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American Imperialism

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Liz Steinmetz

on 6 April 2018

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Transcript of American Imperialism

Lesson 4: What was
U.S. foreign policy in Central and Latin America (South America)?
How did the
Spanish American War start in 1898?
Lesson 2: Where in the world
did the U.S. expand through imperialism?
Age of Imperialism
How can we understand imperialism in the late 1800s?
: a word that describes powerful countries use diplomacy or military force to expand their economic and political power over weaker countries
Unit 6: The Age of Imperialism and WWI
Imperialism in Latin America

Why did many people believe the U.S. should be imperialist?
Imperialism and the World
American Imperialism in the Pacific and Asia
The Great
War, AKA: World War I

The search for raw materials and markets drove imperialism.
Colonization (early imperialism): the process of gaining complete control over other countries resources and governments
Territorial expansion (modern imperialism): the process of controlling the governments of other nations (puppet governments)
Empire Building
Just before and after the Civil War, American leaders wanted to build an empire in the Caribbean, Central America, and Pacific linked by new transportation (canals) and communication (telegraph)
"White Man's Burden"
Some believed Americans should bring their religion and culture to "inferior" peoples of Africa, Asia, and Latin America
Since the mid-1800s, Americans wanted a trading empire in the Pacific. In 1867, the same year the U.S. acquired Alaska,
Secretary of State Seward
also arranged to buy the Pacific islands of
Midway was a good stopping place for ships traveling to China; however, it was not enough to build a Pacific empire from.
U.S. and Hawaii began to trade with each other after missionaries came to spread Christianity in Hawaii in the 1790s
1830s: American business planted sugarcane there - took control over most of the land and businesses
Missionary Ship to Hawaii
Sugar Plantation in Hawaii
1891: Queen Liliuokalani became Hawaii’s ruler and wanted to regain control over lands for Hawaiians
1893: American businessmen led by Samuel Dole rebelled - set up a
provisional government
to take power from Queen Lili
1894: Dole asked the U.S. to take over Hawaii, but President Cleveland refused - Queen Lili visited the U.S. to speak against it
1898: Congress made Hawaii a
of the U.S.
One of the world's largest producer of fruits and vegetables, founded by Sanford Dole in 1901.
Annexation of Hawaii
American Samoa: territory of the U.S. in 1899 - Germany and the U.S. divided up the country between them for trade
China in late 1890s: many nations exploited trade and natural resources in China, including Japan, Germany, Great Britain, France, and Russia
Spheres of influence
led to rivalry (competition) - foreign countries divided China into sections of control
What were the causes of WWI?
Causes of WWI (and many wars since):
: celebration of military and rapid buildup of militaries in imperialist European countries
: supposed to keep a
balance of power
between powerful countries, but ended up triggering world war, instead
mperialism: All of these countries competed for the resources in colonies they occupied in Asia and Africa
: imperialist countries and some of their territories began to hate each other more and more
“Open Door Policy:” U.S. wanted to influence China, too, and proposed this policy for foreign countries to share trade freely between each foreign section of China, but Japan and the European nations refused
The Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion, 1899: secret Chinese society rose up and attacked foreign leaders in China, but it was put down by foreign armies
Foreign fears over Boxer Rebellion led Japan and European countries to accept the Open Door Policy
Japan and Russia: fought over Manchuria in China from 1904-1905 (bad for trade)
U.S. helped Japan and Russia come to an agreement over Manchuria in 1905
Strained Relations
Roots of conflict between U.S. and Japan that lead to WWII:
1905: Japan was threatened by U.S. power and began to build up its navy to challenge U.S. imperialism in Asia
Japan was also increasingly angry over discrimination against Japanese-American immigration in the U.S.
1909: President Roosevelt sent a “Great White Fleet” of 16 battleships to Japan to send a message of dominance, which put conflict off for a time
The U.S. and Japan came up with a "gentelmen's agreement" Japan would limit Japanese immigration to the U.S. if cities like San Francisco would stop segregating Japanese Americans.
Cuban rebellion against Spain: after centuries of Spanish rule, Cubans tried to rebel and destroy Spanish property to make them leave
Spanish fought back with harsh policies that led to widespread Cuban starvation and disease
Yellow Journalism
: newspaper reports played on U.S. fears that American businesses in Cuba would suffer and a revolution so close to America (Florida)
Reports were half true and sensational, biased, and sometimes false, but convinced most Americans that the U.S. should fight Spain
Lesson 3: Spanish American War
Start of the War
The Wreckage of the
USS Maine
War in The Philippines
War In Cuba
U.S. ships surrounded Cuba and trapped the main part of the Spanish navy
Sent 17,000 American soldiers ashore to fight with Cuban rebels
Defeated Spain by August, 1898
End of the War
Policing the Hemisphere
Belief that U.S. control of South American countries would prevent anarchy, or disorder and lawlessness, led to these policies:
Allied Powers vs. Central Powers
The Great War in Europe
New Kinds of Warfare
Lesson 6: What was the role of the U.S. in WWI?
How did the U.S. mobilize for war?
How did countries try to make peace after World War I?
Allied Powers
Central Powers
Great Britain
U.S. (after 1917)
Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
Territories of the Allied Powers and Central Powers During WWI
p. 656-657 of DOP Textbook
Imperialism and alliance systems had made relationships between countries in Europe very tense by 1914. The German and Austria-Hungarian empires had done what other imperialist nations had: claimed lands, resources, and governments of other nations. Serbia, an land of ethnically and linguistically diverse people, had been claimed by the Ottoman Empire in Turkey for centuries. As the Ottoman Empire weakened, Austria-Hungary, an ally of the Ottomans, was moving to claim Serbia. Rebel Serbians fought to gain their independence. In June of 1914, the heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife visited the Serbian city of Sarajevo to view military maneuvers.
Why WWI is first "modern" war:
New technology in land war: machine guns, war planes for bombing, artillery to fire long distances, barbed wire to stop troops, tanks to roll over barbed wire, mustard gas to kill troops in tanks and in trenches
Trench warfare: troops on both sides could not make progress across “no man’s land”
along the western and eastern fronts
New technology in war at sea: German submarines called
in Atlantic attacked ships at sea
Trench Warfare, tanks, and poison gas led to modern warfare during WWI. Machine guns, invented during the Civil War, mowed down soldiers during the Great War. Rapid fire weapons more or less replaced old style infantry and cavalry (horse) fighting. Hand-to-hand combat became even more of a nightmare.
In response to machine gun warfare, soldiers built trenches to hide in and shoot from. In response to trench fighting, war engineers invented tanks to roll over barbed wire and trenches. In response to tanks and trench warfare, chemical engineers invented poison gas, which is heavier than air and creeps along the ground into holes and trenches to poison any living creature within them.
At first, the U.S. followed an official policy of neutrality to stay out of the Great War. However, Germany had an effective naval weapon of its own: the submarine. Known as U-boats —from the German word Unterseeboot—these submarines sank ships carrying supplies to Britain and a British luxury ship carrying Americans called the
. U-boat attacks on ships at sea eventually brought the United States into the war.
April 2, 1917: The sinking of the Lusitania, the Zimmerman Note, and death of Americans on ships sunk by German U-boats led the U.S. to join in the Great War.
War at Home
War Abroad
Mobilization: gathering of resources to prepare for war
Rationing and War Bonds
Rationing: consumed less food, raw materials, and fuel so it could be sent to Europe for war
War bonds: papers that looks like money that Americans could buy and sell back to the government later for the amount they bought it for, plus interest
raised $$ for the war
Controlling Public Opinion
Propaganda: the entertainment industry worked government to spread pro-war message (support troops, rationing, buy war bonds, etc.)
Any groups opposed to war were attacked:
Socialists: people who believed businesses were promoting war to make money
Pacifists: people against war, killing, or violence of any kind
Dissenters: anyone who argued against the war was attacked for not being patriotic
led to Espionage and Sabotage Acts of 1917: laws that punished suspected spies or people who destryed war factories/weapons
led to Sedition Act: made it a crime to even criticize the U.S.’s involvement in WWI in print, newspapers, or movies
Most supported the war.
Those who did not faced harse penalties.
Convoys and Doughboys
American soldiers were nicknamed "doughboys" because the buttons on their uniforms resembled boiled dough dumplings, a popular food in England. They saw their first serious fighting in June 1918 at Château-Thierry on the Marne River east of Paris. The American troops then advanced to Belleau Wood.
For the next three weeks, doughboys battled around the clock through the forest against a solid wall of German machine-gun fire. The American and French forces fought back German attacks along the Marne and the Somme Rivers. By mid-July they had stopped the great German offensive that had come close to ending the war. General Pershing wrote that the battles "turned the tide of war."
The U.S. joining the war was timely because the Russians were just about to quit. By November of 1917, their czar (like a king) had given up his throne and food shortages led to riots. A group called the Bolsheviks wanted to pull out of the war so they could focus on setting up a new Communist state. They signed a peace treay with Germany, though Russia lost a lot of territory. German could focus all of its attention on the Western Front.
The Allies now began an attack of their own. By September 1917, more than 1 million American troops joined the Allies in the Battle of the Argonne Forest. It became the biggest attack in American history.
The Battle of the Argonne Forest raged for nearly seven weeks. Soldiers struggled over the rugged, heavily-forested ground. Rain, mud, barbed wire, and German machine-gun fire hindered the Allies' advance. Many soldiers died. Yet by early November, the Allies had won the battle. They had pushed back the Germans and broken through their lines. The Germans now faced an invasion of their own country.
While Germany struggled on the Western Front, its allies faced defeat elsewhere. In late 1918, the Ottoman Empire was on the brink of collapse. Austria-Hungary broke apart, as protests in major cities helped bring down that centuries-old empire. For example, in October 1918, Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia declared independence. By early November, the governments of Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had surrendered to the Allied Powers.
German leaders realized their hopes of winning the war were gone. American troops and supplies had strengthened the Allied war effort. In addition, Germans on the home front were suffering greatly from severe shortages of food and other supplies. On October 4, 1918, the German government asked President Wilson for an armistice, an agreement to end the fighting. The armistice began on "Armistice Day:" November 11, 1918 at the 11th hour on the 11th day of the 11th month. What had been called the Great War—the most destructive conflict in human history to that time—was over at last.
The League of Nations
Treaty of Versailles
Leaders gathered in Paris in 1919: discuss rebuilding Europe and prevent war
The Fourteen Points: U.S. President Wilson’s plan to bring a “lasting peace:”
Settling boundary arguments: nations had to agree on national self-determination - led to independence of Eastern European countries
Free trade, freedom of seas, end to secret alliances, limits on weapons, and peaceful settlements in disputes over colonies
League of Nations: an organization of countries to preserve peace and prevent future wars
Treaty of Versailles: Treaty to end WWI
Germany forced to give up colonies and territories and pay billions of dollars in reparations to rebuild Europe
Austro-Hungarian and Russian empires were broken up into smaller independent nations
Border disputes and German anger over reparations will lead to WWII
The Allies and Germany signed the Treaty of Versailles (vuhr • SY) on June 28, 1919. Under its harsh terms, Germany had to accept full responsibility for the conflict. It had to pay the Allies billions of dollars. It had to disarm completely and give up its overseas colonies and some territory in Europe. For the next 20 years, Germans would stew in anger over these harsh terms. Paying reparations throughout the Great Depression of the 1930s would lead Germans to look for leadership to get them out of tough times. They found that leader in Adolph Hitler.
Meanwhile, the Archduke was targeted for assasination by Serbian nationalists who wanted to prevent the unification of Serbia within the Austria-Hungarian Empire. (Now, Sarajevo is the capital of Bosnia-Herzegovinia, a region that was ravaged by war due to the retreat of the Soviets at the end of the Cold War only twenty years ago from today. Nationalism is as strong in Serbia now as it was then.) In 1914, after surviving an attempted car bomb earlier that day, the Archduke and Duchess were shot in their car by a Serbian rebel named Gavrilo Princip. The assasination of the Archduke set in motion a chain of events that brought the Allied and Central Powers into the Great War, which became known later as World War I.
"Oh, how I do envision American expansion into Alaska, Canada, Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, Iceland, Greenland, Hawaii, and other Pacific islands!"

~ William H. Seward, Secretary of State for Lincoln and Johnson.
Building the Canal
Battle of Argonne Forest
How Imperialism Works:
Imperialist nations wanted raw materials to make new products.
They also needed new markets to sell the goods they made.
Manifest Destiny
After the Civil War, many Americans wanted to build a trading empire in the Pacific. The idea of America's "
Manifest Destiny
" expanded to included land beyond the continent by the late 1800s.
1853: Commodore Matthew Perry of U.S. Navy delivered a letter from U.S. President Fillmore to Japanese emperor on a warship, “asking” for the Japanese to open their ports to trade
1854: Japan opened two ports to American trading ships
1867: Purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million -- gold discovered there in 1890s
1889: U.S. and Latin American (South American) leaders formed the Pan-American Union for cooperation in trade
Early Events in U.S. Expansion Overseas
Claimed as Territories:
Dominated markets:
Japanese Imperialism
President McKinley sent the USS battleship Maine to Cuba to protect American citizens and their property there
February 15th, 1898: the Maine blew up, killing 260 Americans
Newspapers blamed it on Spain and “Remember the Maine!” became an American battlecry
April 25th, 1898: U.S. declared war on Spain
May 1st, 1898: U.S. attacked part of the Spanish fleet stationed in the Philippines (the U.S. wanted to control the Philippines, which was very close to China)
July, 1898: U.S. troops invaded Philippines and helped the Filipino rebels defeat the Spanish
Imperialist leaders and anti-imperialist leaders in the U.S. argued over whether the U.S. should make the Philippines a territory or return it to the Filipinos
Imperialists won the debate and made the Philippines a territory
400 Americans died from battle, 2,000 died of disease
Theodore Roosevelt became a war hero at Battle of San Juan Hill -- later elected president
Cuba “
:” could not make treaties with other nations and U.S. dominated economy
Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippines: Spain "gave" them to the U.S. as territories
Roosevelt Corollary:
Roosevelt Corollary: the U.S. has a right to get involved in Latin American countries if the nations seem unstable
Stopped revolutions in Dominican Republic (1905) and Cuba (1906)
Dollar Diplomacy:
Dollar Diplomacy
: Giving loans of money and building roads, harbors, etc. to increase trade and profits
Panama Canal, 1914: a 51-mile long canal through the
of Panama and was paid for and controlled by the U.S. until 1999
Moral Diplomacy
Moral Diplomacy: promote democracy (people having a say in their government) to prevent war
Mexico, early 1900s: conflict between wealthy landowners and revolutionaries
U.S. supported one revolutionary named Carranza to fight a another named Huerta
Carranza took over, but another revolutionary named Francisco “Pancho” Villa rose up and attacked Americans
President Wilson sent troops to chase down Villa, but failed
U.S. leaders: distracted by WWI in 1917, but Mexican revolutionaries under Villa held a grudge
Write the info in the red boxes...
...not the orange boxes
What brought the U.S. into WWI?
Most Americans sided with the Allies:
paganda: Allied propaganda was most popular
trade interference: U-boats attacked U.S. merchant ships selling supplies
U-boats sunk ships with American tourists
Zimmerman Note: British agents discovered a telegram between Germany and Mexico discussing an alliance if the U.S. joined the war
Factories turned into war-time factories
Women took men’s factory jobs so they could fight
Great Migration: African Americans moved to the north for factory jobs during the war
: teams of navy ships carrying troops sailed side-by-side with merchant ships bringing supplies to Europe from the U.S.
Took Russia’s place: Russia had a communist revolution in 1917 and dropped out
Infantry fighting: Fresh American troops (also called “doughboys”) helped break the stalemate on the Western Front
Allies advanced into the Argonne Forest between Belgium and France toward Germany -- fought for seven weeks before forcing Germany’s surrender
Armistice Day, Nov. 11th, 1918: now celebrated as Veterans Day in the U.S.
Unit outline:
Vocabulary: starts lessons 1-6
Lesson notes/lectures
Spiderweb discussion topic: Should the U.S. be condemned or praised for its actions during the age of imperialism?
The U.S. was NOT the only imperial power
Japanese Relations With U.S.
Full transcript