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BASIC CONCEPTS IN TOURISM PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT

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Mara Roa

on 2 July 2015

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Transcript of BASIC CONCEPTS IN TOURISM PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT

BASIC CONCEPTS IN TOURISM PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
Planning is one of the most fundamental skills that you will need as future tourism professionals. This is because every company that you will want to work with makes plans at every level of the organization that includes the company that you might want to establish on your own.
TOURISM POLICY, TOURISM PLANNING AND TOURISM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
Tourism policy is defined as “a set of rules, regulations, guidelines, directives, and development/promotion objectives and strategies that provide framework within which the collective, as well as individual decisions directly affecting long-term tourism development and the daily activities within a destination are taken”
(TRREC) New Zealand’s Tourism Recreation Research and Education Centre provide these definitions:
1. Vision – a desired future state of the destination
2. Goals- broad based targets for tourism
3. Objectives- target s that are specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and time-bound.
4. Strategies- the method by which objectives will be achieved.

Renegotiation of Air Service Agreements

Reducing foreign carrier operation cost in the Philippines

Simplifying border formalities

Improving sea and road transportation

TOURISM PLANNING DIMENSIONS
The National Tourism Development Plan (NTDP) provides an illustration of an action plan for accomplishing the goals of improving market access and connectivity at the national level
Levels
Depending on the scope and detail involved, a tourism plan may be carried out at the international, national, regional, provincial, municipal/city, or site level.
Time Frame
A tourism plan may be comprehensive in scope or focused on one or just a few aspects of tourism planning.
Spatial Units
The space covered in tourism planning is called a tourism development unit. The Department of Tourism-Japan International Coperation Agency (DOT-JICA) and the UNESCO provide the following spatial concepts.
• Tourist site
• Tourist development area
• Tourism cluster
• Tourism circuits
• Tourism corridor

Tourist Site
A tourist site is an area that contains one or more tourist attractions.
There are four categories of attractions (World Heritage Center in Strange)
Geophysical-landscape-aesthetic
Ecological-biological
Cultural-historical
Recreational
Tourism Development Area
A tourism area designated for possessing an important site or groups of tourist sites.
Tourism Cluster
Tourism cluster is composed of two or more TDAs. The Central Visayas Tourism Cluster in NTDP consist of five TDAs, namely (1) Northern Cebu-Bantayan-Malapascua, (2) Metro Cebu-Mactan-Olango Island, (3) Southern Cebu, (4) Negros Oriental-Dumaguete-Siquijor and (5) Tagbiliran-Panglao Island.
Tourism Circuit
Is defined as a route involving at least three major tourist destinations which are located in different towns, villages or cities and destinations share common characteristics or themes.
Tourism Corridor
This refers to a route defined by a theme spanning several countries or even continents.
Northern Phillipines
Batanes, Cagayan Coast and Babuyan island
Laoag Vigan (Laoag-Pagudpud,Vigan)
Sierra Madre (Tuguegarao-Tabuk; Baguio-MT. Province, Nueva Vizcaya)
Cordillera (Central Cordellera; Benguet-Baguio-Mt. Province, Nueva Vizcaya)
Lingayen Gulf (La Union Coast; Western Pangasinan Loop; East Pangasinan Circuit; Lingayen Coast and Island
Central Luzon (Subic-Clark-Tarlac Corridor; Nueve Ecija; Pampanga; Bulacan; Zambales Coast; Bataan Coast and Inland;Aurora)
Metro Manila CALABARZON(Metro Manila Environs;Nasugbo-Looc-Ternate-Cavitr Coast;Laguna de Bay; Batangas Peninsula;Quezon Coast and Island)
Central Phillipines
Southern Phillipines
TOURISM DESTINATION
Regardless of the area number and levels of political units involved any tourism development unit may comprise a tourism destination. Put simply a tourism development unit is a destination. The UNWTO (2004) defines a tourism destination as a physical space in which a visitor spends at least one overnight.
TOURISM CHARACTERISTICS AND THEIR PLANNING IMPLACATION
Tourism is a composite product. It is comprised of goods and services that are provided by entities in the tourism value chain. The value chain refers to the series public and private entities that convert resourses in to value-added tourism products that are sold to tourist.

Tourist destination are intangible which means that potential visitors cannot try temprior to purchase of tickets, rooms, or tour package. Potential tourist base their decision on images and expectation.
THE BENEFITS OF TOURISM PLANNING
Good planning offers a numbernof benefits not just to the destination but also to individual planners themselves, such as new learnings, avoidance of past mistake, and networking.
FACTORS TO CONSIDER FOR EFFECTIVE TOURISM PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
There are a number of factors that need to be considered for effective tourism planning and product development.
 Availability and quality of tourism relevant data:
 Availability of tourism planning expertise:
 The type and variety of tourism resource:
 The culture of the destination residents:
 Geographic location and spatial distribution of the tourism development units:
 Target market
 Stage in the tourism area life cycle:
 Tourism development paradigm held by the influential actors in tourism development:
 National tourism policy and legislation:
 Perceptions and attitudes of stakeholders:
 Awareness of external forces impinging on tourism planning and development: and
 Financial capital requirement.

AVAILABILITY AND QUALITY OF TOURISM RELEVANT DATA
The availabity of up-to-date and comprehensive tourism-relevant data affects the level of accurancy of estimating supply capacity, forecasting demand, and.
monitoring outcomes.


CALIBER OF PLANNING EXPERTISE
The caliber of planning expertise determines the quality of planning outputs. Expertise can only be built over long years of education and professional experience.
TYPE AND VARIETY
OF TOURISM RESOURCES
The type and variety of tourism resources in the tourism development unit limits options for tourism product development.
KIND OF TOURISM
RESOURCES IN ADJACENT DESTINATION
The kind of tourism resources in adjacent destination has implication on competitive strategies. A destination needs to differentiate its product with real or imagined uniqueness to compete with destination offering similar attractions. According to prof.Felipe de Leon Jr.,a destination can compete by establishing its cultural identity in terms if the following :
 Originality- being the first to have a particular attraction ;
 Indigenousness- having something that can only be found in your destination ;
 Authenticity -being true to traditions and method of preparation , not contrive;
 Magnitude-being the tallest , smallest , biggest ,scariest ,or anything superlative ;or
 Excellence – having the highest quality.

CULTURE OF DESTINATION
RESIDENCE
The cultural characteristics of destination have an impact on kind of tourists that are attractive to it.
Stages in the Tourism
Area Life Cycle
Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC) -- is another important consideration in tourism planning. TALC was conceived by Butler in 1980, and has become a popular model for analyzing the development of a tourist destination. The TALC goes through the following stages:
1. Exploration. The destination is "discovered" by a few people, who are mostly made up of independent travelers.

2. Involvement. The destination experiences greater and regular vistations, and seasonal patterns may be observed.
3. Development. Additional tourism infrastracture may be present. Well defined and regular market areas, stimulated by extensive advertising emerge.

4. Consolidation. Growth rate in tourist arrivals declines, although numbers are still increasing.

5. Stagnation. The number of tourists reaches or exceeds the carrying capacity and environmental, social and economic problems are experienced.

6. Decline or Rejuvenation. The alternative outcomes in the post-stagnation phase.

Exploration and Involvement Stages
1. Selling new products/services to new markets
2. Building market share
Development Stage

1. Overall cost leadership strategy- prices the product competitively and relative to how it is perceived by customers (Thompson 1997).

2. Differentiation strategy- creates extra value for which the buyer is willing to pay premium prices; creates a unique product in relation to competing products, by investing heavily in product features, research, customer service, marketing, design and image of the product.

3. Focus or niche strategy- narrows products/services to particular market segments (Kotler 1994).
Consolidation &
Stagnation Stages

1. Selling new products/services to existing marketsz
2. Maintain market share
3. Selling existing products/services to existing markets

Decline
1. Harvesting
2. Ceasing operation (withdrawal)

Rejuvenation
1. Offer existing products/services to new markets such as birdwatching activity to ecotourists
2. Bossts sales, revenue growth, and high market share by appropriatr expenditure on advertising, distribution, and development
3. Reposition from "commodity" to a position of "status", by product differentiation

Tourism Development Paradigm
-held by the most influential actors in tourism development
-defines the choice of issues, golas. & strategies of tourism development
National Tourism Policy & Legislation
Republic Act (RA) 9593 or Tourism Act of 2009 & translates into plans in the National Tourism Development Plan for 2011-2016. Section 2 of RA 9593 states that:

"The state declares tourism as an indispensable element of the national economy and an industry of national interest and importance, which must be harnessed as an engine of socioeconomic growth and cultural affirmation to generate investment, foreign exchange, and employment, and to continue to mold an enhanced sense of national pride for all Filipino."
The key features of this policy are:
1. National orientation
2. Sustainable tourism development
3. Tourism is ecologically sustainable, responsible, participative, culturally sensitive, economically viable, and ethically and socially equitable for local communities
4. International target markets
5. Tourism product diversification
6. Private sector participation and focus on agri-tourism

STAKEHOLDERS' PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDES
Awareness of External Forces
-the trend toward instant gratification, health & fitness consciousness
-aging population in the source markets
-rise of China, India, and Russia in the world economy
-the convergence of technology, broader access to Internet, and the growing use of social media
-climate change, global warming, deforestation, species extinction
-passage or pro-tourism laws, the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)

Financial Capital Requirement
-requires a tourism project and the ability to raise such amount are also a major consideration in whether to proceed with tourism development or not
The End of Chapter 1
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