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Classification 1- Corrosives 2- Hydrocarbons 3-Alcohols 4-In
Transcript of Classification 1- Corrosives 2- Hydrocarbons 3-Alcohols 4-In
an organic compound made up primarily of carbon & hydrogen
there are two basic types of hydrocarbon molecules :
- aromatic (cyclic)
- they are powerful cleaning products that may contain strong acids , alkalies or phosphate .
-cationic >>> antiseptic in hospitals
-anionic >>> clean carpeting
- poisoning ocurre when someone swallow cationic or anionic detergent .
chemical categories : non ionic , cationic & anionic
Personal Care Produc
any substance if comes in contact with living tissue ,will cause destruction by chemical action .
Acids e.g drain cleaners --> Coagulative necrosis
Alkali e.g washing soda --> Liquifactive necrosis
Commn household detergent :
Dishwasher detergent :
cascade ..... sunlight .....electroSol
Dishwashing liquid :
Pril .....fairy ....Dove ....Mr muscle
Disinfectant cleaner :
Downey .... Dettol ... Clorox bleach
Glass surface cleaner :
power .... windex
Laundry detergents :
Tide ... Arial.... Persil
4-Insecticides & Rodenticides
7-Personal care products
- Children are more at risk for poison exposures
- Can affect anyone
Extent of injury depends on:
- Duration of contact
- Ability of substance to penetrate tissue
- Emergency & supportive treatment
- Non surgical airway placement
- give Dexamethasone
- Nasotracheal intubation is contraindicated
- Skin & eye decontamination
- Management of ophthalmic exposure
- Respiratory tract
- Eyes Cause severe pain
Commonly >> Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs
medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as compared to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription .
--> very low toxicity , GIT upset ,Vaginal bleeding in first few days ,no treatment
- Iron --> highly toxic
- Vit. preparations
circumstances of poisoning :
1) Ingestion or accidental exposure in house- hold:
observted in children < 5
2) Intentional abuse :
3) massive oral abuse
are associated with suicide attempts
household products containing hydrocarbons
-inhalation is major route for most volatile hydrocarbons.
-absorbed through inhalation , ingestion or dermal route .
-distributed to target or store organs , once absorbed .
-can be elminated through expired air ,,, or urine & bile .
lethargy , transient
arrythmia , as the hydrocarbons increase the sensitivity of myocardium to
episodes of choking , gagging , bronchospasm , tachypnea , respiratory distress ,
* hypoxia & chemical pneumonia may occur*
irritation , nausea , vomiting & sore throat
non specific irritation of skin & m.m.
hepatomegaly & renal injury
- CBC >> leukocytosis & anemia
- ECG >> arrythmia .
observe the patient on cardiac monitor .
- liver function test
- BUN & creatinin .
- emergency & supportive ttt *ABC*
-gastric decontamination is of no benefits unless sever systemic toxicity is expected .
-activated charcoal is of limited benefit .
- constituents of antifreezers , solid cooking fuels , wind screen washer ,perfumes , methanol
- used also as a solvent
- rapidly absorbed from GIT
-metabolized by Acohol dehdrogenase enzyme .
Clinical picture :
irritation of M.M. , abdominal pain , nausea , vomiting ,optic nerve neuritis , metabolic acidosis ,
convulsions & coma .
gastric lavage if ones early
.if drowsy >> insert endotracheal tube
-Enhancement of Elimination :
haemodialysis in sever cases
no specific antidote
..Naloxone can shorten the alcoholic coma
..treat convulsions by diazepam
..antacids to prevent gastritis
..antibiotics to prevent pulmonary compilications,
Organophosphate & carbamate :
e.g : pyrosole ,Temik , Ragon , ETC
they are common cause of poisonong in developing world
they cause inhibition of CE enzyme >>> accumulation of A-CH
-mostly warfarin or long acting anticoagulant .
- they cause bleeding &CNS deppresion
sever change in acid level >>> destruction in all of the body organs
- loss of vision
-sever pan in throat
-sever pain or burning in eyes , ear , nose ,lips or tongue
-Blood in stool
- Burns & possible holes in the esophagus
-sever abdominal pain
-vomiting & haematemesis
- hypotension yhat develops rapidly
- breathing difficulty & throat swelling Due to inhalation of the detergent .
-corrosion of the skin or tissue underneath.
- administer oral fluids
- further steps in ttt depend on presence of respiratory symptoms or tissue corrosion.
they are extermely
for children .
they may cause irritation of M.M , naesea ,vomiting , CNS deppresion & hyperglycemia
... Mai Mostafa
... Mervat Elsayed
... Nada Waseem
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