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History of Photography

history of photography

Melanie Burnell Rapp

on 20 March 2018

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Transcript of History of Photography

History of Photography
Translates to "dark room"
Camera Obscura
Light is let in through the pin hole.
A convex lens was added in the 16th century, which improved the image quality.
Later a mirror was added to reflect onto a viewing surface.
Joseph Niepce
Joseph Niepce took the first photograph by using a Camera Obscura, which he exposed to the sunlight for 8 hours in 1826.
It was a print made from a photoengraved printing plate.
The picture was of his courtyard at his estate.
Know what the first photograph was?
Invented by Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre and released to the public August 19th, 1839. This process was short lived because the Ambrotype was released a short time later.
The print is made on iron and black paint, lacquer, or enamel is coated over. This is called SUBSTRATE.
Invention credited to Hamilton Smith of Ohio in 1856.
Tintypes are sensitized, exposed, and processed entirely when wet.
George Eastman
The inventor of Kodak Camera started the Kodak Company in 1888.
He began with his Kodak Camera that contained photographic film that was dry, transparent, and flexible.
Enough film for 100 exposures.
"You press the button, we do the rest."
Snapshot Photography
In 1903, Kodak introduced it's non-curling film.
Kodak replaced flammable film that used a cellulose nitrate base with a film that used a cellulose acetate base which resulted in it being much safer.
During World War II, Kodak used their aerial cameras to train photographers for the U.S. Signal Corps.
Most popular film used in history and used since late 1800s.
Gets name from film size of 35mm width.
Invented by Thomas Edison in 1913, but produced by George Eastman.
Medium Format (6.5cm wide)
Medium Format comes available in different lengths/sizes.
Single Lens Reflex (SLR)
Photographers used 35 mm in their Single Lens Reflex cameras. SLR means that you can remove the lens. There is also a mirror inside of the camera that reflects the image onto the film.
Yes, we will be creating Tintypes!

First, we will learn the process with artist Patrick Andrade. Afterwards, groups of two will work on tintypes. Everyone else will be working on a different project. Tintype is a one day project.
Plan on your blog an idea for a tintype. This may involve a model (or yourself) or props. What facial expression and body language will you use? Clothing? Props?
The most well-developed ideas will be the first to have a turn.
If there are numerous contenders, names will be drawn.
Safety is super important!
Please wear all safety equipment and follow directions.
ALWAYS wear goggles, gloves, mask, and apron!
Your parents/guardians must sign the permission slip before you are allowed to work with tintypes.
This project is not required, and you do not need to create a tintype.
Next Up...
Next we will learn about the process of creating Tintype Photographs.
Famous Tintypes
Ansel Adams
Famous photographer who published photographs and writings in the Sierra Club's 1922 bulletin and had his own exhibition in 1928.
Gordon Parks
Photographer for Vogue and Life Magazine for 20 years after his photographic essay on a Harlem gang leader in 1928.
Dorothea Lange
Left limp after getting polio at the age of seven. Dorothea studied under Clarence White at Columbia University. She built her own studio in 1918. Later she and 12 others were paid to photograph the rural poor in America. She did several projects including documenting the internment of Japanese Americans of WWII by the War Relocation Authority, documenting the United Nations Conference by the Office of War Information, assignments for Life Magazine which included working with Adam Lange in 1954 ("Three Mormon Towns") & in 1960 ("Death of a Valley").
Symbolism & Metaphor
Symbols are hidden meanings or visuals that stand for something. Metaphors are similar to symbols, except what the subject is being "applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance" In a photograph, there are different symbols and metaphors that, mean certain things, but these may not be interpreted the same way by each person that looks at the photo.
John Sexton
Works Cited
"10 Top Photography Composition Rules." Photography Mad. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"Abagond." Abagond. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"The Ansel Adams Gallery." The Ansel Adams Gallery. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"The Ansel Adams Gallery." ArtSlant. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"Camera Obscura." Camera Obscura. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"Charge-coupled Device." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 02 Oct. 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
Gatochy. "Gordon Parks, Countess, 1950." Flickr. Yahoo!, 25 Nov. 2008. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"George Eastman." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 02 Dec. 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"Google." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"GOT ART?: February Is My Birthday & Black History Month." GOT ART?: February Is My Birthday & Black History Month. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"Harry Ransom CenterThe University of Texas at Austin." Harry Ransom Center RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"Joseph Nicephore Niepce." Joseph Nicephore Niepce. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"Kodak." : A Thousand Words. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"Legends Online : John Sexton." Legends Online : John Sexton. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"Metaphor." Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California, 1936, 1936 - Dorothea Lange." Artspace. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"Photography." : John Sexton. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"Photography Influences." : John Sexton. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"Records of the National Park Service." Ansel Adams Photographs. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"Second Hand Medium Format Cameras." Amateur Photographer. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
"Tintype." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 15 Jan. 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
DSLR stands for Digital Single Lens Reflex. These cameras also use a mirror inside of the camera and interchangeable lenses. However, they use memory cards to record the images instead of film. Now mirrorless cameras are available.
John Sexton studied photography and graduated from Cypress College in 1975. He wanted to be an industrial-advertising photographer. However, after attending an Ansel Adams exhibition he quickly changed his mind after seeing Adams' photographs of American landscape. He then chose to take a workshop of Adams where he gained a close association with him. He kept that association until Adams died in 1984. He was an assistant and technical adviser to Adams. He now works at Cypress College in California and director of his own program.
YAY! This is what we are doing in class!
Patrick Andrade will be here as a guest artist to show you how to create Tintpes!
This photo of Billy the Kid sold for 2.3 million dollars!
This photo of Billy the Kid sold for over $2.3 million at auction!
Jesse James with his assumed killer, Robert Ford (left).
In addition to your plan, you will also research a historical photographer. See the list on Ms. Rapp's website.
* Who, What, When, Where

This is our INQUIRY step of our Creative Process!
50 Points
25 Points Extra Credit
(Plan is Optional - Research is Required)
Again, Research is REQUIRED
The tintype was used mostly in the United States. The ambrotype had become popular in Europe, so they didn't need tintypes.
The ambrotype was based on the wet plate collodion process invented by Frederick Scott Archer. Ambrotypes were deliberately underexposed negatives made by that process and optimized for viewing as positives instead. In the US, ambrotypes first came into use in the early 1850s.
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