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Poetry Lesson: Chapters 6 & 8
Transcript of Poetry Lesson: Chapters 6 & 8
Symbols, Allegories, and Allusions noun (1). something used for or regarded as representing something else; a material object representing something, often something immaterial; emblem, token, or sign. (Dictionary.com)
more simply put: something that means more than what it is. Symbols The Road Not Taken
Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could not travel both
And be one traveler, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
To where it bent in the undergrowth;
Then took the other, as just as fair,
And having perhaps the better claim,
Because it was grassy and wanted wear;
Though as for that the passing there
Had worn them really about the same,
And both that morning equally lay
In leaves no step had trodden black.
Oh, I kept the first for another day!
Yet knowing how way leads on to way,
I doubted if I should ever come back.
I shall be telling this with a sigh
Somewhere ages and ages hence:
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I--
I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference.
Robert Frost (1874 - 1963) noun (1). a representation of an abstract or spiritual meaning through concrete or material forms; figurative treatment of one subject under the guise of another. (Dictionary.com)
more simply put: a narrative or description that has a second meaning Allegories E
Between my finger and my thumb
The squat pen rests; snug as a gun.
Under my window, a clean rasping sound
When the spade sinks into gravelly ground:
My father, digging. I look down
Till his straining rump among the flowerbeds
Bends low, comes up twenty years away
Stooping in rhythm through potato drills
Where he was digging.
The coarse boot nestled on the lug, the shaft
Against the inside knee was levered firmly.
He rooted out tall tops, buried the bright edge deep
To scatter new potatoes that we picked
Loving their cool hardness in our hands.
By God, the old man could handle a spade.
Just like his old man.
My grandfather cut more turf in a day
Than any other man on Toner's bog.
Once I carried him milk in a bottle
Corked sloppily with paper. He straightened up
To drink it, then fell to right away
Nicking and slicing neatly, heaving sods
Over his shoulder, going down and down
For the good turf. Digging.
The cold smell of potato mould, the squelch and slap
Of soggy peat, the curt cuts of an edge
Through living roots awaken in my head.
But I've no spade to follow men like them.
Between my finger and my thumb
The squat pen rests.
I'll dig with it.
Seamus Heaney (b. 1939) ERIKA SMELLS LIKE POOP noun (1). a passing or casual reference; an incidental mention of something, either directly or by implication: an allusion to Shakespeare. (Dictionary.com)
more simply put: a reference to something in history or previous literature Allusions 1.What is the symbol in "The Road Not Taken"? At first, the reader simply thinks that the poem regards a choice made between two roads by a person out walking in the woods.
This person would like to explore both roads and tells himself he will explore one and then come back to another.
However, by the last stanza one can determine that this choice represent more than just a choice of paths in the woods.
It represents, "a choice in life between alternatives that appear almost equally attractive but will result through the years in a large difference in the kind of experience one knows." Image, metaphor, and symbol often cross one another in definitions and are difficult to distinguish so here are some helpful clues:
an image means only what it is
a metaphor means somethings other than what it is
a symbol means what it is and something more 1.What is the symbol in "Digging"? The digging in this poem simply symbolizes basic needs such as, warmth, sustenance, beauty, and personal satisfaction for doing a job well. 2. Does this symbol successfully help the author gets his meaning across? Hero and Leander
Both robbed of air, we both lie in one ground,
Both whom one fire had burnt, one water drowned.
John Donne (1572 - 1631) What is the allusion in "Hero and Leander"? From Wikipedia:
Hero and Leander is a myth relating the story of Hērō (Greek: , pron. hay-rō (ancient) and like "hero" in English), a priestess of Aphrodite who dwelt in a tower in Sestos on the European side of the Dardanelles, and Leander (Greek: , Léandros), a young man from Abydos on the opposite side of the strait. Leander fell in love with Hero and would swim every night across the Hellespont to be with her. Hero would light a lamp at the top of her tower to guide his way.
Succumbing to Leander's soft words, and to his argument that Aphrodite, as goddess of love, would scorn the worship of a virgin, Hero allowed him to make love to her. This routine lasted through the warm summer. But one stormy winter night, the waves tossed Leander in the sea and the breezes blew out Hero's light, and Leander lost his way, and was drowned. When Hero saw his dead body, she threw herself over the edge of the tower to her death to be with him. A monkey sprang down from a tree
A monkey sprang down from a tree
And angrily cursed Charles D.
"I hold with the Bible,"
He cried. "It's a libel
That man is descended from me!"
Laurence Perrine (1915 - 1995) What is the allusion in "A monkey sprang down from a tree"? Two brothers devised what at sight
Two brothers devised what at sight
Seemed a bicycle crossed with a kite.
They predicted-rash pair!
It would fly through the air!
And what do you know? They were Wright!
Laurence Perrine (1915 - 1995) What is the allusion in "Two brothers devised what at sight"? 1. Who are "Some" as seen in lines 1-2?
2. To which two theories do lines 1-2 refer to?
3. What do "fire" and "ice" symbolize?
4. Why is this poem an allegory? Fire and Ice
Some say the world will end in fire,
Some say in ice.
From what I've tasted of desire
I hold with those who favor fire.
But if it had to perish twice,
I think I know enough of hate
To say that for destruction ice
Is also great
And would suffice.
Robert Frost (1874 - 1963)