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History of Music

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Hunter Henrickson

on 21 April 2016

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Transcript of History of Music

History of Music
Renaissance: Introduction
The Renaissance era marks a point in history in which people started to implement more science into their world instead of pure religiousness.
This specific era roughly started in middle of the 14th to the 16th century.
As a result of this era starting in Italy, it revealed some of the best artists such as: Leonardo Di Vinci (1452-1519), Michelangelo (1475-1563 and Titan (1488-1576).
Renaissance: Overview
It could be and often is said that the Renaissance era paved the way for future centuries of artists, musicians and other creationists.
Furthermore, without the Renaissance era, the concept and the debut of the printing press wouldn't have came about.


Renaissance: Major Music Terms
Polyphonic or
"polyphony"
is the combination of two or more simultaneous melodic lines.
Motet (from the French word
mot,
for word
,)
the most important form of early polyphonic music.
Organum
is the earliest polyphonic music.
Oblique
implies that one voice is static while the other is moving.
Rhythmic mode
is a fixed pattern of long and short notes that is repeated or varied.
Renaissance: Leading Composers
Josquin Des Perz
Renaissance: Overview Pt. 2
After reading through the chapter in the book that thoroughly explains the upbringing of such an institutionalized era in the world's history, it has became clear that the Renaissance era was a very important period.
I definitely believe that if the Renaissance Era never occurred, the world of music and art as we now it today would be drastically different.

Pierre de La Rue
Claudio Monteverdi
Middle Ages: Introduction
Middle Ages: Overview
A good percentage of the music that arose during this time period was of a religious nature. During this time, cathedrals began to emerge in surrounding cities in Europe and would evoke creativity in the townspeople.
A sense of religion was very potent at the beginning of the Middle Ages and all the way until the end. Any and pretty much all music that would be created during this time was mostly of a religious nature.
However, this idea of everything encompassing religion started to make it's way out in the Renaissance Era.
Middle Ages: Major Music Terms
Gregorian Chant
is a melody that consists of a single line melody with monophonic texture, a counterpoint but lacking harmony.
Chant melodies fall into 3 categories:
Syllabic
- With 1 note sung to each syllable
Neumatic
- Small groups (5 or 6 notes) sung to a each syllable
Melismatic
- Long groups of notes set to a single syllable
Monophonic
is a single line texture, or melody without accompaniment.
Modes
are a variety of scale patterns used in Western music.
Modal
refers to various melodic and harmonic types that prevailed in the Renaissance Era.
Middle Ages: Leading Composers
Moniot d'Arras
The Middle Ages spanned for almost 1,000 years starting at 476 C.E. - 1450.
From 500-1,000, this time period was referred to as the "Dark Ages".
1,000-1450 had the largest increase of the number of cathedrals built.
Perotin
Hillegard van Bingen
Created by Hunter Henrickson
Baroque Period: Introduction
The Baroque era began in the year of 1600 and ultimately ended in 1750. Those years brought great change to a society during when the colonization of the New World was taking effect.
Poverty, idealism and oppression were characteristics used to be an example of what the way of life was like during this period.
The Baroque era was the absolute definition of monarchy.
Baroque Period: Pt. 2
The Baroque era established the very fundamentals of how the world works, so to speak.
These ideas were introduced by:
Galileo and Copernicus who covered physics and astronomy,
Descartes with mathematics,
Spinoza in philosophy,
Sir Issac Newton who formulated a theory to explain gravity.

Key terms that were used throughout this period:
Monody is a featured solo song with instrumental accompaniment.
Figured bass - a shorthand that allowed the performer to improvise the chords.

Baroque music that was created later in the period was characterized by regular rhythms and continuous melodic expansion whereas before, it moved more freely.
Johann Sebastian Bach: Introduction
Bach is one of the most well known composers of this millennium. His pieces of music appear in films, or background music in presentations, or used as a movie trailer.
It's notable to mention that just about everyone has heard of Bach's work at some point during their life. You may not have known at the time if it was Bach or not, but his pieces are some of the easiest to recognize because their so widely used.
Bach is best known for his work in being an organist in having written many organ compositions.
Johann Sebastian Bach: Pieces of Music
Cantata 140: Wachet auf ruft uns die Stimme
Johann Sebastian Bach: Pieces of Music
Toccata in D Minor

George Frideric Handel: Introduction
The year of 1685 brought the world two very important and powerful composers: Bach and Handel. Although the two were born the same year and died within a decade of each other, they never crossed paths.
By the age of 25, Handel became the conductor to the elector of Hanover.
Handel's rhythm brought out a great drive of the Baroque Era. He was a man of diatonic harmony, with rich melodies and the rise and fall of majestic arches.
George Frideric Handel: Pieces of Music
Messiah
George Frideric Handel: Pieces of Music
"Oh thou that tellest good tidings" from
Messiah
Vivaldi: Introduction
Vivaldi is best known for his more than 500 concertos which almost half are solo violin.
His best work,
The Four Seasons
, consists of a group of just four solo violin concertos.
He is considered by many to be the most prolific artists of his time.
Vivaldi wrote much of the operas and chamber music and a handful of cantatas of the Gloria.
Vivaldi: Pieces of Music
The Four Seasons
Cello Suite No. 2 Sarabande
The Art of Fugue, Contrapunctus I
("Hallelujah" is at 1:51:21)
Water Music

Cantatas
are multi-movement work with solo arias, recitatives and choruses, all with orchestral accompaniment.
Chorale
is a hymn tune, sung in four-part harmony.
Solo Concerto
is with one instrument set against the orchestra.
Concerto grosso
is with a small group of soloists and orchestra.
Classical Period: Introduction
The Classical era stretched from the last half of the 18th century into the beginning of the 19th century.
During this time, two very different stylistic approaches emerged: Classicism and Romanticism.
Classicists aimed to view the world around more rationally unlike the Romaticists who held their view in terms of personal feelings.
Classical Period: Overview
This period in time brought forth great strides in the progression of the sciences that would ultimately contribute to the Industrial Revolution which made mass production a reality.
Chamber music,
an ensemble of two to ten performers, was in it's prime time in the Classical era all in thanks to a handful of the finest artists: Beethoven, Haydn, Mozart and Schubert. These men helped established, what is called a "true chamber music style".
The
string quartet
is said to the be the "central position" in Classical Chamber music.
String quartet
includes two violins, a viola and a cello.
Duo sonata
is the combination of violin and piano or a cello and a piano.
Piano trio
: a violin, cello and a piano.
Quintet
consists of mostly wind instruments or a string quartet and solo instrument.
Classical Period: Major Composers
Undoubtedly, the Classical era introduced some of the finest composers the world has ever come to see.
Classical Period: Composers Pt. 2
Mozart began life as a child prodigy by composing pieces of music at the age of five. By the age of six, he had written concertos, sonatas, symphonies and operas. As time went on, his popularity and composing talent sky-rocketed. Even though Mozart died when he was only 35, his pieces of music are still being played/used around the world. Mozart wrote 23 string quartets, 17 piano sonatas, orchestral music, 40 symphonies and Concertos that included 5 for violin, 27 for piano and others.

Haydn was considered the most prolific composer during the Classical era. Right until his death in 1809, Haydn was acknowledged as the premier musician of his time by Europeans. Over the course of his life, Haydn wrote 68 string quartets, 100+ symphonies, 14 operas and many other pieces of music.

Beethoven was revered to be the "supreme architect" in music. In his youth upbringing, he was no Mozart. His music career started by being a organist to help support his family. At one point, he even played for Mozart during a visit to Vienna. As he grew older, he was being paid to be an instructor for the "music-loving aristocrats" at the time as well as concerts and the publication of his music. Beethoven, unfortunately lost his hearing in his late twenties. Fighting his way to regain his health, Beethoven spent his time trying to achieve his artistic goals. He passed at the age of 57 from an attack of edema. Beethoven wrote 9 symphonies, 6 concertos and 32 piano sonatas alongside other works.
Classical Period: Pieces of Music
Beethoven's "
Ode to Joy
"
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
(1756 - 1791)
Joseph Haydn
(1732 - 1809)
Ludwig van Beethoven
(1770 - 1827)
Mozart's
Symphony
No. 4 in G Minor
Haydn's

Symphony
No. 94 in G Major
Romantic Period: Introduction
Romantic Period: Overview
Romantic Period: Composers
Romantic Period: Pieces of Music
Opera: Baroque Period
Opera: Classical Period
Opera: Romantic Period
20th Century: Impressionism
20th Century: Primitivism
20th Century: Expressionism
20th Century: Neoclassicism
Jazz: Introduction/Overview
Jazz: Pieces of Music
Jazz: Composers
Christoph Willibald Gluck held a predominant role in this era for his simple and natural view towards opera.
Mozart's Requiem Mass is considered a Classical Era masterworks even though he never lived to see it completed, unfortunately.
During the Classical Period of Opera, there were 2 immensely popular types operas:
opera buffa
which is a comic related opera
opera seria
which translates a serious opera.
(Both forms are Italian).
A
Mass
(solemn musical setting),
Requiem Mass
(musical setting for the Mass of the Dead) and
oratorio
(generally a biblical story) monopolized the Classical era in the middle of the 1700's.
American Song and Musicals:
American Song and Musical:
American Song and Musical:
Rock and Roll: Intro
Rock and Roll: Composers
Rock and Roll: Overview
The birth of the Romantic Period was yielded by the advancements in the Industrial Revolution.
These advancements include developing ways to create instruments so that they were more affordable to the public as well as implementing technical changes to the instruments themselves.
These changes can be heard by listening to a piano work from Chopin, followed by Mozart.
Mozart's and Chopin's pieces sound different due to the improved techniques in the manufactoring process.
The Romantic Era in its entirety was a very important time in our nation's history of music.
Because such changes were brought on to the manufactoring process of instruments, future pieces of music were now given the ability to sound different.
Composers such as Verdi, Chopin and Tchaikovsky sought to make their instruments "sing" to the public.
The result of this were pieces of music marked with the tinge of Romantic symphonies and concertos that were adored by the public.
"Romanticism was marked by the composers being intertwined with their music".
Frédéric Chopin
Giuseppe Verdi
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky
( I found listening to this on repeat as I completed my presentation. )
Funeral

March
1812 Overture
Nabucco - Overture
Frédéric Chopin
Giuseppe Verdi
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Dance of the Blessed Spirtis (from 'Orpheus and Eurydice')
W. A. Mozart: Don Giovanni
Women began to emerge in the opera scene during this time when Italy, Germany and France developed their own unique styles of romantic opera. Among these women was an artist by the name of Jenny Lid, an international star who made her debut in the US in 1850. In my opinion, women that were capable of bellowing out such tunes make the opera sound just a tad better. I've always carried the notion that women were sort of, made for the opera in some fashion.
Giuseppe Verdi was a favorite amongst other composers in this era. His
Rigoletto
represents all things associated with romanticism, passion and drama.
French artist Georges Bizet is noted for his exotic preferences when he referenced the culture of Gypsies from Spain in the opera
Carmen
.
Opera in the Baroque era was a time of exploration and interests in remote locales across the globe.
An opera can be broken down into simple principals:
Overture
is an instrumental number that can be heard at the beginning of most operas.
Solo
arias
, italian for
air
, are lyrical songs.
A
Recitative
is plot being advanced through a musical speech.
Claudio Monteverdi
Henry Purcell
Barbara Strozzi
"Duo Seraphim"
"Dido and Aeneas"
"Che si puo fare"
At the end of the nineteenth century, Romanticism ideals had lost their popularity and soon after, composers/artists alike began to drift away towards different avenues.
Impressionism
(first coined as a negative reference towards French painters) was a stepping stone towards a modernistic period that brought on a new sense of
timbre
, the quality of a sound, as well as
movement,
a self-contained part in a larger musical work.
Claude Debussy arose a bit after Impressionism was conceived. He was a French composer who utilized the Impressionistic-style in his works. Furthermore, he was unhappy about essentially "sticking to the rules" on composing music. He favored the softer instruments like the harp, flute and piano for instance, over the harsher brass instruments and drums.

"The Essential Collection"
The entire thought behind Primitivism was to solely focus on on the violent attributes of our human behavior and primal events.
The Merriam-Webster dictionary reads the definition of primitivism as "belief in the superiority of a simple way of life close to nature". In a nutshell, it's saying that the composers of the Primitive era draw their inspiration from their roots of an earlier time. Composers such as Bela Bartok and Igor Stravinsky, who utilized their primitive inspiration.
Bela Bartok
"Allegro barbaro"
Igor Stravinsky
"
Le sacre du Printemps"
Unlike
Impressionism
which uses soft and light features in pieces of music,
Expressionism
is quite the opposite.
Expressionists alike applied new harmonic systems and adopted extreme registers of instruments. Expressionism made use of the
Twelve Tone Method
, or
serialsim,
which a strict set of rules on arranging 12 chromatic notes in a specific order. These rules were developed by Arnold Schoenberg.
Very wide gaps in the melody, instruments being used in their highest register and an atonal harmony are characteristics of music in the Expressionistic era.
Arnold Schoenberg
Anton Webern
Alban Berg
"Wozzeck"
"String Quartet No. 1 in d minor, op. 7"
"Symphonie op.21"
Instead of focusing on how soft or rough the piece of music was as mentioned previously, composers of the
Neoclassicism
era attempted to maintain their attention on the balance and craftsmanship of their works.
The
Modernism
movement made endless experimentation a reality as well as continuously challenging the conventional approaches.
The Neoclassicism era delivered a modest handful of composers from foreign nations such as Germany, Great Britain, France and Latin America.
*These 3 composers were referred to as the "Second Viennese School"
Edward Elgar
Great Britain
Carl Orff
Germany
Erik Satie
France
Carlos Chavez
Latin America
"Pomp and Circumstance"
"Carmina Burana"
"Three Pieces in the Form of a Pear"
"Toccata for Percussion"
Jazz
is the music creations from mostly African Americans around the twentieth century and is primarily made up of African elements and popular West traditions.
Ragtime
, which arrived before the concept of Jazz, is an African American piano style.
Although Blues and Jazz share similar traits, they are actually different.
Blues
is an American based genre that encompasses a repetitive three-line strophes form.
The era of Ragtime, Jazz and Blues yielded a few of exquisite composers such as Scott Joplin, Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington of the time.
Scott Joplin, known as the "
King of Ragtime
", composed the rag entitled "
Maple Leaf Rag
" which is one of the most well known pieces because of it's four-strains form.
Many other forms of Jazz began to pop up such as: New Orleans-style jazz, bebop, cool jazz, West Coast jazz, third stream jazz, Neoclassical jazz, free jazz and new-age jazz.
Scott Joplin
"Maple Leaf Rag"
Louis Armstrong
"What a Wonderful World"
"It Don't Mean a Thing
(If It Ain't Got That Swing)"
Billie Holiday
"Strange Fruit"
Duke Ellington
Scott Joplin
Louis Armstrong
Billie Holiday
Duke Ellington
Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster was known for his minstrel show tunes, poignant plantation songs and lyrical parlor ballads. Foster is often considered the first American to make an actual living as a songwriter. This comes at a time when songwriters alike struggled to make any profits off of their works.
He is herald as "America's first great songwriter".
Nowadays, his works are being played a numerous of times all around the world.
These works include
Oh, Susanna!
,
Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair
and
Beautiful Dreamer
.
What helped make his music sky rocket in popularity was being American oriented.
"Musical Theater"
"Musical Theater" Composers
The American Musical Theater's roots are in fact of a European nature. Their origins were the brought over to the United States of America by immigrant composers like Victor Herbert.
The theater constructed the
operetta
, or the comic opera, which was a tradition of late 19th century composers from Europe which included Johann Strauss Jr. and the duo Gilbert & Sullivan.
Composers George Gershwin and Leonard Bernstein had a big impact in this era.
Gershwin for his desire to unite jazz elements and classical music and Bernstein for being a composer of symphonic and choral music.
George Gershwin
"Swanee"
Leonard Bernstein
"West Side Story"
The theme of Rock and Roll was actually a spin off of Jazz from the 1940's.
Rock and Roll boomed in the 1950's in not only the United States but across the globe and accepted as music worth listening too.
Rock and Roll soon had spinoff styles popping up as time went on and all cohesively fell under the name "
Rock
".
To this day, Rock is still an immensely popular music genre that can be heard all over the country in all various forms.
Rock brought on some of the biggest names in music of this century like The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Beach Boys and many others.
I solemnly believe that the era of Rock and Roll had the biggest impact on music as a whole. Do not get me wrong, there have been numerous positive and effective strides made by composers of later generations but, this age was when music "took off" to unprecedented heights.
If it wasn't for the Jazz influences from the prior decade, perhaps Rock as we have to come to know it, would've turned out differently?
The Beatles
The Rolling Stones
The Beach Boys
Full transcript