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Genetic Engineering & Cloning

Discussion of MAN-Bioethics
by

Jenny Cabanto

on 22 October 2013

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Transcript of Genetic Engineering & Cloning

Arellano University
Florentino Cayco Memorial School of Graduate Studies
Masters of Arts in Nursing

Genetic Engineering
&
Cloning

Jennylyn C. Cabanto, RN
Rm 313 Rizall Hall
August 10, 2013

BIOMEDICAL ETHICS IN NURSING
OBJECTIVES
TOPICS
Definition
Historical Background
Techniques, Applications, and Effects to Society
Ethical Dilemmas & Controversies
HISTORICAL
BACKGROUND

Gen. Marlene Padua, RN MAN
What is Genetic Engineering?
Genetic engineering (GE) is the manipulation of genetic material (ie, DNA or genes) in a cell or an organism in order to produce
desired
characteristics and to
eliminate unwanted
ones.
GE includes a range of different techniques with many different uses, and can be applied to
plants
,
animals
and
humans.

Male Donkey
Female Horse
Mules
History
1865
Gregor Mendel
1973 - 1974
DNA cloning by two scientists; Ti plasmid discovered in bacteria
1980 - 1982
Transgenic Mouse
1983
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) by Dr. Kary Banks Mullis
famous pea plant experiment
foundation of modern genetics
first genetically modified organism (GMO)
Giant Mouse
genetically modified plants ; byfour teams of scientists
What is CLONING
Reproduction of a living thing with identical DNA to it's predecessors.
HISTORY
1867-1941
1869-1941
1951
1996
1867-1941
Hans Driesch
1869-1941
Hans Spemann
1951
1996
SCNT used to clone Dolley
Sea Urchins
Twin Newts and
Salamander
Nuclear Transfer used on FROGS
First successful animal cloning
Multiple
perspective
FARMER
"I had a great batch of wheat this year, if i could clone the wheat seeds I could have another great batch the next year!"
DOCTOR
"A simple mistake or unintentional contamination could lead to horrible mutations and diseases in the clone. I don't want to be held responsible for that"
AVERAGE MAN
"My doctor has deemed me infertile. This is very disheartening for me and my wife. If I could clone myself or her, it would be like having our own child!"
SCIENTIST
"By cloning animals, we are destroying ecological diversity and because of this we destroy the possibilities for animals to naturally improve later in life."
Techniques, Applications, and the Effects on Society
GENETIC ENGINEERING
Genetic engineering allows the creation of
new organisms
with
new functions.
For example, scientists, using the technique of recombinant DNA, have been able to produce bacteria that create
insulin.
Gene therapy
is another advancement, as it allows for prevention of a disorder by introducing a gene into the patient.
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) allow for crops that are resistant to environment and provide more nutrition.
Genetic engineering allows helping our lives, and saving millions of lives around the world.
Scientists predict genetic engineering will have much more prominent applications in the future, both medicinally and agriculturally with the exponentially increasing population of the world.
CLONING
The most current and most widely used method of cloning animals is somatic cell nuclear transfer.
Cloning can be used to create a donor organ for an animal that will not be rejected during a transplant, although this is extremely controversial as it involves killing the clone to harvest the organs.
Some people who have a lot of money and want to keep their pet forever can now have it cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer.
Cloning can also be useful to study human diseases and to create organisms that have certain diserable traits.
PROS AND CONS
We can bring back extinct species and lost loved ones
re-create exceptional animals who where skilled in their "profession"
We could clone a crop that had very good growth and spread it's traits to other farms.
A potential alternative for those with infertility
Help create "sets" of DNA traits to be added or removed from species to give them desirable traits.
Most clones born do not live a full life
We don't know how the clone feels about being a clone
Detracts from genetic diversity and therefore the ability for a species to develop better traits
Cloning is looked at as a very unethical practice in many cultures
If one simple mistake is made anywhere along the process, the scientist in charge will be at fault of creating a defective child who may be in great pain because of this defect
CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS
ETHICAL ISSUES
Some individuals have argued that crossing species boundaries is unnatural, immoral, and in violation of God’s laws.
Q: Is it ethical to create
altered
animals that may suffer?
By combining animal DNA and human DNA with plant DNA, we could run the risk of creating new diseases for which there is
no treatment.
Q: Will the technology facilitate transmission of disease?
While the issue of the morality of crossing species boundaries reflects differing world views and may be conceptually unclear, there are known risks associated with
xenotransplantation
of transgenic cells or organs from
animals to humans
.
Q: Are we crossing species boundaries?
presumes that species boundaries are fixed and readily delineated.
American Journal of Bioethics

The notion of species boundaries is a hotly debated topic. Some bioethicists have pointed out there are a variety of species concepts: biological, morphological, ecological, typological, evolutionary, phylogenetic, to name a few. All of these definitions of what a species is reflect changing theories and the varying purposes for which different species are used by individuals.
For example, there is a small but significant risk of the transmission of usually fatal zoonotic diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also known as
“mad cow disease”
), porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs), and Nipah encephalitis. The introduction of these diseases to the human population could have
devastating consequences
.
Various bioethicists, environmentalists, and animal rights activists have argued that it is wrong to create
“monsters”
or animals that would suffer as a result of genetic alternation (for example, a pig with no legs), and that such experimentation should be banned.
The long-term risks to the environment are
unknown.
ALTERING HUMANS
Q: Is it possible the technology may be used to create
slaves
?
ban on species-altering technology
Q: Can the definition of “human” be applied to altered species containing human genes?
Newman and Rifkin:
"What constitutes a human being?"
Q: Will society manipulate the genetic traits of children?
the International Olympic Committee has expressed concern that athletes will soon employ genetic engineering to get an edge
technology could be used to create a slave race, (race of subhumans) that would be exploited
April 1998, scientists
Jeremy Rifkin
and
Stuart Newman
, who are both opposed to genetically modified organisms (GMOs), applied for a
patent for a “humanzee,”
part human and part chimpanzee
Violation of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which prohibits
slavery
***The decision has been appealed, but the appeal has not yet reached a court, and it may never do so. The appeal may be dismissed on other technical grounds
(United States Patent and Trademark Office)
Bioethicist:
argue that the definition of “human being” should be more
expansive
and
protective
, rather than more
restrictive
.
CHILDREN
SUPERHUMANS
10 CONTROVERSIAL GENETIC EXPERIMENTS
10
Animal Cloning
Since Dolly, scientists have cloned numerous other types of animals, including horses, rats, deer, cats, pigs and mice. In May 2010, a Spanish breeder of fighting bulls produced, for the first time, a cloned bull to serve as a stud.
Should we only clone less intelligent animals? Should we clone beloved pets? Should cloned animals be allowed to reproduce and enter the food supply? Should we try to use cloning to save endangered species, to "improve" animals or to resurrect extinct species? Will cloning imperil biodiversity?
9
Genetically Modified Crops
The main virtue of GM food is that it can be
"designed"
to have certain built-in features.

Example: a corn variety could produce a chemical that kills a certain fungus.

However, activists and some scientists worry that GM food could produce
unintended side effects
, such as wiping out indigenous strains of crops or somehow proving harmful to human health. As of now, however, no scientific consensus exists stating that GM food is dangerous
8
Human Genetic Engineering
Disease and birth defects could be wiped out
We could live longer, be stronger and more intelligent
Would genetic improvements be limited to the wealthy? Would a discriminatory gap develop between the genetic "haves" and the "have nots"? Could there be other, unintentionally dangerous, side effects that are only seen when GM DNA is passed down to future generations?
7
Stem Cell Research
Using embryonic stem cells for research (Generally these embryos are only a few days old; many of them are fertilized embryos left over from in vitro fertilization procedures and would normally be thrown away)

***Fertilized embryos constitute human life.
6
Nazi Medical Experiments
Heilbrunn twins
subjecting captured Russian soldiers to extremely cold temperatures and inducing hypothermia
5
Gene Therapy and Jesse Gelsinger
Jesse Gelsinger with OTCD died less than 1 week after receiving treatment
Cindy Cutshall born with ADA. One of the first people in the world to benefit from gene therapy
4
Genetic Engineering in Animals
harming biodiversity, worries about effects on human health and ethical concerns over experimenting with healthy animals.
3
Human-Animal Hybrid Research
2004, scientists at the famed Mayo Clinic produced pigs that had human blood
2
Henrietta Lacks and HeLa Cells
1
Human Sexuality Studies
"GAY-GENE"
those who worry that discovery of a gay gene, or some other genetic basis for homosexuality, could lead to
selective abortion
those who justify the research on the grounds that finding homosexuality as genetically dictated would remove one
justification for homophobia
In 2005, a team at the University of Illinois announced that it believed that multiple genes were linked to homosexuality.

In 2008, another study found that homosexuality in men may be caused by an inherited gene that boosts fertility in women
As of now, no general consensus exists as to the possible genetic basis of homosexuality, though various theories have been floated
GENETIC ENGINEERING AND CLONING IN POPULAR MEDIA
Cloning and Genetic Engineering present intriguing and difficult challenges for 21st century scientists and ethicists.

Until we as a society or, perhaps, as a global entity can agree on what beings, human or otherwise, are worthy of moral and legal status and respect, we can expect intense cross-disciplinary debate and discussion as new intelligent life is created through science and medicine
CONCLUSION
THE END
After 1 hour of discussion, my colleagues will be able to:
1. Identify the different bioethical issues concerning Genetic Engineering and Cloning
2. Discuss personal opinions and viewpoints on genetically modified and cloned organisms
3. Explore different ethical principles violated in genetic engineering and cloning
4. Describe nurses’ role in this kind of medical advancements

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