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Transcript of Feminism
Feminism is the implementation and acquisition of equality among men and women and social, political, artistic and monetary platforms in current societies. All known societies revolve around a patriarchal system where men are dominantly in power while women are excluded from it.
History of the Feminist Movement.
The 1st Wave. Feminism & the French Revolution.
The 2nd Wave. Suffragette Liberal Feminism.
The 3rd Wave. Feminism (1960-1980)
Isaac Thang Hoe
What makes an action moral?
Feminist ethics allows us a different approach in deciding about what is right and wrong in very different ways than other theories. For feminists philosophers their approach to morality is based upon the individual, relationship, context, and particularity. After all, feminist ethics started off/based on with experiences and the viewpoints of women in our society.
Feminism on Google.
In a Different Voice.
How do people make decisions about morality?
The male approach.
The female approach.
Three Stages in Moral Development.
Belief in Conventional Morality
"For one thing, a human life is worth more than money, and if the druggist only makes $1,000, he is still going to live, but if Heinz doesn't steal the drug, his wife is going to die. (Why is life worth more than money?) Because the druggist can get a thousand dollars later from rich people with cancer, but Heinz can't get his wife again. (Why not?) Because people are all different and so you couldn't get Heinz 's wife again. "
Psychological Theory and Women's Development.
By: Carol Gilligan
Flaws in Feminism
There most be an other who is willing to allow a woman to "share the spotlight" and facilitate to verify women as an equal.
Women need the resources and platforms to assert their qualifications.
Women have different interpretations of Feminism: extremist, partially universal, etc...
Some women wish to have particular rights but not the qualifications and are not taken seriously.
Pros in Feminism
When men and women do reach a consensus, new connections and methods are discovered.
Best of both worlds: Structured methodology combined with relationships-based methodology covers mores bases and approaches in various sectors not initially reached.
The right to vote.
Prompted women to get higher levels of education.
Moral Universalism VS Moral Particularism
Humans are moral agents
Particulars matters, in making judgements.
" Particularism is no meta-ethical relativism and does not deny the objectivity of moral judgements. Both particularism and relativism deny universalism, by implying the possibility of different moral positions for different persons in the same sort of case."
By: Margaret Urban Walker.
By: Margaret Urban Walker
Bear in mind Urban Walker's concept, we reference the 1st argument by Christine Korsgard. She provides the following points:
The "Mirror Effect"
"You make yourself and end for others; you make yourself a law to them."
If "we are strangers and that you are tormenting me" and I request that you stop, asking you how would you feel if it were done to you? What would be your response?
While our 2nd argument by Martha Nussbaum is less aggressive, it does follow a similar principle.
Capability to engage in practical reasoning and ethical distinction making"
"This is because there is an incompatibility if seeing one's wife as human and continuing to believe that certain things are better of humans of her kind."
Patricia Greenspan's argument gives a bit of consideration in how moral emotions are identified and formed.
Society throughout history.
Our sensitivity to what we identify as moral is based on our initial personal dependency & contact.
" A Child might begin to learn to identify and express these responses to different kinds of people or people distinctively positioned in situations without being instructed in all the differences of their applications."
Cont. of Moral Context.
Laurence Thomas' argument acknowledges those humans considered "lesser" and how their actions are depended upon but not fully acknowledged.
Trust may be established between both parties.
OK, so what now?
Women and education.
Women and politics.
Women and work.
So is it all about women? What does it have to do with being a woman abstract ideas such as Ethics?
Gender, social structures, oppression, power and hierarchy.
All known societies revolves around a particular system where men are dominantly in power while women are excluded from it. The Relationship, between men and women has always been unequal and oppressive.
All mayor social institutions such as family, economics, political systems and religions have been characterized by standard, the oppression and the established order, revolts against social injustice and mandates.
What about ethics? Why is it important to feminist?
The lack of human condition and relationships among people in western theories of ethics.
What is it to be a woman or a man?
A different approach to ethics and morality.
Moral Context and moral particularity.
A Defense of Abortion
By: Judith Jarvis Thomson.
Proposed Argument for Extreme view.
What the right to life is not.
What the right to life is & what this might imply about abortion.
"In killing the fetus, one would be directly killing an innocent person. Directly killing an innocent person is murder. Murder is morally impermissible. Therefore, killing the fetus is morally impermissible."