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Chapter 4 : Traffic Management

Nor Haniza Mustafar Kamar

on 4 March 2015

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CC503 Traffic Engineering
Lecture Notes for Polytechnic Students, Malaysia.
Concept of traffic management

Car park necessity for various types of users
Traffic Management is defined as the management of the physical and cost-control phases of the receiving, handling, storing, and distributing of goods for industrial and commercial organizations
Traffic management is often used to describe the adjustment process of the usage of road system and transportation, to full fill the specific objectives without any road construction needed.
Traffic management includes the techniques that are used to make the movement of goods and humans easier by using the existing road, and direct road users towards a safer and more efficient use of other existing infrastructures.
Function & Purposes
To reduce the number of accidents
To ensure the smoothness of traffic movement
To improve the movement of goods and humans
To balance the modal split
To minimize the clash between vehicles and the pedestrian
To control and manage car parks
To minimize crowding of traffic caused by road accidents / hazards
To control the volume of traffic in private roads, junction and any other street road
Manage the movement of vehicles to reduce conflicts
To identify the suitable number and types of traffic sign needed
To identify any locations (eg: abandoned land) that are suitable to turned into car park (temporary or permanent)




Physical Management of Road System
Separation of traffic movement
Junction Improvement
Geometry of local area improvement
Physical Detention of traffic movement
Changing of level, texture of surface and alignment for speed control purposes
Introduce the coordination of phase traffic control
Modification of traffic sign and road sign
Provision of public transport facilities
Provision of facilities for pedestrian & cyclist
Modification of landscape and road tools
Car park control
Metered Ramp
Instruct Form and Traffic Regulation Management
Management of Information to Road Users
Management of Payment for Traffic Facilities
Highly charged for park to reduce the number of vehicles to enter the urban area
The volume of traffic in urban area can be reduced
The balance between the request to park the car and the ability of provision car park must be created

Ramp metering is designed to control the rate of traffic entering a freeway. The objective is to maintain a predetermined level of service on the freeway by adjusting the on-ramp traffic volume with a traffic signal.

Limit the number of vehicles to enter the highway in certain time
Using the traffic light on every entrance to highway
If there's no traffic jams on that place (highway) vehicle are allowed to enter the road
If there’s traffic jams, traffic will blocked (for a some times)

Traffic Control
Control using a traffic light at the intersection.
Limiting the use of the road to certain vehicle types (according to weight criteria, the speed and size of the vehicle).
Limiting and controlling parking.
Temporary regulations (due to festivals, sports and other)
Regulation without strict enforcement will not achieve effective traffic management.

Turning Moving Barriers
Right and left turn movements can affect the smooth ride and is one of the causes of accidents.
Placing road barriers (flexible, rigid or semi rigid) can help divert traffic into the correct lane and to prevent collision between vehicles and dangerous obstacles.

One-Way Street
Can improve traffic flow round the city especially when the road network in the area has a network of roads and cut parallel to each other at right angles.
Technique can increase the capacity of one-way streets every road in the road network and reduce the range of the change in flow at the intersection.
By converting two-way route to a one-way path, conflict point substantially reduced.
Limit Vehicle Speed
Reduced the number of accidents and their gravity when the vehicle speed is reduced.
The type of speed limits:
Reasonable speed limit - according to the road conditions cuacadan.
Ultimate speed limit - set the highest and lowest speed limit allowed (rate 85 percentage)
The recommended speed limit - recommend the appropriate speed limit to the driver (not used) on the curve.
Tidal Flow Method (TIDAL)
Most cities experience regular morning and evening rush during working days which increases the usage of private vehicles travelling back and forth to work.
This will cause underutilization during off-peak hours and overutilization during peak hours in related to the width of the road.
TFM is a traffic control method which opens and closes lanes on a roadway according to priority of traffic direction.

Road Marking
Traffic marking is an object or device whether fixed or movable, or lines or marks on the road.
This notation is used to provide information, requirements, restrictions or prohibitions on road users.
It includes street signs, traffic signals, road surface markings, road studs and so on.

Technical Instructions (street) 2A/85 - standard traffic signs
Instruction techniques (path) 2B/85 - traffic signs application
Instruction techniques (path) 2C/85 - temporary work signs and control Zones
Instruction techniques (path) 2B/85 - road working and delineation

Functions of Instruct Forms :
allow movements
direct movements
ban movements
install traffic signals
implement speed limits
restrict traffic by mode
restrict traffic by size or weight
restrict traffic by time period
implement parking and loading/unloading restrictions
implement temporary regulations during construction or for special events
CCTV monitoring and surveillance
red light violation cameras
speed limit cameras
Information of traffic to road users MUST be CLEAR and SYSTEMATIC and should avoid information overload
Traffic direction sign
By definition, it includes roadside signs, traffic signs, road marking, road studs bounce back and other indicators on the upper side down the roadway.
In the form of traffic marking and also the road surface
Traffic travel directions easy to understand, clear and provided at the appropriate time and distance
Guide signs for pedestrians, parking, cyclists, can help smooth and user safety.
Using the map as a guide, especially to visitors and tourists.
Important information about public transport services will help rebalance the modal split.
Information technology state of the art to provide the information users need quickly.
Signs must be designed for the expected traffic conditions and to be used in the way of speed.
That so the driver is not distracted from the task of driving, the sign should contain important and its information and its importance can clearly be seen at a glance.
Traffic control
By definition, it includes roadside signs, traffic signs, road marking, road studs bounce back and other indicators on the upper side down the roadway.
Control using a traffic light crossroad.
Restrict the use of certain types of vehicles on the road according to the criteria weight, speed and size.
Limiting and controlling parking.
Temporary regulations (festivals, sports etc.)
Regulation without strict enforcement will not achieve effective traffic management.
High Occupant Vehicles Campaign Program (HOV)
Incentives to use public transport or car share can be increased through increasing the incentives for motorists.
The car with many passenger on the road should get priority so that they can save time and money, particularly during peak periods.
Passenger vehicles will be personally liable to the penalty that they would find it too long to get to any destination.
To achieve this objective, a special lane for the cars with many passenger have to be provided:

a. Co-Flow Lane
Dedicated lane available for vehicles with many passengers on all the time or part time.
Co-flow lanes allow vehicles moving in the same direction with the vehicles in other lanes.

b. Contrary lane flow
The vehicles with many passengers allowed in a direction opposite to the direction of the other lanes.
To run this technique, attention must be given in the planning, design and publicity.
To implement this technique, must be made by physical separation such as islands or road marking.

c. Lane Can Change Direction (Tidal Flow)
This is usually provided in the middle lane highway.
In the morning peak, whose direction is opposite in the afternoon.

Factors that should be considered in planning for special lanes are:

The ability to enforce lane alley to abuse by private vehicles could be reduced.
Location and position of the lane must be strategic so the cars with many passenger will use the lane.
Effect of special lanes for private vehicles that do not have many passengers.
Expenses and profits caused by the use of vehicles that have a lot of passengers.
Demand for organizing programs use vehicles for many passenger.
Create programs that assist and promote the sharing of vehicle.

Issuing a certain amount of fee for road users through the usage of tolls for expressways, tunnels and bridges is an example of payment management used to reduce the number of users for those certain areas in order to reduce congestion.
Other payment management method is charging road users by parking bays. The higher the demand, the higher amount of fee should be placed to control the volume of users.

License Additional Area

This method has been practiced in Singapore
This method requires that any vehicle that have passengers less than 4 people who purchase or license and posting it in the car mirror before entering the zone during peak is identify
Controller or the police will control at every entrance area and will sue cars without license that have passengers or less than 4 people
The purpose of this rule is to promote travel by car that are not needed during peak hours
In addition this method also encourages car sharing
Motorists are required to show a special license when entering The site specific. The aim is to limit the number of vehicles entering an area identified to reduce disruption and traffic congestion for example inmate designated areas given special passes to enter the area he inhabits and the vehicle does not have a pass and not allowed to enter

Parking Management

Parking management - ensuring the types of transportation modes that will be used either to drive your own car to the city center or take public transportation or carpool.
For example, the provision of car parking on the outskirts of the city to park private vehicles so that they can catch public transport to the city center to reduce traffic congestion in the city center
Private vehicles will be using public transport. LRT example provided in the event they have the facilities to park and also convenient public transport services.
Examples of the maintenance train is in location:
Restricting parking on street
Permit for the occupants of a residential area
Metered parking
Priority parking to users who share car. This step can be enforced by issuing special permit shared car or van

Appreciation Blockade

Traffic Appreciation Blockade is conducted during an event or incident occurred on a roadway.
For events, the manager would pay a certain amount of fee for the blockade.
For example, during a road incident, barricades are placed along the area to control traffic and prevent congestion.
Road users who fail to comply will be charged by traffic summons.

Physical Barriers

Through this method of payment will be placed in an area between the first zone to differ.
Point evaluation will use a charge every time the last vehicle from one zone to another.
In this method the charge was imposed on the vehicle when entering the border zone controlled areas.
It differs from the method of additional licenses in areas controlled vehicles and do not need to pay any charge.
Vehicles entering the area are charged.
Receivables payment can be made with electronic equipment..


Main Purpose : To identify the necessity of car park and to determine the physical necessity so that the car park supply can be change or added.

• To improve the value of the passenger/vehicle
• To decrease the time travel
• To decrease traffic jam
• To reduce pollution and noise
• To reduce accident

The importance of car park management

Effects of car park areas on traffic flow
Traffic congestion
• road capacity is reduced
• pedestrian walking speed will decrease
• will increase delays in travel time

• can cause accident
• users tend to change the direction of movement towards parking
• parking at the wrong place can caused accident when users open their vehicle doors and/or come out from the vehicles suddenly

Obstacle to the operation of emergency actions such as fire extinguishing
In situations where parking spaces are insufficient, vehicles will tend to park on illegal areas such as near fire hydrants. This will cause trouble during a fire event where fire fighters will face difficulty in their actions. Fire trucks will also be forced to park on the road and cause blockade to traffic.

Method of preparing inventory, car park area and types of car park area.
Inventory Preparation
Inventory of parking space
Things needed in preparing the inventory / information on parking space
Data related to the amount of space, location and potential areas for parking.
Detailed study area with the mark in the form of a map or plan.
Divides the study area into several fractions according to the streets.
Parking spaces on a smaller scale or not gazetted also be considered.

The data relating to parking facilities should be recorded as follows:

The number and length of the road.
The amount of space available on the road somewhere.
Location of bus stops and taxi, pedestrian crossings and other.
Management rules as a one-way street, airport and other turning.
The amount and types of traffic signs.
Private streets.
Vacant land, abandoned the right to be the parking space.

Method of preparing inventory, car park area and types of car park area.
To determine the length of time that the vehicle is placed in the study area.
Continuous observations need to be conducted in all areas of the possible car park.
Reviewers should sit within an area which is quite hidden for fear of disturbing the observed values​.
Different travel to be considered in this review should not be too long, as it will impact both the observed values​.
Information about the period also possible can be obtained through parking tickets.
Interview Studies

This is the most detailed survey parking.
Common questions include where journey starts, the destination and purpose of trips made.
Details on the duration and concentration parking can also be collected during the survey interview.
In this method, the survey area is divided into several areas.
When limited reconnaissance personnel, especially for areas long term parking, information obtained through interviews indirectly derived through survey questionnaires sent back.
In the above case, the questionnaire is usually given to drivers
The questionnaires should include a request for each driver to answer the questions asked and to be completed and returned by post.

Administrative ways and car park area control method.
3 Methods to control Car Parks

Parking Control

Time limit (20 minutes/hour etc…)
Using car park meters
Applying parking tapes or reserve boards

Raising parking fees
Prevent parking for a certain amount of time
Limit Parking spaces

Road accident
is a tragedy that affects all people whether as drivers, passengers, or pedestrians. Term accident according to the “Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka‘ means an unexpected event occurs. Accident rate in Malaysia is increasing and disturbing our society today. Road accidents occur in many places no matter straight road, cross roads, traffic lights and roundabouts. Road accidents occur on a daily basis, whether a minor injury or casualties.

• factors of vision, hearing, comfort, fatigue and emotional drivers.
• Hasty attitude and selfish
• Driving while intoxicated, unreal @ sleepy.
• interfere with driver attention.
• pedestrians do not obey the traffic rules

• Vehicles defects (electronic functions, faulty tires and brakes etc…)
• Capacity against skidding
• Acceleration and deceleration

(Also known as road condition and weather factors)
Weather factors include fogs or mists, rain, frost, blizzard, etc…
Road conditions includes poor surfacing, sharp turns, wrongly paced signage

Thank You...!!
Prepared by Miss Anne, PUO 2015
Watch the video below. What can you understand about Traffic management?
Active Traffic Management
Full transcript