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Transcript of Fashion
Case study 1
Suffering by comparison:Twitterusers’ reactions to the Victoria’s Secret FashionShow
Case study 2
Fashion's role in visualizing physical and psychological transformations in movies
Using visual narrative art, this study looks into the images of cinema costumes and investigates how the fashion and styles in the movie reflect both the main characters' psychological changes and their identity forming processes. This study analyzes the transformative effect of fashion (movie costume), the development of individual characters, and social and other situational influences in the movie Pretty Woman(1990). Pretty Woman's underlying theme is derivative from three classic fairy tales: Cinderella, Pygmalion, and Beauty and the Beast. Such fairy tales in movie dramas are archetypal enactments representative of deep emotional and physical transformations audiences wish to experience. Watching protagonists' wardrobe changes and emotional transformations enables viewers to identify/self-recognize the storylines and catharses in the movies and often to achieve virtually the same experiences and emotional highs—outcomes which are the modern equivalent to Aristotle's “proper pleasure.”
History of fashion
Where fashion began?
France – considered the center of fashion for almost 400 years from 1600s into the 1900s. Especially in Paris.
In the 1600s, French royalty and wealthy landowners employed their own dressmakers and tailors.
Movie-going is part of everyday life in the 21st century and is not just the prerogative of the privileged classes. In addition to serving as a medium of self-expression, movies perform the roles of historic recorder and experimenter predicting future life. As the world economy changes and industrialization and information exchange and transformation flourish, individuals' cultural needs will continue to evolve. As a result of all of this growth and change, people are expected to demand that movies be more varied, individualized, and creative. As the movie market grows and changes, the role of movie costumes assumes greater importance in the audience's experience and interpretation of the story.
Movie costumes are part of a symbolic language within the medium that delivers meanings of clothing in history and culture and expresses each actor/actress' role in a movie.
After the French Revolution (1789), haute couture design firms grew.
Haute Couture – high-fashion, individually designed, original, handmade garments.
Industrialization, technology, globalization, and the spread of democracy help broaden the demand for fashion.
Growth of a middle class with income to purchase fashions, not just basic clothing
The early 1900's
In 1909, the American fashion magazine Vogue, featured a woman in a loose-fitting style of dress.
By 1915, styles continued to soften.
The invention of the 1st manufactured fiber rayon, or artificial silk
Clothing that was more functional for women who were entering the workforce.
1926, the Women’s Fashion Institute designed the “one hour dress.”
Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel – 1st designer to introduce sportswear garments for everyday wear. As well as trousers.
Promoted styles associated with flappers“the little black dress”
Dupont invented nylon, less expensive than silk to make hosiery
WWII fabric shortages
1947, Christian Dior; long hem lines, narrow shoulders and tightly fitted bodices with long, full, or narrow skirts. “The New Look”
The 1930's – 1950's
Hippie style – fashion consisting of clothing from the Middle and Far East
Use of bright colors, peasant embroidery, cheesecloth, and safari jackets
Disco style – gold lame, leopard print, stretch halter jumpsuits, and white clothing that glowed in ultraviolet light
Punk – intentionally torn clothing worn by young people with limited income
Feminist Movement – influenced women’s styles, such as shorter skirts and pantsuits in the workplace.
“the power look” – a uniform style of suits and blazers with shoulder pads.
Men – a more casual style of dress; “business casual”
people no longer felt that high price determined high fashion
fitness conscious – synthetic fabrics with easy care.
Americans began dressing down, or less formally
Comfort of sport clothes and athletic clothing became a wardrobe staple.
Grunge – a style started by youth culture. Messy, uncombed, not too much effort.
Hipster - Mixing the fringe movements of punk and grunge, hipsters have created a style based on defying style norms. – Skinny Jeans
Juicy Couture Tracksuits & UGG Boots - The comfortable tracksuit combined chic, expensive style with comfort.
Bohemian Chic - The free-spirited, Hippie inspired style includes its well-known staples: large sunglasses, flowing skirts, boots and loose jumpers
Hepburn was the picture of pared-down elegance both on and off screen. In fact, her character’s fashion sense was often influenced by her own. At a time when curves ruled (Marilyn Monroe, Elizabeth Taylor et al.), Hepburn was the physical antithesis -- gamine features, a slender boyish physique, and that signature pixie cut -- and her style choices were always about casual elegance, not sex appeal.
Signature items: black capri pants, ballet flats, trench coats, turtlenecks, men's button-downs.
Signature items: skintight wiggle dresses, high-waisted jeans, capri pants, oversized sweaters, halter-neck dresses, high-heels.
It wasn't just the music world that the Beatles took by storm in the '60s. Not only were the Beatles selling records; they were also selling trends, as millions of copycats adopted everything from their Cuban-heeled boots (known as Beatle boots) and their shaggy hair to their mustaches and John Lennon's signature glasses.
From the moment her husband hit the campaign trail, people have been closely following Michelle's version of power dressing. That usually means an equal-parts mix of high and low design -- she's as much a fan of J.Crew and Gap as Michelle both knows what works best on her body and is clearly a longtime lover of fashion: her support of young, and lesser-known designers is unwavering and admirable.
Signature items: colorful prints, figure-grazing shift dresses, shoulder and arm-baring gowns, feminine details, cardigans, belted styles.
Social comparison theory suggests that evaluating the self in comparison with others can influence body image.
In the media often show that women feel worse about themselves after seeing images that illustrate the beauty ideal.
Ananalysis was conducted of 977 tweets sent immediately before and during the 2011 Victoria’s Secret Fashion Show that reference the show.
There were tweets about body image, eating disorders, weight, desires for food or alcohol, and thoughts about selfharm.
The results support social comparison theory, and suggest that vulnerable viewers could experience negative affect, or even engage in harmful behaviors, during or after viewing the show or others like it.
Idealized and sexualized images of bodies are everywhere in Western popular culture. From an early age both girls and boys observe and carefully examine these images and often internalize them as expectations of how attractive people should look.
Body image concerns are connected to frequent media consumption: high levels of fashion magazine and television viewing are correlated with body dissatisfaction, concerns about weight, disordered eating behaviors, self-consciousness, and negative affect.
In this study they analyzed the content of tweets sent by Twitter users about the 2011 Victoria’s Secret Fashion Show.
Although the majority of tweets were idiosyncratic remarks, retweets, and comments about the quality of the show and related advertising, many tweets contain evidence of upward or downward social comparisons to the fashion models. There were tweets about the models themselves and about body image eating disorders, weight, desires for food or alcohol, and urges to commit self-harm.
In conclusion, the tweets in the sample support social comparison theory and bolster the results of laboratory studies. Given the data that show that heavy consumers of idealized images are at-risk for body dissatisfaction and eating disorders, the most vulnerable women might do best to avoid media that could lead to harsh upward social comparisons.
Pretty Woman reflects a society in which fashion, image, and style indicate who a person is; where a person's identity can be changed merely by changing dresses, bags, and shoes; and where the products a person uses can shape his or her identity. Obsession with brand names also applies here. Some people believe that their identities can be expressed through brand name products, and they believe they differentiate themselves from others by using expensive products that signal to others that they are expensive with their designer labels. Pretty Woman is a true reflection of society as it was at the time the movie was released.
The content analysis was carried out on 977 tweets that contained the words “Victoria’s Secret Fashion Show” and were sent between the hours of 9:00p.m.and11:00p.m. Eastern time on November 29,2011, the date the show was aired.