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Chemistry

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Alisha Walker

on 29 September 2016

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Transcript of Chemistry

DNA is found in chromosomes.
Function:

RNA functions in the process of protein synthesis.

ATP – adenosine triphosphate; an energy transfer molecule.
Nucleic acids (continued; see Table 2–6)
Made of subunits called nucleotides.
Nucleotide – a pentose sugar: deoxyribose or ribose.
a phosphate group.
a nitrogenous base: adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine, and uracil.

DNA is a double helix.
RNA is a single strand.
Nucleic acids – DNA and RNA
Primary structure – sequence of amino acids.
Secondary structure – simple folding.
Tertiary structure – more complex folding.
Quaternary structure – two or more amino acid chains.

Excess amino acids in the diet can be converted to simple carbohydrates.
Proteins – made of amino acids
(General functions: see Table 2–5)
True fats – fatty acids and glycerol.
Triglycerides – stored energy.

Phospholipids – diglyceride + phosphate.
Part of cell membranes.

Steroids – based on cholesterol.
Vitamin D, steroid hormones.
Lipids (see Table 2–4)
Oligosaccharides
“Self” antigens on cell membranes

Polysaccharides
Starch
Glycogen
Cellulose
Carbohydrates (continued)
All contain carbon and hydrogen covalently bonded; many contain oxygen, nitrogen, or other elements.

The four major groups:
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic acids
Organic compounds of importance
Calcium and phosphorus are minerals needed in fairly large amounts.

Sodium, potassium, iron, copper, sulfur, cobalt, and iodine are needed in trace amounts.
Answer
Minerals needed by the body in very small amounts
(see Table 2–2).




Question: Before looking at Table 2–2, try to name the most important minerals and trace elements.
Trace elements
Water – 60% to 75% of the human body.
A solvent.
A lubricant.
Changes temperature slowly.

Water compartments – intracellular.
Extracellular: plasma, tissue fluid, lymph.
Inorganic compounds of importance –
water, oxygen, carbon dioxide
A covalent bond between two sulfur atoms in a protein.
Function:

Hydrogen bonds
The attraction of a hydrogen (+) to a nearby oxygen or nitrogen (–).
Function:
Disulfide bonds
The loss of one or more electrons by one atom and the gain of those electrons by another atom.

Characteristics: Strong in the solid state.
In water, will break.

Examples: Sodium
Chlorine
Ionic bonds
Atom – the smallest part of an element.
Protons: (+) charge, in the atomic nucleus.
Neutrons: no charge, in the nucleus.
Electrons: (–) charge, orbit the nucleus.

Bonding capability:
Atoms
Element – a substance made of only one type of atom
Elements combine in many ways to form molecules.

C, H, O, N, P, S, and Ca = 99% of the human body


Question: Name the elements listed above, and name six other elements, with their symbols.
Elements – the simplest chemicals
Some Basic Chemistry
Chapter 2
1. A bond-forming reaction – synthesis
2. The water within cells – intracellular fluid
3. A pH of 7.4 – slightly alkaline
4. Energy production within cells – cell respiration
5. Energy storage form in the liver – glycogen
6. Proteins that catalyze reactions – enzymes
7. The lipids of cell membranes – phospholipids
8. An energy transfer molecule – ATP
Answers
Give the proper term for each brief description.
1. A bond-forming reaction
2. The water within cells
3. A pH of 7.4
4. Energy production within cells
5. Energy storage form in the liver
6. Proteins that catalyze reactions
7. The lipids of cell membranes
8. An energy transfer molecule
Wrap-Up Question
Enzymes are catalysts.
Active site theory – based on the shape of the enzyme and the substrates.
The enzyme remains unchanged.

Enzyme functioning can be disrupted by heat, pH changes, or poisons.
Proteins (continued): Enzymes
Monosaccharides
Hexose sugars: glucose, fructose, and galactose (C6H12O6)
Pentose sugars:

Disaccharides
Sucrose, maltose, and lactose
Carbohydrates (see Table 2–3)
The pH scale: 0 to 14; pH 7 is neutral.
pH below 7: pH above 7:
An acid increases the H+ concentration of a solution.
A base decreases the H+ concentration.

Cellular pH: 6.8 to 7.0; blood pH: 7.35 to 7.45.

Buffer systems prevent sudden and drastic changes in the pH of body fluids.
Acids, bases, and pH

Carbon dioxide – produced as a waste product of cell respiration.

Cell respiration:
Glucose + O2  CO2 + H2O + ATP + heat
Oxygen – 21% of the atmosphere; essential for cell respiration.
Synthesis reactions – bonds are formed.

Decomposition reactions – bonds are broken.
Chemical reactions
The sharing of electrons between atoms.

Characteristic: Strong, even in water.

Examples: Water (H2O)
Oxygen (O2)
Organic compounds based on carbon
Covalent bonds
Chemical bond – force that keeps atoms together in the form of molecules.

Types of bonds
Ionic
Covalent
Hydrogen
Disulfide
Chemical bonds
The elements that equal 99% of the human body are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and calcium.

Others elements include sodium (Na), potassium (K), Chlorine (Cl), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), Iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn).
Answers (see Table 2–1)
1. A bond-forming reaction – synthesis
2. The water within cells – intracellular fluid
3. A pH of 7.4 – slightly alkaline
4. Energy production within cells – cell respiration
5. Energy storage form in the liver – glycogen
6. Proteins that catalyze reactions – enzymes
7. The lipids of cell membranes – phospholipids
8. An energy transfer molecule – ATP

Answers


RNA
functions in the process of protein synthesis
ATP – adenosine triphosphate; an energy transfer
molecule
Nucleic acids
Enzymes are
catalysts
- speed up chemical reactions
-thousands of chemical reactions in body
-different enzyme for each reaction
- must take place at body temp
- Enzyme functioning can be disrupted by heat, pH changes, or poisons (lead)
Proteins
1. True fats
– composed fatty acids and glycerol

Triglycerides
– store energy:
-
saturated
: fats usually solid at room
temperature
-animal products
-
unsaturated
: liquid at room temperature
-plant oils, some fish oils
-
transfats
: change unsaturated fats to
preserve foods so they c/b stored longer
without refrigeration
- BAD =atherosclerosis
Lipids
1. Oligosaccharides
-
not
sources of energy like other carbs
- “Self” antigens on cell membranes
-
antigen
is a chemical marker that id cells that are our own
2. Polysaccharides
-
Starch
: produced by plant cells to store energy; potatoes, rice, wheat, breads
-
Glycogen
: is our storage form of glucose
-
Cellulose:
from vegetables and we have no enzyme to digest (peas, broccoli,beans)
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
found in honey, sweet fruits
Disaccharides
found in milk products
Carbohydrates
(see Table 2–3)

The four major groups
:
1.
Carbohydrates
- serve as energy
sources for cell respiration
a. monosaccharides
b. disaccharides
c. oligosaccharides
d. polysaccharides
-saccharides are sugars
2.
Lipids
3.
Proteins
4.
Nucleic acids

Organic compounds
Calcium and phosphorus are minerals needed in fairly
large amounts

Sodium, potassium, iron, copper, sulfur, cobalt, and
iodine are needed in trace amounts.
water, oxygen, carbon dioxide
Synthesis reactions – bonds are
formed.

Decomposition reactions – bonds are
broken
.

Chemical reactions
The sharing of electrons between atoms.
Covalent bonds
Chemical bond
– force that keeps atoms together in the form of molecules.
Chemical bonds
-the smallest part of an element

Protons
: (+) charge, in the nucleus.

Neutrons
: no charge, in the nucleus.

Electrons
: (–) charge, orbit the nucleus.
Atoms
Element
– a substance made of only one type of
atom
Elements combine in many ways to form
molecules.


Elements – the simplest chemicals
Give the proper term for each brief description.
1. A bond-forming reaction
2. The water within cells
3. A pH of 7.4
4. Energy production within cells
5. Energy storage form in the liver
6. Proteins that catalyze reactions
7. The lipids of cell membranes
8. An energy transfer molecule
Wrap-Up Question
Nucleic acids – DNA
Proteins
pH scale: range 0 to 14 pH 7 is neutral.
pH below 7: acid pH above 7: alkaline

Blood pH: 7.35 to 7.45

Buffer systems prevent sudden and drastic changes in the
pH of body fluids; this is important for maintaining________________??

pH of body fluids maintained in 3 ways:
1. excess H excreted in urine
2. increasing loss of CO2 through respiratory system
3. buffers: chemicals help to maintain limits b/t acidity
and alkalinity
Acids, bases, and pH
Trace elements
Elements that equal 99% of the human body
are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen,
phosphorus, sulfur, and calcium.

Others elements include sodium (Na),
potassium (K), Chlorine (Cl), iron (Fe),
copper (Cu), Iodine (I), magnesium (Mg),
and zinc (Zn).
Basic

Chemistry

Chapter 2
Inorganic compounds of importance
Na + Cl = salt
ICF: 65% of total body water
ECF: remainder-35%
-plasma: water in blood vessels
-lymph: water in lymphatic vesels
-tissue fluid: water in spaces b/t cells
-specialized fluid: joints, CSF, aqueous humor..
This is a result of the sharing of electrons or transfer of electrons
Na + Cl = salt
CO2 is a toxic gas
Needed in body in very small amounts
See pg 32 in your book, Table 2-2
Trace Elements
2. Phospholipids
- used for structure of cell membranes
-form myelin sheath to provide electrical insulation for neurons


- made of amino acids
-20 amino acids make-up human proteins
-get from animal foods; beef, chicken, pork, fish as well as
beans, peas, nuts, corn and grains
Functions
:
1.
structure
: keratin (skin, hair); collagen (tendons, ligaments)
2.
hormones
: insulin, growth hormone
3.
Hgb
: RBC to carry O2
4.
Antibodies
: immune system
5.
myosin, actin
: muscles, cell
"lock-n-key"


-Made of subunits called nucleotides.
-DNA is a double helix
-DNA is found in chromosomes.
Function: genetic code
O2: a gas; we inhale 21% O2 from atmosphere
- required for cell respiration
CO2: produced by cells as a waste product of cell respiration; we exhale CO2
H2O: 60-75% of human body
-solvent
-lubricant
-helps body maintain constant temperature
Body Fluids
Ionic Bond
`
-loss of one or more electrons and gain
of one or more electrons
Covalent Bond
sharing of electrons b/t atoms
Disulfide Bond
a covalent bond b/t 2 atoms of sulfur; hair
Hydrogen Bond
results d/t to property of hydrogen
Cell Respiration
process of energy production within cells; involves O2 and CO2
p32 Table 2-2
Trace elements
Minerals needed by the body in very small amounts
Elements
-make up all living and non-living things
-combine with other elements to form a
compound
-made of one type of atom
-92 naturally occurring
-about 20 different elements in human body
ATP
ATP
-product of cell respiration
-energy source for cell processes: mitosis, muscle contraction, protein synthesis for growth and repair
cell division
3. Steroids
cholesterol
: important steroid
-liver makes it
-we consume it: animal foods: beef, pork, milk products, egg yolks
Uses:
-important component of cell membranes
-used to make hormones estrogen and testosterone
-in skin it is changed to vitamin D when exposed to sunlight
-liver cells use for digestion of fats

***saccharide means sugar

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