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Transcript of Printmaking
and TECHNIQUES 1. Definition
2. Brief History
3. Forms and Techniques
- Examples San Miguel Binondo
- Francisco Blancas de San Jose (Spanish Dominican) and Juan de Vera (Carver) produce prints in the first workshop using woodblock method.
- In 1592, they completed the Beng Sim Po Cam - a Chinese Catechism Xylography
Planographic Method Printmaking is the art of creating an original design on a hard surface such as wood or metal, and then transferring its image onto a pliant surface like paper or cloth, by means of pressure By 1593, they had printed three more books by xylographic method
1. Doctrina Christiana en lengua Espanola y Tagala
- Best known and most artistic
- Portrait of Santo Domingo in symbolic array and settings
2. Doctrina Christiana en letra y lengua China
- Had on its cover an escudo de armas (coat of arms)
- Had on its cover an illustration on the theme of Christianization of the sangley
- Dominican Monk - Between 1600 and 1604, the first printing press of movable type was used.
- Tomas Pinpin, Jacinto Magarulao, Raimundo Mag-isa, and Andres Belen are some of the names, imprinted on the handcrafted books that survived today.
- MATERIALS XYLOGRAPHY -Chinese method of printing from relief images cut on woodblocks
-"Wood carving" or "woodcut" Xylography RELIEF PAINTING This is printing from a raised surface.
A simple example of relief is a rubber stamp pressed into a stamp pad and pressed onto a piece of paper. RELIEF PAINTING Principal methods are: woodcut, wood engraving, lino-cut (linoleum), rubber-cut, metal-cut and collagraph. Woodblock or Woodcut - form of printing in which a carved woodblock covered with ink is used. Linoleum block or lino-cut - method of printing in which the image to be printed is carved into a block of linoleum. Collagraph - technique for making plates involving the use of pasting different materials on a base of Masonite, wood or cardboard. Ink-less embossed print - building or lowering a surface onto which damp paper can be molded and subjected to great pressure to transfer the design INTAGLIO -The opposite of relief painting.
-The printed image comes from the inks deposited in the grooves and lines beneath the surface of the plate
Some intaglio methods are acquaint, engraving, etching, mezzotint, drypoint. In acquaint, an acid-resistant powder is used to coat the plate, which is then immersed in acid so only the uncoated areas are etched. This gives the print a grainy appearance. In engraving, an image is drawn on copper plate with a graver. In etching, the plate is covered with acid-resistant coating and the design scratched into this. The plate is then immersed in acid to create lines in the uncoated areas. In mezzotint, the whole plate is roughened to hold the ink which creates a dark background. The artist smoothens some areas so they will hold less ink allowing tonal gradations to be produced. In drypoint, lines are scratched with a steel needle. >Includes LITHOGRAPHY and SERIGRAPHY PLANOGRAPHIC METHOD //insert picture to fill up space Lithography
A method of printing in which an image is drawn on a perfectly flat limestone slab or prepared from the metal plates, usually zinc; hence the name zincography.
Serigraph or Silk Screen is a stencil process using a mesh that is stretched over a frame. Ink is forced through openings in the mesh, which can be blocked by a variety of methods. 18th century Golden Era of Philippine Engraving
Nicholas de la Cruz Bagay, Francisco Suarez, Laureano Atlas and Phelipe Sevilla
Estampas - prints of miraculous images made for distribution to devotees at their shrine
Estampitas -smaller estampas used as markers in devotional books
Atelier System - an apprentice is trained on craft of engraving by a master engraver Decline in the quality of engravings, with the exceptions of the works produced by Ysidro Paulino, Bentura Javier, V. Atlas, T. Atlas and C. Borromeo
Subject matter became more and more secular
Lithography was introduced. 19th Century With the introduction of photography in lithography printing for mass reproduction, handmade printmaking as a fine-art form vanished.
Printmaking is clearly differentiated from reproduction. 20th Century After World War II, mainly due to the return of Manuel Rodriguez Sr. and Rodolfo Paras-Perez, who conducted workshops and re-educated people about printmaking.
Contemporary printmaking may be classified into three general categories:
-Planographic Method Re-emergence of Printmaking Manuel Rodriguez, Sr.
-Regarded as the Father of Philippine Printmaking
-Had a very important role in the organization of the Philippine Association of Printmakers (PAP)
-Introduced printmaking in the Philippine Women's University Manuel Rodriguez Sr.