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AP US HISTORY: Period 4 1800-1848

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Jack Vanderflught

on 14 November 2016

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Transcript of AP US HISTORY: Period 4 1800-1848

PERIOD 4: 1800-1848
The Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans presented themselves as all of the following except
*believers in a strong central government.
*strict constructionists.
*protectors of agrarian purity.
*believers of political and economic liberty.
*strong supporters of state's rights.
Jefferson complained to his friend John Adams about what aspect of his life?
*The lack of technological inventions that would enable him to keep copies of his written work.
*Responding to the many letters he received - 1267 in 1820 alone.
*The political cartoons by his enemies that made him look like a buffoon.
*The difficulties of juggling political life with managing his Monticello home and farm.

On becoming president, Thomas Jefferson and the Republicans in Congress immediately repealed
. . . ?
Thomas Jefferson and his followers opposed John Adams's last-minute appointment of new federal judges mainly because
*the men appointed were of poor quality.
*they believed that the appointments were unconstitutional.
*they did not want a showdown with the Supreme Court.
*it was an attempt by a defeated party to entrench itself in the government.
*these judges were not needed.

To guard American shores, Thomas Jefferson
*constructed coastal fortifications.
*constructed two hundred tiny gunboats.
*signed a peace treaty with Great Britain.
*enlisted the aid of France.

Who served as the crucial guide, aiding Lewis and Clark in their expedition through the Louisiana Territory?
The British policy of impressment was a kind of
*economic boycott.
*forced enlistment.
*diplomatic pressure.
*punishment for the United States.

Which of these does not describe the ways in which Americans responded to Jefferson's embargo?
*The Federalist party gained new converts and was revived to fight it.
*New England threatened to secede from the United States.
*People compared Jefferson to King George III, whom Jefferson had berated in the Declaration of Independence.
*Southern states promised not to enforce it and to break away from the Union.
*Americans engaged in an illicit trade at the Canadian border and cursed it as "Dambargo."

Tecumseh argued that Indians should
*never give control of their land to the whites.
*move west of the Mississippi River.
*not cede control of land to whites unless all Indians agreed.
*exchange traditional buckskin clothing for cloth garments.
*fight as individual tribes and not as a confederacy.

The battle of Tippecanoe resulted in
*defeat of the British by the hands of the Indian confederacy.
*a Shawnee loss and a Creek victory.
*a declaration of war by the United States against Great Britain.
*the expulsion of the British from Florida.
the death of the dream of an Indian confederacy.

Once begun, the War of 1812 was supported strongly by
*practically all Americans.
*New England and the seaboard states.
*very few people.
*the West and South.
*Native Americans.

During the War of 1812, the New England states
*supported the United States' war effort.
*lent more money and sent more food to the British army than to the American army.
*gave no support to either the Americans or the British.
*allowed their militias to fight wherever the federal government requested.
*declared their independence from the United States.

The War of 1812 was one of the worst fought wars in the United States history because
*the American military strategy was hopelessly flawed.
*no talented military commanders emerged.
*of inadequate financing of the war.
*the navy lacked skill and discipline.
*of the nation's apathy and national disunity.

All of the following were true of the American regular army on the eve of the War of 1812 except
*they were ill-trained and ill-disciplined.
*they were widely scattered.
*their numbers were large enough that they did not have to rely on the militia.
*most of the generals were leftovers from the Revolutionary War and lacked vigor and vision.
*there was no burning national anger to unite them.

When the United States entered the War of 1812, it was
*militarily unprepared.
*allied with France.
*united in support of the war.
*fortunate to have a strong and assertive commander in chief.
*clear what its political and military objectives were.

Canada became an important battleground in the War of 1812 because
*it was the economic hub of the New England economy.
*Canadians would be willing to help the Americans overthrow the imperial yoke of British rule.
*British forces were weakest there.
most of the American regular army was already *located in Canada.
*Canada held important strategic military bases from which the Americans could attack the British.

The most devastating defeat suffered by the British during the War of 1812 took place at the Battle of . . . ?
At the peace conference at Ghent, the British began to withdraw many of its earlier demands for all of the following reasons except
*reverses in upper New York.
*a loss at Baltimore.
*increasing war weariness in Britain.
*concern about the still dangerous France.
*the American victory at New Orleans.

The delegates of the Hartford Convention adopted resolutions that included a call for
*a Constitutional amendment requiring a two-thirds vote in Congress before war was declared.
*New England's secession from the Union.
*a separate peace treaty between New England and the British.
*the dissolution of the Federalist party.
*war with England.

The Tariff of 1816 was the first in American history
*to be enacted without the consent of Congress.
*intended to raise revenue.
*that aimed to protect American industry.
*to impose taxes on American goods.
*designed to protect Southern agriculture.

With the demise of the Federalist party
*the Democratic-Republicans established one-party rule.
*another party arose very quickly to take its place.
*little political trouble ensued.
*sectionalism disappeared.
*the Whig party rose to take its place.

One of the major causes of the Panic of 1819 was
*overspeculation in frontier lands.
*the failure to recharter the Bank of the United States.
*a drought that resulted in poor agricultural production.

The first state entirely west of the Mississippi River to be carved out of the Louisiana Territory was . . ?
John Marshall uttered his famous legal dictum that "the power to tax involves the power to destroy" in . . . what court case?
In the cases of Fletcher v. Peck and Dartmouth College v. Woodward, Chief Justice John Marshall's rulings
*erected barriers against democratic attacks on property rights.
*established the principle of judicial review.
*demonstrated his support for states' rights.
*upheld federal authority against individual rights at the federal level.
*held federal regulatory laws unconstitutional if they conflicted with the U.S. Constitution.

In McCulloch v. Maryland, Cohens v. Virginia, and Gibbons v. Ogden, Chief Justice Marshall's rulings limited the extent of . . .?
The new two-party political system that emerged in the 1830s and 1840s
*divided the nation further.
*was seen at the time as a weakening of democracy.
*resulted in the Civil War.
*fulfilled the wishes of the founding fathers.
*became an important part of the nation's checks and balances.

Opposing the Tariff of 1828, Southerners labeled it a "Yankee Tariff" because
*the tariff protected New England manufacturing at their expense.
*it charged a tax on Southern manufactured goods, making it difficult for the South to compete in the world market.
*it imposed a high tax on Southern-grown cotton.
*it put an unfair burden on southern commerce for tax revenues.
*None of these

In response to South Carolina's nullification of the Tariff of 1828, Andrew Jackson . . . ?

On the forced march from their Georgia homeland to Oklahoma known as the Trail of Tears, the Cherokees experienced all of the following except
*100,000 Indians being uprooted.
*women and children crying.
*countless people dying on route or after arriving in Indian Territory.
*having to abandon sacred and family grave sites.
*the abuse of wives and daughters by U.S. soldiers.

Andrew Jackson's veto of the recharter bill for the Bank of the United States was
*the first presidential veto.
*a major expansion of presidential power.
*overturned by a two-thirds vote in Congress.
*supported by the Anti-Masonic party.

All of the following were characteristics of Henry Clay's election campaign of 1832 except
*overconfidence of his campaign and the National Republicans.
*a hefty campaign chest of $50,000.
*most of his financial support did not come from the Bank of the United States.
*he had strong newspaper backing.
*he lost both the popular vote and the Electoral vote.

Supporters of the Whig party included all of the following except
*opponents of public education.
*backers of southern states' rights.
*large northern industrialists.
*many evangelical Protestants.
*backers of the American System.

Spanish authorities allowed Moses Austin to settle in Texas because
*they believed that Austin and his settlers might be able to civilize the territory.
*they believed that the militarily powerful Austin would otherwise have taken the land by force.
*Spanish control of the territory was a subject of dispute between Spain and the United States.
*Spain planned to sell the land to the United States.
*he paid them a sizeable sum of money.

The two political parties of the Jacksonian era tended to
*promote sectionalism over nationalism.
*take radical and extreme positions on issues.
*take similar positions on issues such as banking.
*be socially and geographically diverse.
*be socially exclusive but geographically diverse.

Ecological imperialism can best be described as
*the efforts of white settlers to take land from Native Americans.
*the aggressive exploitation of the West's bounty.
*humans' domination over the animal kingdom.
*the spread of technology and industry.
*the practice of using spectacular natural settings as symbols of America.

Ireland's great export in the 1840s was
. . . ? (not a typical "product")
All of the following are true statements about the relationship between Irish immigrants and U.S. citizens except
*the Irish were seen as wage-depressing competitors for jobs.
*native workers hated the Irish.
*the Irish often saw signs on factory gates that said "No Irish Need Apply."
*race riots between blacks and Irish were common.
*Irish immigrants became fiercely supportive of the abolitionist cause.

Between 1830 and 1860, nearly ____ million Irish arrived in America.
The underlying basis for modern mass production was . . . .?
The American workforce in the early nineteenth century was characterized by
*substantial employment of women and children in factories.
*strikes by workers that were few in number but usually effective.
*a general lengthening of the workday from ten to fourteen hours.
*extensive political activity among workers.
*reliance on the system of apprentices and masters.

The effect of early-nineteenth-century industrialization on the trans-Allegheny West was to encourage
*specialized, cash-crop agriculture.
*self-sufficient farming.
*heavy industry.
*higher tariffs.

After the construction of the Lancaster Turnpike and the Cumberland (National) Road, road building slowed somewhat because of
*corruption in construction contracts.
*the inability to construct hard-surface highways.
*eastern states' opposition.
*the steamboat and canal boom.
*the reluctance of shippers to move their products by road.

The major application for steamboats transporting freight and passengers in the United States was on
*New England streams.
*western and southern rivers.
*the Great Lakes.
*the Gulf of Mexico.
*coastal waterways.

In general, ____ tended to bind the West and South together, while ____ and ____ connected West to East.
The Deist faith embraced all of the following except
Besides polygamy, a characteristic of Mormonism that angered many non-Mormon Americans was their
*belief in visions and a special spiritual role for America.
*constant movement toward the western frontier.
*refusal to take up arms and defend themselves.
*emphasis on cooperative efforts, voting as a unit and openly drilling their militia.
*dislike of federal government control of their lives.

The religious zeal of the Second Great Awakening led to the founding of many small, denominational, liberal arts colleges, chiefly in the
*South and West.
*South exclusively.
*West exclusively.

Tax-supported public education
*existed mainly for the wealthy.
*eliminated private and parochial education in the United States.
*began in the South as early as 1800.
*provided little opportunity for the poor.
*was deemed essential for social stability and democracy.

All of the following were nineteenth century notions of gender differences except
*women had finely-tuned moral sensibilities.
*men were charged with teaching young boys to be good and productive citizens.
*the home was women's special sphere, the centerpiece of the cult of domesticity.
*men were always in danger of slipping into some savage way of life, if not for women's influence.
*women could be legally beaten by husbands.

Sexual differences were strongly emphasized in nineteenth-century America because
*frontier life necessitated these distinctions.
*men were regarded as morally superior beings.
*it was the duty of men to teach the young how to be good, productive citizens.
*the market economy increasingly separated men and women into distinct economic roles.
*women believed this emphasis brought them greater respect.

The American medical profession by 1860 was noted for
*its still primitive standards.
*having abandoned the practice of bleeding.
*its discovery of germs as the cause of illness.
*pioneer work in dentistry.
*its well established medical schools.

The Poet Laureate of Democracy, whose emotional and explicit writings expressed a deep love of the masses and enthusiasm for an expanding America, was
The most pro-Union of the white southerners were
*plantation owners.
*mountain whites.
*small slaveowners.
*nonslaveowning subsistence farmers.
*people with northern economic interests.

By 1860, life for slaves was most difficult in the
*Atlantic states of North and South Carolina.
*Deep South states of Georgia and Florida.
*territories of Kansas, Nebraska, and New Mexico.
*upper South states of Virginia and Maryland.
*newer states of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

The idea of transporting blacks back to Africa was
*a recognition of blacks' desire to preserve their culture.
*never carried out.
*advocated by Frederick Douglass.
*proposed by the African nation of Liberia.
*an expression of widespread American racism.

Proslavery whites defended the institution of slavery in all of the following ways except
*they claimed slavery was supported by the Bible.
slaveholders said slavery lifted Africans from the *barbarism of the jungle and gave them Christian civilization.
*Slaveholders claimed that master-slave relationships resembled a family.
*they said that slaves toiled under better working conditions than factory workers and hired hands in the North.
*they claimed that slaves were set free once they reached old age.

In what year did John O'Sullivan coin the phrase Manifest Destiny?
The group that was instrumental in saving the soil of Oregon for the United States was
*the Lewis and Clark expedition.
*the Hudson's Bay Company.
*American missionaries to the Indians.
*U.S. naval forces in Puget Sound.
*Mormon settlers from Utah.

The Spanish Franciscan missionaries treated the native inhabitants of California
*according to the principles of their founder St. Francis.
*well but refused to convert them to Christianity.
*very harshly.
*better than they treated their African slaves.
*as capable of civilization if educated.

In the 1800 election, Thomas Jefferson won the state of New York because
*of a reaction against Alexander Hamilton, Jefferson's enemy.
*Aaron Burr used his influence to turn the state to Jefferson.
*of the high taxes passed by the Adams administration.
*Napoleon promised to sell the Louisiana Territory only to Jefferson.
*Jefferson had a natural appeal for New York's urban ethnic voters.

Thomas Jefferson received the bulk of his support from the
*South and West.
*large cities.
*New England.

Thomas Jefferson's presidency was characterized by his
*unswerving conformity to Republican party principles.
*rigid attention to formal protocol at White House gatherings.
*moderation in the administration of public policy.
ruthless use of the patronage power to appoint *Republicans to federal offices.
*inability to get legislation passed by Congress.

As chief justice of the United States, John Marshall helped to ensure that
*states' rights were protected.
*the programs of Alexander Hamilton were overturned.
*the political and economic systems were based on a strong central government.
*both the Supreme Court and the president could rule a law unconstitutional.
*Aaron Burr was convicted of treason.

Thomas Jefferson's first major foreign-policy decision was to
*purchase Louisiana from France.
*send a naval squadron to the Mediterranean.
*drive the British out of the northwest forts.
*purchase Florida from Spain.
*form an alliance with Spain.

Arrange these events in chronological order: (A) Louisiana Purchase, (B) Chesapeake incident, (C) Burr's trial for treason, and (D) Embargo Act.
Thomas Jefferson sent two envoys to France in 1803 with the essential goal of
*preventing Napoleon from handing Louisiana back to Spain.
*purchasing as much territory west of the Mississippi as they could get.
*preventing Napoleon from fortifying New Orleans and St. Louis.
*bribing the French foreign ministry into permitting Americans to deposit grain in New Orleans.
*purchasing New Orleans to make it secure for American shippers.

President Jefferson's foreign policy of economic coercion President Jefferson's foreign policy of economic coercion
*underestimated British dependence on American trade.
*adversely affected France's economy more than Britain's.
*stimulated manufacturing in the United States.
*destroyed the Federalist party in New England.
*succeeded in its goal of forcing the British to halt its impressment of American sailors.

At the peace conference at Ghent, the British began to withdraw many of its earlier demands for all of the following reasons except
*reverses in upper New York.
*a loss at Baltimore.
*increasing war weariness in Britain.
*concern about the still dangerous France.
*the American victory at New Orleans.

Political cartoons lampooned the states that threatened to leave the Union at the Harford Convention by
*depicting Great Britain welcoming them back with promises of nobility, goods to smuggle and plenty of molasses and codfish.
*showing them as spoiled children, acting out against a firm parent.
*portraying them as militant anti-Federalists who put selfish interests above the nation's.
*highlighting their rigid refusal to consider gradually ending slavery.
*None of these

The delegates of the Hartford Convention adopted resolutions that demanded all of the following except
*a single-term limit on the presidency.
*a guarantee of no future wars with Britain.
*financial compensation to New England for lost trade.
*abolition of the three-fifths clause.
*reduction in the amount of representation the South had in Congress.

The outcome of the War of 1812 was a(n)
*decisive victory for the United States.
*stimulus to patriotic nationalism in the United States.
*embarrassment for American diplomacy.
*heavy blow to American manufacturing.
*decisive victory for the British.

With the demise of the Federalist party
*the Democratic-Republicans established one-party rule.
*another party arose very quickly to take its place.
*little political trouble ensued.
*sectionalism disappeared.
*the Whig party rose to take its place.

One of the major causes of the Panic of 1819 was
*overspeculation in frontier lands.
*the failure to recharter the Bank of the United States.
*a drought that resulted in poor agricultural production.

John Marshall's rulings almost single-handedly shaped Constitutional interpretation in the direction of
*strict adherence to the letter of the Constitution.
*upholding individual liberties.
*preserving the balance of power between *Congress and the president.
*nationalistic centralism and conservatism.
*states' rights over the federal government.

Andrew Jackson's military exploits were instrumental in the United States gaining
*a favorable border with Canada from the Great Lakes to the Rocky Mountains.
*possession of Florida from the Spanish.
*joint fishing rights in Labrador, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland.
*naval limitations on the Great Lakes.
*gaining control of eastern Texas.

At the time it was issued, the Monroe Doctrine was
*incapable of being enforced by the United States.
*greeted with enthusiasm and gratitude in South America.
*universally acclaimed in Britain as a great act of statesmanship.
*welcomed with relief by European powers who feared British power in the Western Hemisphere.
*opposed by both the Whigs and the Democratic-Republicans.

The Russo-American Treaty of 1824 fixed the southernmost limits of Russian occupation of North America at
*54° 40'.
*36° 30'.
*the forty-second parallel.
*the forty-ninth parallel.
*the fifty-first parallel.
The people who proposed the exceptionally high rates of the Tariff of 1828 were
*supporters of John Quincy Adams who wanted to protect New England manufacturers.
*abolitionists who saw it as the opening wedge for the use of federal power against slavery.
*ardent supporters of Andrew Jackson who actually hoped it would be defeated.
*supporters of Henry Clay's American System.
*southern plantation owners who wanted to prevent dumping of Egyptian cotton in America.

John C. Calhoun's South Carolina Exposition was an argument for
*protective tariffs.
*majority rule.
*states' rights.
*trade with England.

In their treatment of Native Americans, white Americans did all of the following except
*recognize the tribes as separate nations.
*argue that Indians could not be assimilated into the larger society.
*try to civilize them.
*trick them into ceding land to whites.
*promise to acquire land only through formal treaties.

One of the positive aspects of the Bank of the United States was its
*officers' awareness of the bank's responsibilities to society.
*attention to regional differences in American economy and culture.
*function as a source of credit and stability, promoting the nation's expanding economy.
*ability to expand and contract paper currency as needed.
*willingness to work closely with the department of the Treasury.

While in existence, the second Bank of the United States
*was the depository of the funds of the national government.
*irresponsibly inflated the national currency by issuing federal bank notes.
*limited economic growth by extending public credit.
*forced an ever-increasing number of bank failures.
*did little to help the economy.

The cement that held the Whig party together in its formative days was
*hatred of Andrew Jackson.
*support of the American System.
*opposition to the Anti-Masonic party.
*the desire for a strong president.
*opposition to the tariff.

In early-nineteenth-century America, the
*annual population growth rate was much higher than in colonial days.
*urban population was growing at an unprecedented rate.
*birthrate was rapidly declining.
*death rate was increasing.
*center of population moved northward.

The influx of immigrants to the United States tripled, then quadrupled, in the
*1810s and 1820s.
*1820s and 1830s.
*1830s and 1840s.
*1840s and 1850s.
*1860s and 1870s.

Whether they were propertied or landless, immigrants were often enticed to leave their homelands by
*letters from family or friends in the U.S., bragging about easy opportunities for wealth.
*advertisements from companies promising big salaries to those who emigrate.
*greater prospects of finding a suitable husband or wife.
*word that there was free land available in the West.
*None of these

When German immigrants came to the United States, they
*often became Baptist or Methodists.
*mixed well with other Americans.
*remained mostly in the Northeast.
*prospered with astonishing ease.
*dropped most of their German customs.

Those who were frightened by the rapid influx of Irish immigrants organized
*the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner.
*the "Molly Maguires."
*Tammany Hall.
*the Ancient Order of Hibernians.
*the Ku Klux Klan.

The American phase of the industrial revolution first blossomed
*on southern plantations.
*in the New England textile industry.
*in rapidly growing Chicago.
*in railroads and ship building.
*in coal and iron mining regions.

The American workforce in the early nineteenth century was characterized by
*substantial employment of women and children in factories.
*strikes by workers that were few in number but usually effective.
*a general lengthening of the workday from ten to fourteen hours.
*extensive political activity among workers.
*reliance on the system of apprentices and masters.

The cult of domesticity
*gave women more opportunity to seek employment outside the home.
*resulted in more pregnancies for women.
*restricted women's moral influence on the family.
*glorified the traditional role of women as homemakers.
*was especially strong among rural women.

The effect of early-nineteenth-century industrialization on the trans-Allegheny West was to encourage
*specialized, cash-crop agriculture.
*self-sufficient farming.
*heavy industry.
*higher tariffs.

Construction of the Erie Canal
*forced some New England farmers to move or change occupations.
*showed how long-established local markets could survive a continental economy.
*helped farmers so much that industrialization was slowed.
*was aided by federal money.
*created political tensions between the Northeast and the Midwest.

The Second Great Awakening tended to
*promote religious diversity.
*reduce social class differences.
*blur regional differences.
*discourage church membership.
*weaken women's social position.

The idea of free public education as an essential component of American democracy grew in the early nineteenth century with the influence of . . . who?
One sign that women in America were treated better than women in Europe was that
*American women could vote.
*the law in the United States prohibited men from beating them.
*rape was more severely punished in the United States.
*their ideas of equality were well received by American men.
*American women earned respect by engaging in male activities.

According to John Humphrey Noyes, founder of the utopian Oneida Community, the key to happiness is . . . ?
The Oneida colony declined due to . . . .?
Most of the utopian communities in pre-1860s America held ____ as one of their founding ideals.
When it came to scientific achievement, America in the 1800s was
*a world leader.
*a nation from which other countries borrowed.
*most noted for its successes in medicine.
*more interested in practical matters.
*focused primarily on biology and chemistry.

Match each individual below with his or her achievement.
Thomas Jefferson
Gilbert Stuart
Louisa May Alcott
Margaret Fuller

author of Little Women
portrait artist from Rhode Island
transcendentalist editor of The Dial
architect of the University of Virginia

America's artistic achievements in the first half of the nineteenth century
*were remarkable for their creativity.
*were least notable in architecture.
*built on the achievements of the Puritans.
*took very little from Europe.
*were closely linked to democratic ideals.

Transcendentalists believed that all knowledge came through
*scientific observation and experiment.
*the senses.
*divine revelation.
*reason, logic, and critical thinking.
*an inner light.

All of the following were weaknesses of the slave plantation system except that
*it relied on a one-crop economy.
*it repelled a large-scale European immigration.
*it stimulated racism among poor whites.
*it created an aristocratic political elite.
*its land continued to remain in the hands of the small farmers.

European immigration to the South was discouraged by
*competition with slave labor.
*southern anti-Catholicism.
*Irish antislavery groups.
*immigration barriers enacted by southern states.
*their inability to tolerate the hot climate.

____ said the following quote, "I think we must get rid of slavery or we must get rid of freedom."
Slaves fought the system of slavery in all of the following ways except by
*slowing down the work pace.
*conducting periodic successful slave rebellions.
*sabotaging expensive equipment.
*pilfering goods that their labor had produced.
*running away from their masters.

As a result of white southerners' brutal treatment of their slaves and their fear of potential slave rebellions, the South
*formed alliances with white imperialists in Africa.
*adopted British attitudes toward the "peculiar institution."
*emancipated many slaves.
*shed its image as a reactionary backwater.
*developed a theory of biological racial superiority.

Arrange the following in chronological order: the founding of the (A) American Colonization Society, (B) American Anti-Slavery Society, and (C) Liberty party.
Those in the North who opposed the abolitionists believed that these opponents of slavery
*were creating disorder in America.
*were defending the American way of life.
*deserved the right to speak freely.
*had turned their backs on religion.
were undermining fundamental American beliefs.

All of the following happened after President John Tyler's veto of a bill to establish a new Bank of the United States except
*he was expelled from the Whig party.
*all but one member of his cabinet resigned.
*an attempt was made in the House of Representatives to impeach him.
*Tyler also vetoed a Whig-sponsored high-tariff bill.
*he sent legislation to Congress for the creation of a National Bank.

As a result of the panic of 1837
*the U. S. established restrictions on foreign loans.
*Britain lent money to America, its close ally.
*anti-British passions cooled in America.
*the Democrats led America into war for more territory.
*several states defaulted on their debts to Britain.

In the 1840s, the view that God had ordained the growth of an American nation stretching across North America was called . . .?
In his quest for California, President James K. Polk
*advocated war with Mexico from the beginning.
*argued strongly for annexation, because Americans were the most numerous people in the area.
*was motivated by his knowledge of gold deposits there.
*sought British help to persuade Mexico to sell the area to the United States.
*first advocated buying the area from Mexico.

Arrange the following in chronological order: (A) Bear Flag revolt, (B) Slidell mission rejected, (C) declaration of war on Mexico, and (D) American troops ordered to the Rio Grande Valley.
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