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Social Development and Self-Regulation

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Sam O

on 21 April 2013

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Transcript of Social Development and Self-Regulation

Social Skills Development
Self-Regulation in Primary What is Self-Regulation? What are Social Skills? Curriculum Connections Bibliography
Webster, J., Teaching social skills http://specialed.about.com/od/characterbuilding/a/Teaching-Social-Skills.htm Government of South Australia's website:http://www.decd.sa.gov.au/speced2/pages/default/37341/?reFlag=1 Strategies for Enhancing Students’ Social Development http://www.decd.sa.gov.au/speced2/files/links/Strategies_for_Enhancing_S.pdf Encouraging Self-Regulated Learning in the Classroom: A Review of the Literature http://merc.soe.vcu.edu/Reports/Self%20Regulated%20Learning.pdf http://www.education.com/magazine/article/self-regulation-children/ Pelco, L.E., Self-Regulation and Learning-Related Social Skills: Intervention Ideas for Elementary School Students
http://journals1.scholarsportal.info.proxy1.lib.uwo.ca/tmp/12024387830702498112.pdf Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2007). Self-Regulation, Ego Depletion, and Motivation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1, 1-14. Zimmerman, B., J. (2000).Attaining Self-Regulation: A Social Cognitive Perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner, Handbook of Self-Regulation. (pp 13- 35). San Diego:Academic Press. Moller, A. C., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2006). Choice & ego-depletion: A self-determination theory perspective. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 1024-1036 Hersen M, Bellack AS. 1977. Assessment of social skills. In: Cininero AR, Calhoun KS, editors. Handbook of behavior assessment. New York: Wiley Liberman RP, King LW, DeRisi WJ, et al. 1975. Personal Effectiveness. Champaign (IL): Research Press. Trower P. 1982. Toward a generative model of social skills: A critque and synthesis. In: Curran JP, Monti PM, editors. Social skills training: A practical handbook for assessment and treatment. New York: Guilford Press. Wiemann JM. 1977. Explication and test of a model of communicative competence. Human Communication Research 3:195-213. Social skills are really important in every aspect of our life (personal, emotional, relationship) and they need to be acquired in the childhood for a long term success in the adulthood.

Social skills are defined as the "ability to express feelings or to communicate interests and desires to others" (Liberman et al. 1975).
It is also defined as "the ability to express both positive and negative feelings in the interpersonal context without suffering consequent loss of social reinforcement" (Hersen and Bellack 1977).
As Wiemann (1977) states it is "the ability of an interactant to choose optimal communicative behaviors for successful accomplishing his own interpersonal goal during the interaction while maintaining the face and line of his fellow interactants" (Wiemann 1977) and "the process of generating skilled behavior directed to a goal" (Trower 1982).

According to Spence (1985) social skills are categorized into three skill elements:
- Non-verbal skills which include body posture, gestures, or physical proximity.
- Verbal skills that include tone, pitch, and volume.
- Conversational skills for initiating, maintaining and ending a conversation (Liberman et al. 1989). Self-regulation is the "ability self’s capacity to alter its behaviors" (Baumeister & Vohs, 2007).

These behaviors are changed in accordance to "some standards, ideals or goals either stemming from internal or societal expectations" (Baumeister & Vohs, 2007).
The presence and quality of these actions depend on "one’s beliefs and motives" (Zimmerman, 2000).
Shah and Kruglanski (2000) suggest that everyday self-regulation involves "the pursuit of many different goals, standards, and ideals".

As Moller, Deci and Ryan (2006) state, there are two types of self-regulation:

Autonomous self-regulation: characterized by feeling as though the behavior, emotion, or cognition being regulated is regulated for reasons that a person values, finds meaningful, and wholly endorses

Controlled self-regulation: characterized by feelings of internal or external pressure that conflict with what one would otherwise choose (e.g., avoiding shame, interpersonal rejection, or physical punishment). Various sections of the Provincial Curriculum have direct correlations to the building of an understanding of rules and responsibilities and to the development of self-regulatory behaviours. This being said, it is possible to use strategies such as TRIBES, self-directed learning models, differentiation of instruction and assessment, to create an environment that develops these behaviours and capacities on a day to day basis. Science and Technology

Through the process of experimentation and monitoring the science curriculum provides an excellent opportunity for students to develop methods for investigation. By giving students an opportunity to evaluate their own and each others methods it is possible to build a “scientific community” within the class room.

Where the curriculum is fairly definitely about rules, responsibilities and self-regulation space has not been taken in expanding the ways in which the curriculum addresses these concerns. The expectations have been taken directly from the Ontario curriculum documents. Here, however, we will look only at those aspects of the curriculum that address this important developmental capacity directly. Essential Social Skills Children will be taught a variety of Social Skills throughout their elementary school years. Of all of these, the following list represents crucial Social Skills that need to be developed in the primary grades. 1. Cooperative Learning
Students need to learn how to work as a member of a group. Often, at this age, students tend to complete their part of the assignment and then become uninvolved. A great deal of learning takes place when students work together. In addition, students need to be taught to be a productive member of a group. Everyone needs to take part in the discussion and decisions. Student need to accept a variety of roles when working within a group.
As the social aspect of school life becomes more prevalent, students need to learn how to work with everyone in the classroom, not only friends.

2. Becoming a Critical Friend
Students need to be taught to listen attentively to others when in groups or as a whole classroom. At this age, children are mostly just waiting to give their answer or opinion without listening or taking in the comments of their peers. They need to practice being an active listener as well as participant.
Students need to be taught how to give constructive feedback when commenting on others' work. They need to learn how to ask pertinent questions that will make others reflect.

3. Conflict Resolution
In the Primary grades, learning how to resolve conflict is important. Children need to be taught how to disagree with others. They need to learn how to solve issues with friends without always seeking the help of an adult.
They need to learn how to apologize.

4. Problem Solving
As students approach the junior grades, independence becomes more crucial. Students should be taught to persevere when attempting to solve a problem, or when they have a dilemma, when something is difficult. For the first few years, they have not needed to rely on themselves too much. We need to encourage them to try to solve their issue before seeking assistance. Students need to be taught and given opportunities to show perseverance.

5. Self Confidence
This is more of an emotional skill, but it is essential as it will help students succeed in all of the above skills.
Students need to be given opportunities to build upon their self-esteem by experiencing success, pride.
They are entering a difficult stage of life and the more confidence they have, the more open to learn they will be.
Students should be encouraged to display self advocacy. They should understand the importance of speaking up for themselves. Arts Dance: students begin to travel through pathways, use gesture to communicate feelings, and explore a range of levels, shapes, and locomotor and non-locomotor movements. Students also develop their ability to move and control their bodies in space and time and begin to create short dance pieces using the elements of dance.

Through building performance skills and working in as a class in pairs,groups or as individuals students are given the opportunity to communicate ideas and feelings through movement. Themes can be used to tie movement work to other aspects of the curriculum. Arts Drama: students learn to step into role in order to live through the imagined context of the drama, and to step out of role to reflect upon and make personal connections to the drama experience. Some opportunities for independent and self-directed pretend play should be provided as a bridge to more structured learning experiences

By stepping into the role of a character students learn how to understand their own feelings and how they are able to manage them. They may also be given the skills they need to respect and understand the feelings of others by imagining themselves in dramatic situations. Connections can be made top stories, to people in the community, and other curriculum areas as dramatic contexts. Arts Visual Arts: students begin to explore art in the world around them, to understand that people all over the world create and enjoy art, and to develop the ability to communicate about their immediate environment and interests through visual images

Through visual art students learn to value their self expression. Teaching students how to speak about art as the individual expression of ideas or emotions shows them to value each other and themselves. Use a critical discussion model such as: What did you like . . . What would you have done if you had made this . . . provides students with a way of discussing work without being negative. Students also learn various rules around composition, colours and organization. Arts Music: In Grade 3, students perform simple rounds, create and perform soundscapes and melodies based upon the pentatonic scale, and begin to identify and appreciate the role of music in their lives - exploring music as a form of social interaction

Through learning the structures of music students learn to value rules as limits in which there are many variations and freedoms. As they begin to play with musical ideas and build the skills they need to play music together they develop the sense of community and responsibility to each other while expressing their own individual part. Health Living Skills: demonstrate personal and interpersonal skills and the use of critical and creative thinking processes as they acquire knowledge and skills in connection with the expectations in the Active Living, Movement Competence, and Healthy Living strands for this grade

Personal Skills
use self-awareness and self-monitoring skills to help them understand their strengths and needs, take responsibility for their actions, recognize sources of stress, and monitor their own progress, as they participate in physical activities, develop movement competence, and acquire knowledge and skills related to healthy living
use adaptive, management, and coping skills to help them respond to the various challenges they encounter as they participate in physical activities, develop movement competence, and acquire knowledge and skills related to healthy living Health Interpersonal Skills
communicate effectively, using verbal or non-verbal means, as appropriate, and interpret information accurately as they participate in physical activities, develop movement competence, and acquire knowledge and skills related to healthy living
apply relationship and social skills as they participate in physical activities, develop movement competence, and acquire knowledge and skills related to healthy living to help them interact positively with others, build healthy relationships, and become effective team members Health Critical and Creative Thinking
use a range of critical and creative thinking skills and processes to assist them in making connections, planning and setting goals, analysing and solving problems, making decisions, resolving conflicts, and evaluating their choices in connection with learning in health and physical education

Through the process of analysing and solving problems - first in literary contexts or in dramatic contexts students develop the skills to regulate their own behaviour in problem situations and in situations of conflict. They learn that conflict is a natural part of life and that how you deal with conflict makes a difference. Health Personal Safety and Injury Prevention
explain how the portrayal of fictional violence in various media (e.g., television dramas, video games, Internet, movies) can create an unrealistic view of the consequences of real violence

By gaining the skills to critically understand and make judgements on the content of the media with which they interact students will be able to regulate the kinds of images to which they are exposed and understand their effects on others and the society. Language Arts Oral Communication

listen in order to understand and respond appropriately in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes;

use speaking skills and strategies appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes;

reflect on and identify their strengths as listeners and speakers, areas for improvement, and the strategies they found most helpful in oral communication situations. Language Arts
reflect on and identify their strengths as readers, areas for improvement, and the strategies they found most helpful before, during, and after reading
reflect on and identify their strengths as writers, areas for improvement, and the strategies they found most helpful at different stages in the writing process.
Media Literacy
reflect on and identify their strengths as media interpreters and creators, areas for improvement, and the strategies they found most helpful in understanding and creating media texts.

Strategies for assisting students in reflection on reading (or any activity) help them to become self aware, building intra personal intelligence. They become objective observers of their own activity and are able to accept that they have strengths and weaknesses. They are then more able to discover and correct their own mistakes and to celebrate their own successes. This also provides them with the critical sense they need to make decisions about they creation of their own work and the quality and influence of the work of others. Mathematics Data management and Probability
collect and organize categorical or discrete primary data and display the data using charts and graphs, including vertical and horizontal bar graphs, with labels ordered appropriately along horizontal axes, as needed;

read,describe,and interpret primary data presented in charts and graphs,including vertical and horizontal bar graphs;

predict and investigate the frequency of a specific outcome in a simple probability experiment.

By having students work as teams to interpret and create mathematical models of the world we provide them with the ability to separate and quantify events. This may be applied to more complex social situations. Social Studies
Anti-discrimination Education in Social Studies

The social studies, history, and geography curriculum is designed to help students acquire the “habits of mind” essential in a complex democratic society characterized by rapid technological, economic, political, and social change. Students are expected to demonstrate an under- standing of the rights, privileges, and responsibilities of citizenship, as well as willingness to show respect, tolerance, and understanding towards individuals, groups, and cultures in the global community and respect and responsibility towards the environment. Social Studies
Guidance and Social Studies

The guidance and career education program should be aligned with the social studies, history, and geography curriculum. Teachers need to ensure that the classroom learning across all grades and subjects provides ample opportunity for students to learn how to work independently (e.g., complete homework independently), cooperate with others, resolve conflicts, participate in class, solve problems, and set goals to improve their work. Social Studies
Urban and Rural Communities Unit for Grade Three

explain how communities interact with each other and the environment to meet human needs. Social Studies
Application (From Specific Expectations)
By the end of Grade 3, students will:

–  describe ways in which they and their families use the natural environment (e.g., playing in the park, growing food, drawing on nature for water and energy);

–  compare the characteristics of their community to those of a different community (e.g., with respect to population density, services, recreation, modes of travel to isolated northern and First Nation communities);

–  describe ways in which people interact with other communities (e.g., urban dwellers may travel to rural areas for recreational purposes; rural dwellers may make use of urban services such as hospitals). Theories Linking Academic Success in School to Social Skills:
In 1978, Lev Vgotsky, a psychologist, stated that social interaction was necessary in order to acquire new knowledge and skills. Children’s minds are further developed when they interact with others who are more intellectual (Sung, 2009).
According to this theory, students need to know how to socialize with their classmates or they will miss a learning opportunity, and therefore, linking academics and social skills.

In addition, Albert Bandura, a psychologist, developed a social learning theory claiming that children learn through observation and will copy “cognitive skills and behavior” of others (Sung, 2009).
Social skills such as attentive listening, social interaction and self-regulation are necessary for students to effectively contribute in class, listen, and learn from others. Teachers’ Affect on Academic Success:
Primary students may or may not arrive at school with some social skills. Research suggests that teachers need to take the time to teach social skills to students, otherwise, “they may not benefit from the academic instruction offered.” (Farmer-Dougan, 1999).

Social skills must be explicitly taught so students can learn in a classroom environment.

Students need to learn how to effectively participate in a classroom full of other students with a variety of abilities. Teachers' Affect on Academic Success: Social competence and self-regulation were “significant predictors of students’ academic performance at both the beginning of kindergarten and the end of the second grade.” (Sung, 2009) Students who have insufficient social skills are likely to have more behavior issues and therefore miss a lot of academic instruction (Farmer-Dougan, 1999).

Therefore, students who have poor social skills also tend to have behavioral issues. Behavioural issues lead to absences from lessons and limited social interaction.

As a result, children, “lose opportunities for the social exchange of academic information.” (Sung, 2009).
Students who fail to follow teachers' expectations are at risk for poor social relationships and unsuccessful academic results (Lane, 2006). Specific Social Skills and their
Relation to Academic Success: Poor social skills perpetuate a situation where students may feel anxiety. In fact, anxiety is one of the social issues that, “directly impacted academic achievement with significance.” (Sung, 2009).

Students who fear social interaction are not able to learn from each other as easily, and therefore their achievement is hindered. Specific Social Skills and their
Relation to Academic Success: Students, who have insufficient social skills, are likely to have more behavior issues and therefore miss a lot of academic instruction (Farmer-Dougan, 1999).

Therefore, teachers need to take the time to model appropriate social behavior and create a balance between their teaching of social skills and academics in order to support academic achievement (Farmer-Dougan, 1999).

Ultimately, students who feel more confident are typically going to try harder, and therefore, will have more success both academically and socially (Webb and Brigman, 2006) Bibliography Webb, Linda D & Brigman, Greg. (Dec 2006). Student Success Skills: Tools and Strategies for Improved Academic and Social Outcomes. Professional School Counseling 10. 2: 112-120. Sung, Young ji Yoon. (March 2009). The Effect of Social Skills on Academic Achievement of Linguistically Diverse Elementary Students: Concurrent and Longitudinal Analysis. Blacksburg, Virginia Farmer - Dougan, Valeri, Viechtbaur, Wolfgang; French, Tricia. (June 1999). Peer-prompted social skills: The role of teacher consultation in student success. Educational Psychology 19. 2: 207-219. Lane, Kathleen L; Wehby, Joseph H; Cooley, Cristy. (Winter 2006). Teacher Expectations of Students' Classroom Behavior Across the Grade Span: Which Social Skills Are Necessary for Success?Exceptional Children 72. 2 (Winter 2006): 153-167. Practical in-classroom tools Students should be involved in constructing tools and motivators to help then assess and be aware of their behaviour in specific situations.

1. A beginning strategy is to Create a list of expectations for the student for the day. Examples are "Getting dressed quickly for recess" "coming in and sitting down quietly" "not yelling across the room" "putting my hand up when I need help" The student would be consulted on what they feel needs to go on the box.

2. Throughout the day, reward the student with something visual to show an achievement or nonachievement of the skill. A way to do this is using a Chart with stickers or stamps. Students could be asked to assess themselves by checking off where they feel they were successful before the teacher verifies it with a sticker/stamp.
Kids with self-regulation problems are internally unstructured so classroom structure and predictability are essential.
Boundaries must be clearly established for whole school (what is acceptable and what is unacceptable)
Most impulsive children require a firm, more authoritative parental discipline
Use direct instruction Practical Strategies For Teaching Self-Regulation & Social Skills
When you sense a child is getting upset, try to make the environment calmer. Lower the lights, reduce noise and try to engage the child in quieter activities.
Limit play time or work time with other impulsive children
Emphasize personal safety and safety of others (stop, do, think)
Teach “ask 3 peers before me” to empower problem solving skills and decrease dependence
Seat students near you so you can check in and give words of encouragement
Remind students that learning new things is difficult and practice makes them easier Practical reinforcers Students can also have visual reminders throughout the day at their desks.
A couple of easy examples:

1. The student has a set of small pictures that the student crosses off if the behaviour is not achieved as the school day progresses
Children gain greater capacity for empathy, compromise and kindness to others as they mature cognitively and emotionally and see these skills MODELLED by others.

Watch films, videos and role plays of competent social skills – take time to discuss what was seen

Use Checklists for self-monitoring

Stoplight Cards: Go (green) signs for positive interactions and friendships, Stop (red) signs for actions which prevent good friendships, Yellow signs for learning how to change… walk away, find a quiet place, ask a teacher, use a help card, find a buddy.
Role playing is a great way to give students an opportunity not only to practice the skills they are learning, but also teach students to evaluate each others or their own performance of skills.
Helps shy, withdrawn or belligerent young people to become one step removed from themselves.
Young people will begin to transfer these role-plays into real life situations
Situations that students can act out:
Cartoon Strip Social Interactions: Introduced by Carol Gray as Comic Strip Conversations, these cartoons let students fill in the thought and speech bubbles before they role play a conversation. Research has shown that these are effective ways to help students build social interaction skills.

Video Self Modeling: Videotape the student performing the social skill with lots of prompting, and edit out the prompting to create a more seamless digital recording. This video, paired with rehearsal, will support the student's effort to generalize the social skill.
Positive reinforcement of acceptable behaviour assists in promoting these behaviours. Young people are encouraged to observe and imitate acceptable behaviours

Examples: earn a class point, meet the goal of the week, 5 minutes of extra play, a classroom responsibility

Simply state what behaviour is being reinforced. Example: “you said thank you when_______.”-activity, social, positive? Self Awareness Developing the skills needed for "self" and that self as a respectful social being X x x
x 2. The student may also have a personal reminder taped
on the desk that is referred to
throughout the day
to specifically target emotions
-could be for emotions, how one
treats other socially etc.
-how they are managing what
they are feeling Take a breath and
then re-read the
instructions Students often experience frustration but do not realize that it is often a product of other emotions at work. Useful Activities for Developing Self-Regulation and Social Skills Role-Playing How to initiate friendships
How to deal with rejection when others say “no”
How to say “no” to others
How to greet others and give compliments Modelling Social Skills and Using Visuals Positive Reinforcers Learning Environment Expectations and Boundaries Social Skills Cartoon
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