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Kingdom Animalia

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Jerrard Turner

on 7 May 2010

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Transcript of Kingdom Animalia

Animal Kingdom Multicellular, eukaryotic heterotrophs that lack a cell wall.
Over 95% of animal species are invertebrates- lack a back bone.
Reproduce sexually but some invertebrates reproduce asexually.
Most animals are motile which means they move, but not all animals have to move.
Are evolutionary complex which means they have a high level of cell specialization and body oranization.


Phlum Bryozoa A phylum of of aquatic invertebrate animals.
Typically about 0.5 millimeters long.
They sieve food particles out of the water using retractable lophophore, a "crown" of tentacles lined with cilia.
Most marine species live in tropical waters, but a few occur in oceanic trenches, and others are found in polar waters.
One class lives only in a variety of freshwater environments, and a few membrs of a mostly marine class prefer brackish water.
Over 4,000 species are known.
One genus is solitary and the rest colonial.
Colonies are called zooids, since they are not fully-independent animals.

Phylum Porifera Sponges are a good example of porifera.
Thei bodies consis of jelly-like mesohyl sandwiched between two tin layers of cells.
While all animals have unspecialized cells that can transform into specialized cells, sponges are unique in having some specialized cells that can transform into other types.
Often migrating between the main cell layers and mesophyl in the process. Phylum Enchinodermata Are a phylum of marine animals.
Are found at every ocean depth, from interidal zone to the abyssal zone.
Aside from the problematic Arkarua, teh first definitive members of teh phylum appeared near teh start of terh Cambrian period.
It contains about 7,000 living species making it the second- largest grouping of deuterostomes.
After the chordates they are also the largest phylum that has no freshwater or terrestrial represenative.


Phylum Cnidaria Containing over 9,000 species they are found exclusively in aquatic and mostly marine environments.
Their distinguishing feature is cnidocytes.
Specialized cells that they use mainly for capturing prey.
Their bodies consist of mesoglea, a non-living jelly-like substance.
Sandwiched between two layers of epithelium that are mostly on cell thick.



Phylum Annelida Are a large phylum of segmented worms.
With over 17,000 modern species including ragworms, earthworms and leeche. They are found in marine environments from tidal zones to hydrothermal vents, in freshwater, and in most terrestrial environments.
Are considered members of the Lopthotrochzoa, a "super phylum" of protosomes that also includes molluscs, brachiopods,flatworms, and nemerteans.

Phylum Platyhelminthes Are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates.
Unlike other bilaterians they have no body cavity, and no specialized circulatory and respiratory organs, which restricts them to flattened shapes that allow oxygen and nutrients to pass through their bodies by diffusion. Phylum Nematoda Are the most diverse phylum of pseudocorlomates, and one of the most diverse of all animals.
Nematode species are very difficult to distinguish; over 28,000 have been described, of which over 16,000 are parastic.
It has been estimated that the total number of described and undescribed roundwoms might be more than 5000,000.
Roundwormss have a digestive system that is like a tube with openings at both ends.



Phylum Chordata Are animals which re either vertebrates or one of several closely related invertebrates.
They are united by having, at least some period of their life cycle a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, and endostyle, and a post-anal tail.
The phylum consists of three subphyla: urochordata, represented by tunicates; cephalochordata, represented by lancelets; and crniata which includeses vertebrata.
The hemichordata have been presented as a fourth chordae subphylum, but they are now usually treated as a seperate phylum.
Phylum Mollusca Pyulum of invertebrates
Are around 85,000 recognized extant species of molluscs.
It is the largest marine phylum, comprising about 23% of all the named marine organisms.
Numerous molluscs also live in freshwater and terrestrial habitats. Phylum Anthropoda Include insects, arachnids, crustaceans,and others.
Are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticles, whic are mainly made of a-chitin.
The cuticles of crustanceans are also biomineralized with calcium carbonate.
The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by molting.
The anthropod body plan consists of repeateed segments, each with a pair of appendages.
It is so versatile that they have been compared to Swiss Army knive, and it has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of alll
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