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Canada: The Roaring 20's
Transcript of Canada: The Roaring 20's
Jan. 16, 1920
Canada: The Roaring 20's
The Group of Seven
The Group of Seven were a group of seven young artists that came together to showcase Canada's natural beauty. They did this by painting many pieces of Canadian landscape to give Canada a national artistic identity. The Group's aim was to get Canadians to stop looking at Europe for artistic inspiration and to embrace the beauty that was within Canada. Throughout the 1920's the Group's influence spread quickly through Canada's artistic community. This united Canada as Canadians began to embrace Canadian art.
New laws in education required children to remain in school until the age of 16. It was also prohibited for children to work in factories and mines. As a result, educated workers were needed to fill new job opportunities. This was prosperous in the economy making tuition free and education available to low-income families. Extracurricular activities were also offered at school, such as; athletics, music and drama clubs.
The Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
The arrival of the KKK in the early 1920's revealed extreme prejudice to certain population in North America. The Klan mainly targeted people of African-American heritage. In Canada, , Jews were targeted in Quebec, French Canadians in Saskatchewan, Asians in British Columbia, and any religious or ethnic minorities.
Flannel and tweed were popular fabrics for men's clothing. Silk ties with small geometric patterns or diagonal strips were also a trend. Men's shoes were also two-toned in colours. Black bowler hats completed the look of a man in the 1920's
Aboriginal peoples have struggled to preserve their identity from the beginning of European colonization. Residential schools were established so aboriginal children could be assimilated into European culture. Children were abused in these schools and had to completely change their identity by changing their overall cultural appearance. Conversing in their traditional language was also not permitted. In 1920, the Meighan government allowed the First Nations to be enfranchised. This meant they could vote and be entitled the rights as of a British citizen. However, this meant they would have to give up their First Nation Status.
By: Petula Fernandes
Prohibition was a law that was enforced by the Canadian government. The federal government prohibited the manufacture, importation and transportation of liquor and any alcoholic drinks. Its purpose was to reduce, if not eliminate, public drunkenness and domestic violence. The result of this ban led to many illegal trading of alcohol, protests also occurred. The Prohibition ended in 1933.
Ice hockey is introduced for the first time at the Summer Olympic Games. The Canadian men's hockey team win gold.
Women had a revolution in clothing. Evening dresses were more revealing. The 'boyish' bob hair cut was also fashionable. Women could now wear their hair short. It was a radical change from the long hair women had traditionally worn.
The "Flappers" were a big fad in 1920's. A Flapper rejected the conventional dresses and behavior. Flapper dresses were sleeveless, scoop-necked and had no waistline. Mary Janes, strapped black shoes were also the preferred style of shoes Flappers wore.
Canada was sports crazy in the 1920's. Baseball, golf, and hockey were popular. The media helped make the 1920's the golden age of sports in Canada. Newspapers promoted all sporting events. Popular magazines ran regular sports magazines. Radio and film also created a mass appeal for sports. Baseball was the most popular summer sport in Canada. Its popularity was the reflection on the growing influence of American culture in Canada.
Women in Sports
During the 1920's, figure skating, diving, swimming and tennis were the only sports that were seen as "proper" during the time. Despite this social norm, women took part in a wide array of sports that included hockey, basketball, baseball and horse jumping. During the Women's Olympics, the track and field team took home 2 gold medals, a sliver and a bronze. This was a significant transformation with women in sports. Young girls were now inspired to persue their athletic dreams.
In 1921, for the first time, Canada's population was almost 9 million. More people lived in urban areas than in rural areas. Montreal was the largest urban centre, followed by Toronto and then Winnipeg. Due to innovative technology, fewer workers were needed on farms. Thus, people that lived on farms migrated to cities. Another reason was that factories hired workers during the war times to produce industrial goods. In general, the lure of city life and drawn many people to settle in the city. Therefore, these were all the factors that led to urbanization.
Dec. 29, 1921
Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King wins his election yet again. This makes him Canada's longest serving Prime Minister having served 3 terms over a span of almost 22 years. Key accomplishments that were achieved in his serving time include; the creation of old-age pension (1926), unemployment insurance (1940), family allowances (1944). King also led Canada through WWII from 1939-1945.
Jan. 11, 1922
Doctor Frederic Banting was the first first one to come with an invention that could save people who were suffering from diabetes. Before Banting's discovery of insulin, thousands of people died from diabetes. With this insulin, diabetic people could lower their blood sugar levels and live longer, healthier lives. Banting made one of the most revolutionary discoveries in medical science through his invention of insulin.
Nov. 4, 1922
British archaeologist Howard Carter makes his renowned discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun. This causes a revival of interest in the history and culture of ancient Egypt throughout the Western world, including Canada.
Jul. 1, 1923
Chinese Exclusion Act
The Canadian Pacific Railway was mainly built by the Chinese immigrants during the early 1880's. Once the work was complete, the Canadian government did not want the Chinese people anymore. Thus, immigration from anyone in China was prevented. Canadians also feared that the Chinese people were taking over the job market. Hence, the Chinese Exclusion Act was in full use during 1923-1967.
Apr. 1, 1924
Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF)
Canadians pilots who returned from WWI wanted to continue flying. Thus, in 1924, the Royal Canadian Air Force was created. The government made clear however, that the planes would be used for non-violent purposes only. Therefore, the RCAF pilots used the planes to conduct surveys, patrol for forest fires, and guard Canada's coasts/borders.
In 1924, Canada's economy steadily began to improve. There was an abundant supply of forests, minerals, water, and fertile land that fuelled the economic growth during this time.
The Prairie provinces had bumper wheat crops from 1925-1928.
Pulp & Paper:
Supplying newsprint to the U.S became Canada's second largest industry. By the mid 1920's, Canada was the world's largest supplier of newsprint.
The Canadian Shield yielded large deposits of nickel, copper, gold and silver.
In 1924, oil was found in Calgary. Alberta was soon providing 90% of Canada's petroleum exports.
At the beginning of the decade, 25% of Canadian homes had telephones. These phones had a dialer that had to be cranked and a mouthpiece that was separated from the earphone. During the decade, there was a rapid change in telephone technology. The first non-crank telephone appeared in Toronto. By the end of the 1920's, about 75% of the Canadian homes had telephones.
By the mid 1920's the economy was doing fairly well. The rate of unemployment was decreasing as more people got jobs. Now that people had a regular wages, consumer products were affordable for most families. Consumer goods included: electric stoves, refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, cars, toothpaste, radios etc.
In the 1920's Canada was the world's second largest producer of cars. Due to its mass productions, it was more affordable to middle-class families. Canadians registered a whopping 1.9 million cars by the end of the decade. Cars revolutionized society as more family and friends could visit each other. Farmers also used cars to go to towns and sell their crops. Cars were very beneficial in the 1920's society.
Canadians celebrated the 60th anniversary of Confederation. A special broadcast was held throughout the country. Listeners were treated to speeches by dignitaries and the national anthem that was played at the newly installed Peace Tower Carillon. This event marked the first ever nation wide broadcast.
The "Jazz Age"
Jazz music grew increasingly popular during the States in the 1920's. It was a rhythmic mixture of European and West African music. It originated among the African-American community in New Orleans. With the help of radio and famous jazz musicians, Jazz Age entered Canada and dominated the music of the time. Famous Jazz musicians included; Louis Arnstrong, Benny Goodman, and Duke Ellington.
Other types of music that were popular in Canada during the time were
The Black Bolton
Famous jazz musicians Louis Armstrong and Benny Goodman performing 'When the Saints Go Marchin' In'.
This video gives you an idea how school for First Nation children was like
July 1: Canada Day