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Classification 1- Corrosives 2- Hydrocarbons 3-Alcohols 4-In

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by

Nehal Kamel

on 18 November 2013

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Transcript of Classification 1- Corrosives 2- Hydrocarbons 3-Alcohols 4-In

ٍهفأغيقخؤشقلHydrocarbones
an organic compound made up primarily of carbon & hydrogen
atoms .




there are two basic types of hydrocarbon molecules :
- aliphatic
- aromatic (cyclic)

Detergents
- they are powerful cleaning products that may contain strong acids , alkalies or phosphate .
-cationic >>> antiseptic in hospitals
-anionic >>> clean carpeting
- poisoning ocurre when someone swallow cationic or anionic detergent .
chemical categories : non ionic , cationic & anionic
Personal Care Produc
ts

Corrosives
any substance if comes in contact with living tissue ,will cause destruction by chemical action .
Classified into
:
Acids e.g drain cleaners --> Coagulative necrosis
Alkali e.g washing soda --> Liquifactive necrosis
Commn household detergent :
Dishwasher detergent :
cascade ..... sunlight .....electroSol
Dishwashing liquid :
Pril .....fairy ....Dove ....Mr muscle
Disinfectant cleaner :
Downey .... Dettol ... Clorox bleach
Glass surface cleaner :
power .... windex
Laundry detergents :
Tide ... Arial.... Persil
Classification
1- Corrosives
2- Hydrocarbons
3-Alcohols
4-Insecticides & Rodenticides
5- Detergents
6-Medicines
7-Personal care products
Household poisoning
- Home
- Children are more at risk for poison exposures







- Can affect anyone
Extent of injury depends on:
- Duration of contact
- Ability of substance to penetrate tissue
- PH
- Conc.

- Volume
Sites :
Management
- Emergency & supportive treatment
(ABC)

- Non surgical airway placement
- give Dexamethasone
- Nasotracheal intubation is contraindicated
- Skin & eye decontamination
- Management of ophthalmic exposure
- Skin

- GIT

- Respiratory tract

- Eyes Cause severe pain
Medicines
Commonly >> Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs
:
medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as compared to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription .
Common drugs
- Antibiotics
- Asprin
-
Oral contraceptives
--> very low toxicity , GIT upset ,Vaginal bleeding in first few days ,no treatment
- Benzodiazepines
- Iron --> highly toxic
- Vit. preparations
- Cocaine
- Paracetamol
circumstances of poisoning :
1) Ingestion or accidental exposure in house- hold:
most common
observted in children < 5
2) Intentional abuse :
in aldoscence
3) massive oral abuse
are associated with suicide attempts
household products containing hydrocarbons
toxokinetics
-inhalation is major route for most volatile hydrocarbons.
-absorbed through inhalation , ingestion or dermal route .
-distributed to target or store organs , once absorbed .
-can be elminated through expired air ,,, or urine & bile .
Clinical picture
lethargy , transient
euphoria,convulsions
& coma

arrythmia , as the hydrocarbons increase the sensitivity of myocardium to
chatecholamines .

episodes of choking , gagging , bronchospasm , tachypnea , respiratory distress ,
* hypoxia & chemical pneumonia may occur*


irritation , nausea , vomiting & sore throat



non specific irritation of skin & m.m.




hepatomegaly & renal injury
investigations
- Electolytes
- CBC >> leukocytosis & anemia
- ECG >> arrythmia .
observe the patient on cardiac monitor .
- liver function test
- BUN & creatinin .



Treatment
-Diazepam
- emergency & supportive ttt *ABC*
- PEEP
- Antibiotics
-gastric decontamination is of no benefits unless sever systemic toxicity is expected .
-activated charcoal is of limited benefit .
Alcohol
- constituents of antifreezers , solid cooking fuels , wind screen washer ,perfumes , methanol






- used also as a solvent
toxokinetics
- rapidly absorbed from GIT
-metabolized by Acohol dehdrogenase enzyme .

Clinical picture :
irritation of M.M. , abdominal pain , nausea , vomiting ,optic nerve neuritis , metabolic acidosis ,
convulsions & coma .
Treatment
-
Decontamibation :
gastric lavage if ones early
.if drowsy >> insert endotracheal tube
-Enhancement of Elimination :
haemodialysis in sever cases
-
no specific antidote
-Symptomatic ttt:
..Naloxone can shorten the alcoholic coma
..treat convulsions by diazepam
..antacids to prevent gastritis
..antibiotics to prevent pulmonary compilications,
Insecticide
Organophosphate & carbamate :

e.g : pyrosole ,Temik , Ragon , ETC

they are common cause of poisonong in developing world

they cause inhibition of CE enzyme >>> accumulation of A-CH
Domestic Rodenticide
-mostly warfarin or long acting anticoagulant .

- they cause bleeding &CNS deppresion
Clinical picture
sever change in acid level >>> destruction in all of the body organs


- loss of vision
-sever pan in throat
-sever pain or burning in eyes , ear , nose ,lips or tongue

-Blood in stool
- Burns & possible holes in the esophagus
-sever abdominal pain
-vomiting & haematemesis

- hypotension yhat develops rapidly
- collapse



- breathing difficulty & throat swelling Due to inhalation of the detergent .

-irritations
-corrosion of the skin or tissue underneath.
-burns
Treatment
- administer oral fluids

- further steps in ttt depend on presence of respiratory symptoms or tissue corrosion.

they are extermely
dangeruos especially
for children .
they may cause irritation of M.M , naesea ,vomiting , CNS deppresion & hyperglycemia
... Mai Mostafa
... Mervat Elsayed
... Nada Waseem
...Nermin Elhawary
...Nehal Kamel
؛Presented by :
First AiD ِActions
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