GIS course for MCMS
The Use of Quantum GIS in the Heritage Field Recording In order to tackle the challenges related to a correct analysis, the use of geographic information systems (GIS) and the digital databases linked to them is included in course H00A2a. analyzing vast amounts of heterogeneous data
= a major task in a conservation project Site analysis understanding heritage properties and sites display inventory evaluation preservation of heritage properties and sites organized collection computer hardware software data designed to efficiently capture store update manipulate analyze The World as It Is... The World as It Is... The World as It Is... The World as It Is... The World as We Wish... However there are limits when
it comes to modeling reality: personal perceptions and the software limitations Map scale = 1:50.000 Photo scale = 1:10.000 Plan scale = 1:2.500 Scale - Scope - Approach level scales in heritage Datacollection Data obtained by surveying
Photographical images Imaging remote observations from earth, air or space of reflected electromagnetic radiation/ reflected mechanic pressure waves
Multi- en hyperspectral images
Non-optical radiation (infrared, thermal and radar) images
Enquiries with an indirect spatial component a.o.: building permit overviews, national inventories of listed buildings, … Datacollection Structured collection of digital data. It purpose is designing, building, and maintaining complex information systems with many concurrent end-users, and with a large amount of diverse data. Database Structuring is required to facilitate search and query of the data
Tables are often used to structure the data
Several software packages exist to integrate data in tables for further processing MS-Access, MS-Excel, dBase, …
(row/column) based. Structuring Analog to digital These functions include o.a.:
advanced analytical tools
presentation tools Data describing geographic reality are no longer stored in maps, plans and sketches but in digital databases.
The database allows to store different kinds of data: quantitative and qualitative data, definitions, text, video, images, etc. and relate then to geographical descriptions. Computing and Other Functions gDB Traditional instrument to describe
the world... Display the geographic reality at a given moment in time
Give meaning to displayed entities by symbolization according to a map legend
Are static, difficult to update
Information content is related to map scale! Maps_ As it is... As it was How it is (probably) going to be... How we want it to be. The gDB becomes
an information system that... Produces maps Enhances knowledge Supports decisions Note: not all functions are present in the same extent in each
GIS-software package When applying computing and other functions the data base becomes an information system that produces maps, enhances knowledge and supports decisions. Spatial modeling Geodatasets When opening a gDB in GIS: vertically integrated It imperative that geodatasets in a gDB are: Similar level of spatial detail Vertically integrated coinciding objects or parts of objects stored in separate geodatasets must spatially match ONE spatial reference system CRS In order to identify locations on the Earth’s surface, a geographically reference system should be used. Coordinate Reference System A same location will receive different coordinates when expressed in different CRS!
Different geodatasets from various reference systems in one single viewing Projected The LONLAT may be projected to a 2Dsurface, yielding projected coordinates, expressed in metric units. Locations can be expressed with direct respect to such a parameterized ellipsoid (geodetic datum) in terms of geographic coordinates, i.e. longitude and latitude, which are angular units. Geographic Use ONE CRS A huge number of CRS are being used across the globe. They differ in the geodetic datum and/or projection function used. Note: Many variants exist of both Types of datasets I.Vector datasets
Geodatasets containing cell-based descriptions of locations
Geometric primitive = cell Basic rule: “Raster is faster but Vector is corrector” II.Raster datasets Geodatasets containing vectorial descriptions of objects
Geometric primitive = point The Use of GIS
Exchange formats: GML, XML, TIFF, …
Various media (floppy disk, tape, CD-ROM, DVD, …) Display
Graphical User Interface Informative maps Readable maps hardcopy output softcopy output Map content must match the objective
Map type must match the intended audience/users
The amount of information to be communicated must match map scale
Generalisation of data available in gDB may be appropriate Appropriate symbology (colors, hatching, line types, point symbols, etc.)
Appropriate number of classes
Visual equilibrium between map elements: full or partial colors, size and positioning
Symbols (title, clear and complete legend, scale indication, information on map projection, north arrow, logo, etc.) Map
Graph (bar, pie & scatter plots, histograms) Simple queries: Integrated queries: Attribute or conditional query: specify characteristics and obtain objects which match those characteristics •What is at a given location ?
–Which type of building ? Spatial query: spatially select object(s) and obtain its/their characteristics What is the exact location of an object or a terrain feature (X-Y, LON-LAT, …) ?
How far are objects apart (Distance) ?
How many objects are present within a given perimeter (Number) ?
Where are the most valuable buildings and more at flooding risk? Which building additions have been built since ? Example questions Example questions Example questions HIS CUENCA - ECUADOR Value based tool
Data management platform (city to building elements HIS: features
What is at a given location ?
Which type of building ? Location query: How far are objects apart (Distance)? How many objects are present within a given perimeter (Number) ? Distance queries: Query of the geometric component only Risk Management at Heritage Sites:
A Case Study of the Petra World Heritage Site Identify concentrations and congestion areas where different risk indicators overlap
Used for making decisions on the mitigation strategies and the management process
Clear presentation of the pilot area’s risks, not only for the researchers but also for the responsibles dealing with management of the PAP The Fatih district in Istanbul Internet enabled GIS
A software independent format
Share online information with different stakeholders
Base for a comprehensive documentation system
Users not only entail researchers and stakeholders with management objectives also holds an interest for visitors and local communities The Silk Roads Cultural Heritage Resource Information System (CHRIS) Inventorying and sharing information between researchers of different backgrounds and institutions GIS in combination with Content Management Systems (GeoCMS), an advanced form of Information Management Systems for documention and long term monitoring Three scale levels more detailed overview and insight on the research results Internet enabled GIS serial transnational Central Asian Silk Roads World Heritage Nomination Participatory GIS (PGIS) was used to interpret the different components of the research The Troina Project in Sicily connect photographs, drawings and spreadsheets to other spatial data in an additional vector layer Integrate the spatial knowledge of the local communities and diverse forms of oral information The most obvious applications of GIS in the heritage field are related to listing purposes and planning purposes. Thus, primarily the tangible aspects of heritage in combination with a ‘dots-on-the-map’ approach. These applications include: Determining the carrying capacity of a site
Identifying reoccurring threats
Monitoring of properties towards preventive conservation
Site and tourism management
Visualizing site development from the past till present (& future) Inventorying and the mapping of heritage
Modeling of archaeological sites
Modeling heritage tourism impacts
Urban planning effects on heritage
Heritage trail analysis Next to these ‘locate, document and identify’ applications, a GIS can assist in interpreting and analyzing heritage properties and sites. These geo-analytical applications include: The Use of GIS in the Heritage Field When applying computing & other functions: There are two classes of CRS...