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Case Study: In the Eye of the Perfect Storm: Creating Access

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Jessica Robert Morris

on 4 September 2014

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Transcript of Case Study: In the Eye of the Perfect Storm: Creating Access

Case Study: In the Eye of the Perfect Storm: Creating Accessibility--IBM, GM, and CISCO
What does it mean to be disabled?
"Disability" under Social Security is based on your inability to work. We consider you disabled under Social Security rules if:

You cannot do work that you did before;
We decide that you cannot adjust to other work because of your medical condition(s); and
Your disability has lasted or is expected to last for at least one year or to result in death.

http://www.ssa.gov/dibplan/dqualify4.htm
Can people be disabled and work?
Yes... The ADA protects people who are disabled but can work in an area outside of their disability because they are protected by ADA.

ADA: Americans with Disabilities Act--The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) prohibits discrimination and ensures equal opportunity for persons with disabilities in employment, State and local government services, public accommodations, commercial facilities, and transportation.
Diversity Snapshot: People with Disabilities continue to reach the top
Stevie Wonder: "Handicaps are really to be used another way to benefit yourself and others."
Stevie Wonder at 14 years old
Case Study
What is the "Perfect Storm for People with Disabilities?

3 interconnected systems of discrimination that creates the perfect storm.
3 Systems of Discrimination
1. Inadequate Social Structure
2. Cultural Assumptions about Hiring People with Disabilities
3. Disincentives
Inadequate Social Structure
Limited Social groups compared to other minorities

Disability Rights Movement less influential than other movements

Disability Diversity makes it hard to have a sound social structure

Conditions that are considered a disability: Do people with cancer, HIV, or severe diabetes qualify?
3 Assumptions
1. People with Disabilities are unreliable

2. Accommodating People with Disabilities in the Workplace is Costly

3. People with Disabilities are Likely to Sue Their Employer
Challenge Your Assumptions
Disincentives
The complexity of the American health care and insurance systems to people with disabilities.

Social Security Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income are two options that allow people with disabilities to obtain public health insurance.

Rising health care makes it more expensive to hire people with disabilities.

Shelter from the Perfect Storm
Government Efforts: The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services established in 2002 the Office of disabilities. --federal agency that work to help policies and programs and facilities that can advance people with disabilities and overcome barriers

Nonprofit Efforts: The National Disability Right Network provides free legal services for people with disabilities to fight violations of civil rights.

Business Efforts: Many business organizations embrace accessibility and the 3 examples from the case study are IBM, GM, and CISCO.
IBM, GM & CISCO: History and Background

Founded in 1911 by Thomas Watson as CTR
Also called “Big Blue”
Renamed in 1924
1930s- calculators
1944- Mark I computer with Harvard
1953- first general purpose computer
IBM 701 EDPM


1980- Along with Bill Gates worked on home consumer PC
1981- Launch of the first PC
Ran on 4.77 MHz Intel 8088 microprocessor


The PC Revolution

Fortune: Rank 2 as largest U.S firm for 400,000+ employees
Top 20 in highest revenue
Rank 1 for leaders
12 research labs; Holds record- highest number of patents for 20 years!


IBM Today

Co-founded in 1984 by Len Bosack and Sandy Lerner in Stanford
1989- 111 employees and $27 million revenue!
First multi protocol router in 1986
1997- VoIP technology
1998- first cable modem, Layer 3 switches

$48 billion revenue
75,000 employees
Has over 14 billion devices connected to the internet!

Cisco Today

Founded in 1902 by William Durant in Detroit
Became multi-national by 1911 with export division
1920s- sales topped 4.5 million units
1955- first American company to earn more than $1 billion a year

One of the world’s largest automakers by vehicle unit sales
Led global vehicle sales from 1931 to 2007
Has business in 157 countries
Over 200,000 employees
Over $150 billion revenue (2013)



GM today

What do all 3 companies have in common?
Employing people with disabilities makes good business sense
a recruiting program that was established in the 1970s to reach outstanding college candidates of diverse backgrounds.
The program was expanded in 1995 to include women and people with disabilities.


IBM Project View

Entry Point Students
Rodney Stewart

Majored in mechanical engineering at New Mexico State University


Intern for two summers at IBM in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina
hired by IBM to work at its manufacturing facility

Mobility impairment



The Associated Services for the Blind and Visually Impaired have honored IBM with the Corporate Award

Disability Rights Advocates awarded IBM for decades of accessible technology development

The New York City Mayor's Office for People with Disabilities honored IBM with Title IV of the ADA Telecommunications Award. New York City mayor, Michael R. Bloomberg, presented the award, praising IBM's commitment to increasing technological accessibility for people with disabilities.


IBM awards for its commitment to people with disabilities

1980, IBM developed a talking typewriter for people who were blind


IBM and customers with disabilities

1975,IBM developed the Model 1403 Braille printer

IBM and customers with disabilities

modifies its work-related equipment
display screen magnifiers
keyboard special switches
real-time captioning of meetings and Webcasts
travel assistance for employees that have mobility impairments.

Accommodations at IBM

Melanie Rose studies Computer Science & Mathematics at Southwest Baptist University.

interned as a website designer for IBM in Raleigh, NC.
Melanie has muscular dystrophy and rides an electric wheelchair.

Intern at IBM

opportunity for students with disabilities to get on-the-job experience in their majors and learn about the many careers IBM has to offer nationwide

Entry Point IBM internship program



7 billion people on the planet
1.2 billion have a disability
600+ million are over the age of 60
900+ million have low or no literacy
2.4 million children have cognitive learning difficulties

Factors Driving Accessibility

Home Page Reader tool, a self-voicing Web browser



IBM and customers with disabilities

Constructing ramps
Power doors and adjusted parking facilities
For employees that at heard of hearing captioning videotapes and sign language interpreters
For the retirees that are visually impaired recorded publications.

Accommodations at IBM


diversity recruitment

offers people with disabilities the chance to explore IBM careers nationwide.


IBM Project Able

Pioneered the cause to open the world of information technology (IT) to more people, regardless of ability
favorable hiring practices

Sponsoring education and employment programs

IBM - Accessibility

“Outshining The Perfect Storm”

Comprised of three systems
the inadequate social structure for people with disabilities
a set of pervasive cultural assumptions about hiring people with disabilities
and the two-sided disincentive for both the employee and employer


What is the perfect storm?

“GM has long been committed throughout its global operations to hiring people with varied backgrounds. This hiring practice is the right thing to do, but just as important, it creates a competitive advantage for GM. Having a workforce that reflects the marketplace helps GM more effectively reach customers and provide products and services they want.”

The GMability Philosophy


Making strides in being an equal opportunity employer.
Being a disabled worker does not make a person undesirable as a possible candidate for hire.
GM does everything possible to help you succeed.
The level of respect that GM exudes for their employees shows that they truly value what the employee brings to the company.
GM goes above and beyond in tending to the requests and concerns for their disabled employees well beyond the legal parameters set by law.

GM’s going above and beyond!

Affinity group which promotes awareness of the abilities of those with disabilities.
Serves as a resource to GM employees who are disabled or who care for a person with a disability.
They provide valuable input to the company relative to accessible design of our products and facilities.

People With Disabilities Employee Resource Group (PWD)

Enhancing products
Recruiting employees
Increasing disability awareness
Consulting with GM Mobility


Attributes of PWD

A program that allows people with disabilities to purchase new vehicles and have them outfitted with special features that allow them to drive as the average driver would.
Consults with the driver as to what their disabilities are and what features are available to get them on the road.
A multitude of features and services to put the customer at ease in knowing that they are getting something that can definitely make driving an ease.
GM Mobility Website
http://www.gmmobility.com/



What is Gmobility?

mobility financial assistance
reimbursement up to one thousand dollars to help towards getting a new GM vehicle retrofitted with mobility assistance equipment.
We're here to help!

Looks beyond a person’s disability, not allowing it to be a factor in the hiring process.
Provides disabled employees with all the necessary modifications to allow for a comfortable workspace.
Work culture that promotes equality
Uses advantage of the diversity within their work environment
The PWD Employee Resource Group

A Company to Look Up To

GM Modified
An Easy Way to Understand all this
Jan. 2014- 100 Best Companies to Work For, Fortune Magazine (#55)
Feb. 2014- World’s Most Admired Companies, Fortune Magazine
Apr. 2013- Disability Matters Award in Workplace Category, Springboard Consulting
Apr. 2013-Best Companies for Veterans, Military Times (#13)

Special Recognition and Awards

What CISCO stands for?

Representing Diversity without Restrictions


“We believe that inclusion and diversity is key to redefining how we collaborate, connect, communicate, and work. When embraced, I and D can fuel our innovation engine and help redefine our culture moving forward.”- Sandy Hoffman, Cisco Chief Diversity Officer

Project launched in 2004
Products, Websites, facilities and documentation are made fully accessible to employees and disabled users
Ex/combining accessibility teams into product development engineering,
Buildings and equipment is made accessible for all disabled individuals regardless of the disability
Online accessibility training



The Accessibility Project

Holistic diversity framework
Inclusion and Diversity Coalition
-Advocates in the field
Diverse supplier base
-Corporate and Manufacturing Purchasing departments seek small, disadvantaged, disabled Veteran and Women- Owned enterprises to do business whenever possible.

Organizational Structure

To build an inclusive and diverse organization, it is our responsibility to:
Empower our Teams
Eliminate Biases
Create an environment where everyone feels welcomed, valued, respected, and heard.

The Mission

Initiated by students in an entrepreneurship class at University of Lorraine in Nancy, France
Cisco France employees launched a competitive contest and employee mentorship known as Le Défi Cisco
Handisco Stick: Technology paired with the “white cane”
Enables visually- impaired to move around the city





A ‘Smart Stick’ for the Blind
Huffington Post Article

CAAN: Cisco Asian Affinity Network
CBP: Connected Black Professionals
CDAN: Connected Disabilities Awareness Network
VETS: Veterans Enablement and Troop Support



Employee Resource Organizations (EROs) represent diverse cultures
Committed to creating products that are accessible and usable for disabled individuals
Considered one of the best places to work for LGBT Equality by the Human Rights Campaign

Workforce Inclusion & Diversity

A ‘Smart Stick’ for the Blind (cont.)
Special features of the Handisco Stick include:
Beacon technologies- detects entrances and exits of malls, restaurants, etc.
Open Data Software- Is the light red or green? What are the store hours? What time does the next train arrive?

“It’s a dumb device that becomes smart when it connects to all the other data and devices around it to make a real difference for the user.”
Full transcript