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PY Unit 3: AoS2: 2015

Reference: Grivas, J., Letch, N., Down, R., & Carter, L. (2010). Psychology: VCE Units 3 & 4, (4th Ed.) Melbourne: MacMillian Education. Produced for Mallacoota P-12 College V.C.E Unit 3 & 4 students who have purchased the above book

Simon Berry

on 29 April 2017

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Transcript of PY Unit 3: AoS2: 2015

Psychology Unit 3: The Conscious Self
Area of Study 2: Memory

Reference: Grivas, J., Letch, N., Down, R., & Carter, L. (2010). Psychology: VCE Units 3 & 4, (4th Ed.) Melbourne: MacMillian Education. Produced for Mallacoota P-12 College V.C.E Unit 3 & 4 students who have purchased the above book
Memory consists of a collection of complete interconnected systems, each of which serves a different purpose and operates in a very differ
nt way.

We DO NOT have 'a memory' rather have memory systems.
Memory Test - Together

Lumosity - Memory and cognition training
Class discussion pg 237
L.A. 6.1 Q1,2,3
Defining Memory
Human Memory is defined as the processing (encoding), storage and retrieval of information acquired through learning

Encoding -
process of converting information into a usable form, so it can be represented and stored

Storage -
process of the retention of information in memory over time

Retrieval -
process of locating and recovering stored information from memory

EG. Computer example.
Encoding is the process of converting raw sensory information into a usable form so it can be stored in memory...must be attended to.
Storage is the retention of information over time
Retrieval is the process of locating and recovering stored information from memory so that we are consciously aware of it
Can be effortful (like now)
OR automatic
Models for explaining human memory (1/3)
Atkinson-Shiffrin multi-store model
Models are typically visual represetations of memory systems.

No single model of memory has been shown to capture all aspects of human memory.
- Not an all 'meaning' or no 'meaning' procedure

- ranges from shallow to deep processing

Practical Exp Pg 265.

Levels of processing or depth are hard to define specifically and to measure

Despite this problem the idea of better processing and therefore better storage is supported widely by research
Elaborative rehearsal:

Involves the process of linking new information in a meaningful way with other new/existing information already stored in long term memory.

- More
active and effortful

and more effective
, ensures that information is encoded well.
- Info is usually transferred to LTM
- More you elaborate the better your memory will be. IMPORTANT FOR ALL YOU CLASSES.
Sperling’s (1960) research
Sensory memory is the entry point of memory where new incoming sensory information is stored for a very brief time.

- Info kept in original (raw) form. Huge amount.
- Very short time
- Overlap allowing flow of reality
Experiment. - Wave pen in front of eyes. What happend?
s held and processed through
3 levels
of memory as it is
encoded, stored and retrieved

Sensory – Short Term – Long Term

Retention tends to be a U shaped curve.

Primacy effect– superior recall for items at the beginning of a list

Recency effect – superior recall for items at the end of a list

Read example on pg. 263

Going to party….
Central ex
Phonological loop
Visio spatial sketchpad
Episodic buffer
Semantic Network Theory
The Central Executive controls attention, integrates info from the two storage sub systems (phonological loop/visuo-spatial sketchpad) as well as LTM and coordinates the flow of info from the working memory system and LTM.

does the ‘working out’
- The seat of consciousness
- Manipulates information that is temporarily held in phonological loop and visuo-spatial sketchpad
- Working component of working memory

Almost everything you think, feel, or do in NWC is controlled by Central executive
Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch’s (1974) model of working memory

is the grouping or packing of seperate bits of information into a larger single unit or chunk.

- Chunking expands short term memory.
- Chunks can be numbers, images, words, abbreviations etc.
Eg. Chunking telephone numbers. 0407 655 234
Capacity of STM is still 7+-2, but now its 7 bits or chunks of information

Larger the chunks the less (towards 5) we will be able to hold.

Experiment - Chunking previously attempted numbers
STM is a memory system with limited storage capacity in which information is stored for a relatively short time.

- No longer a exact replica of stimuli (sensory memory)
- Can be verbal (words/numbers) or non verbal (visual)
- When you pay attention to sensory memory it enters STM
- Holds all the information you are consciously aware of

Described as the seat of conscious thought
- Auditory sensory memory.
- Stores sounds for 3 to 4 seconds
- Unlimited capacity

Echoic sounds like echo.
Called Echoic because sounds linger like an echo.

Eg. When you say “what”? but then answer the question before it is repeated. You have retrieved this information form echoic memory

Experiement - Clap hand. Listen to how it fades away.

Longer duration is important role in language comprehension, enables storage of all sounds that make a word so the word can be processed as a whole.

Com…. puter, Com…unism, Com….pete

And words that make up sentences.
- Visual sensory memory.
- Last for about one third (0.3) of a second...
- In original form.
- This 0.3 sec lag enables us to view reality as a continuous flow. E.g. Movies.

'Icon' is greek for image.

Experiment. Shut eyes. 30 Secs. Place hand in front of eyes, open/close rapidly, you should see them.

Structural features
– permanent built in features of memory that do not change
Eg. Three levels of memory each with specific capacity and duration

Control processes
– selected by the individual may vary across situations
Eg. Attention, rehearsal, retrieval
Craik and Lockhart disputed a distinct sub system model

Craik and Lockhart's level of processing framework proposes that the level or depth at which we process information during learning determines how well it is stored in LTM

- memories that are best recalled are encoded, organised and stored by meaning (semantic)
- more meaning – deeper processing – better storage

Shallow encoding, basic features, repeating lists etc – bad storage
Levels of processing - Craik and Lockhart (1972)
Funny Revision Technique
The Atkinson-shiffrin multi-store model represents memory as consisting of 3 distingishable components called sensory register, short term store and long term store.
Biological basis of Memory
Answer in note books:
What would happen if we remember everything that entered our sensory memory?
Multi Store Memory Revision
Review - Andrew Scott

18-20 seconds.

Recall starts to diminish after about 12 and by 18 almost all as been lost.
7 +-2 bits of information at one time.

Very limited storage.

Experiment time - Results.
Trial 1: 2,5,6,
Trial 2: 4,6,9,0,1,
Trial 3: 3,6,8,1,0,3,7
Trial 4: 5,7,1,5,3,9,6,3,9
Trial 5: 9,4,3,1,7,6,5,3,9,2,4,8,

Information is lost through decay (not being used) and displacement (pushed out)
STM as working memory
Many Psychologists now use the term Working Memory rather than STM.

Working memory emphasizes the part of memory where information is temporarily held and actively worked on as we do everyday tasks.

Where we consciously:
- attend to sensory memory
- use/combine information from sensory memory and LTM.
- store information in LTM.
Class activity (in your head)

17+12+13+2= ? (hand up when you have answer)

Close your eyes and listen to this sentence

Mr. Berry is the best teacher in the world, he is a champion of learning and a murial of his handsome face should be placed everywhere? Who was the sentence about?
Trial 1: 256
Trial 2: 46, 901
Trial 3: 368, 103, 7
Trial 4: 571,539,639
Trial 5: 943,176,539,248,

Research into Levels of processing
Applying this for your exams
Baddeley and Hitch's (1974 - ongoing) model of working memory describes the structure and function of working memory in terms of 3 components called:
- Phonological Loop (sound)
- Visuo-spatial sketchpad (vision)
- Central Executative (decision making)
Practical Excercise. Eg. Think of your house. How many windows does it have?
You needed a strategy, where to start. (central executive). Imaginative. Block out all outside noise. Most likely imagined your house (visuo-spatial sketchpad and LTM), counted the windows verbally (phonological loop hold in working memory) and reported back the answer.
Phonological Loop
The phonological loop temporally stores info as verbal speech-like information for a brief time

- Also called verbal working memory.
- Verbal info stored in in a sound based phonological form
- Hold onto it using sub-vocal maintenance rehearsal
- Duration limit of 2 seconds
- But you hold onto it using sub-vocal loop (playing the same tape over and over
Practical Exercise.
Remember these 7 numbers in your head
Hands up if you were saying them over and over in your head. - you were using your phonological loop!
Visuo-spatial sketchpad
The Visuo-spatial sketchpad temporarily stores a limited amount of visual / spatial information for a brief time

- Also called visual working memory
- Visual (things you see) / Spatial (location of objects in space)
- Duration around 2 seconds

According to Baddeley and Hitch this is our mental workspace for storing AND manipulating visual/spatial information.
The capacity of both components and independent of one another reaching the limits of 'filling up' one component does not effect the other component.

In class: Read pg 262. Dual task experiences..
Central Executive - The boss man
Issues with working model
According to Baddeley (2009) a mojour problem with the theory is that it does not explain how working memory links with LTM.

Baddeley added a 4th component called episodic buffer.
Episodic Buffer
It is a sub-system of working memory that enables the different components of Working Memory to interact with LTM.

- Limited capacity (4 bits of info)
- Limited duration
- Connects other sub systems with each other, and with LTM. Eg. remember the last concert you went to.
- Under the control of central executative
- Directly linked to LTM (but also has its own storage and processing)

Called episodic b/c it pulls together all streams of info (visual, auditory, memory and combine into a scene or episode.

Called a buffer b/c it provides a temporarily working space where information processed in these episodes and can be edited, reordered, or organized.
What did we learn last lesson?
What are we learning today?
What are we learning this week?
Home learning discussion.
Lesson Goals.

Review - Andrew Scott
Review - Andrew Scott
Differs from STM in the following ways
- STM is active (we are consciously aware of what information it holds / LTM is inactive (not aware of it)
- We use retrieval cues (much like google when searching LTM. Very efficient when cues are provided)
- Once we have finished using it in STM/Working memory it is tsf back to LTM
- How info is stored. STM is stored in physical qualities (what we saw, did, heard) LTM mostly stores information semantically (in terms of meaning)
- LTM stores things (potentially) for ever. Lost memories are because we are unable to retrieve it for some reason. STM lost info is lost forever.
Lets make our own about memory

Pg 276 Learning Activity 6.22
Ext 3,5
The findings of numerous research studies on the Serial Position Effect have not only enabled psychologists to confidently identify LTM and STM/Working memory as differnt components, but also describe them as interactive.

Real world application - Commercials at the start and end of a break cost more..why?
pg 258 Learning A. Q 1, Ext 2
In class Q3
100 billion neurons
10,000 connections for each neuron
A neuron is a nerve cell that is specialized to receive, process and transmit information to other cells in the body.

In terms of memory 4 parts are important
(branch looking things attached to the Soma [cell body])
(long bit covered by mylyon sheth) split and have buttoms full of neurotransmitters at the end)
(tiny space that connects one neuron to another)
(chemical substance that is transfered from one neuron to another through the synaptic space)

Neurons –building blocks of the Nervous System
Typical memory loss includes
— forgetting part or all of a significant event such as a wedding and career
words or names
— forgetting words and names of well-known people and objects
— inability to remember and follow written or verbal directions
— inability to follow a story on television, in a movie or a book
stored knowledge
— forgetting known information such as historical or political information
everyday skills
— inability to perform tasks such as dressing, cooking, cleaning, using the toilet and taking medication (due to physical rather than memory impairment).

Personality changes can also occur

Causes both Anter/Retro-grade amnesia (makes it unique)
Amnesia – Loss of memory, partial or complete, temporary or permanent

Usually caused by Brain trauma (infliced or aquired)
Amnesia from Brain trauma
After retrieval from LTM memories need to be reconsolidated before being placed back in LTM

Memories can be edited while we are remembering them storing version 2 of the memory.

Think of putting a book in the libary with pages torn out.

So....it seems we are constantly modifying (re-encoding) / reconsolidating memories

Huge implications for memory accuracy AND ability to erase bad memories.
Rats learned to run a maze to find a food reward
4 groups
A – ECT immediately
B – ECT 20 seconds after
C – ECT 30 minutes after
D – ECT 60 minutes after
Consolidation – Rats in a maze
Head injury often results in memory loss for a period preceding the injury

ECT – loss of previous 30mins

Neural changes are not allowed to occur or are disrupted by injury
The Medial Temporal Lobe
Long lasting strengthening of synaptic connections resulting in the enhanced/more effective functioning (better/easier memories)

Neural basis for memory formation. Synapse strength can increase in 3 ways:
Release extra neurotransmitter
Increase number of receptor sites
Growth of new synapses

Each time a memory is retrieved the neurone are activated, the functional/structural changes reoccur firther strengthening the communication links.
Long Term Potentiation
Research has supported the view that SOME natural decline in memory is normal (however it is not inevitable)

The amount of decline depends on how measured:
motivation to remember (old people may not give a shit)
self confidence
nervous system slowing
Older people Do take longer to learn new info

STM – depends on the task, easy one part tasks ok, tasks that require divided attention not so good.

Recall down, Recognition same

LTM - Episodic down, Procedural same, Semantic Same
Memory decline over the lifespan
Cortical areas shrivelled and shrunken due to widespead death of neurons

Show high levels of the protein Amyloid
Not usually in the brain
Highly toxic – causes cell death

Causes the development of the Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles

Brains also have a massive lack of acetylcholine (an important neurotransmitter)

Especially effects medial temporal lobe (hippocampus)

Why are you in my brain amyloid??? She likes to play twister and tangle things up. Doesn’t brush her teeth and leaves Plaque everywhere! She drinks all the acetylcholine mouthwash
Alzheimer’s Disease – Post-mortem
Most common form of dementia. Characterised by:
Neurodegenerative disease that causes gradual wide spread cell death
Causes decline in all aspects of cognitive function (cognitive/social skills, memory loss, personality changes)
Early on: short term memory loss, apathy and depression
Post-mortems reveal deposits of plaque along the damaged synapses
These plaques and tangles
effect neural transmission (communication b/w neurons)
Alzheimer’s Disease
An unbrella term used to describe a variety of symptoms of a large group of neurodegenative diseases that -->
---------------->cause a progressive decline in mental functioning, behavior and ability to preform every day tasks.
Anterograde Amnesia
Antero - means forward
Unable make new memories (LT)
Retains old memories
Cannot transfer information from STM to LTM

What effect would this have on your life?

Physiological changes (LTP and Axon growth) in brain cells occur when something is being learned and during a period of time immediately after the learning process has been completed

If memory is disrupted during the period of consolidation memory loss will occur

This process takes about 30 minutes

Hippocampus and Medial Temporal Lobe involved

It is aided by REM sleep

Think of wet concrete
Consolidation theory
Evidence that the hippocampus and temporal lobe have a role in memory formation, but not storage or retrieval

Evidence that LTM is most definitely a distinct sub system of memory (STM fine)
The Hippocampus - memory
Henry Molaison
Severe epilepsy
Radical surgery removes hippocampus and parts of the medial temporal lobe
Success in preventing seizures
Left with permanent anterograde amnesia (Cant form new LTM’s)
Other mental abilities and STM fine
The Temporal Lobe
The Hippocampus
New memories (either short or long term) are NOT stored in individual synapses but in the pattern of thousands of new interrelated connections

Looking for memories in a single nerve cell or synapse is a dead end

We know that there is a molecular basis to memory formation, what we do not know is exactly how thousands of these new connections hold our memories.
The Role of the neuron in memory formation
100,000 Australians effected
1 in 25 over 60
1 in 8 over 80

No simple or simple diagnostic test
– accurate physical diagnosis only possible after death.
- PYs assess memory, personality skills, overall functioning

Symptoms are different for each person further complicating diagnosis
A – all rats forgot completely
B – partial recall
C – partial recall (better than B)
D – total recall

Consolidation seems complete after about 1 hour
The Amygdala
The hippo on campus lives on memory lane...
..the hippos live in partner is Amygdala (a African queen)
Retrograde Amnesia
Retro means backward (discotek)
Unable remember old information (before injury)
Can remember new information
Usually temporary and caused by a blow to the head

What effect would this have on your life?

Read pg 299 One case...
Usually gradually returns
Memory of events immediately preceding the injury are permanently lost (interruption of consolidation)
The Amygdala
hippocampus (in the medial temporal lobe) has a crucial role in forming or encoding new declarative explicit memories
(semantic and episodic) but not in forming or retrieving implicit procedural memories.
- damage does not affect short-term storage or working memory
- provides evidence that STM (or working memory)is different from LTM and that the hippocampus is not involved in short-term storage.
- hippocampus does not store long-term memories instead it transfers it to other cortical areas for long-term storage.

- widely described as our ‘memory formation area’, the place where our brain temporarily holds and processes components of the information to be remembered.
Evidence comes from:
- studies of people who have experienced brain trauma resulting in memory loss

for example - after being knocked unconscious as a result of an accident, after acquiring certain diseases affecting the brain (such as encephalitis) or after receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), memory is disrupted.
Learning Activities 7.6 pg 296
Q1, Q3, 6a
Ext Q5, 6b
ECT - Shock therapy
Memory defects
The Borne Identity

Watch both of these movies, (if you have time)
- It develops over a number of years (gradually, progressing in stages)
- It is NOT a part of the normal aging process
- Mostly over 80s but can affect 30+
- More than 100 different diseases
- When symptoms are caused by neurodegenerative factors they are usually irreversible.
- Alzehimer's disease accounts for 50%-70% of dementia cases
Effect of age on STM
Confidence scales (not necessarily poorer memory)
Recognition VS free recall over time
Interestingly recognition does not drop as much as free recall
Note confidence drops in the older age group...
again this is NOT measuring memory, just confidence to recall
Forgetting refers to the inability to retrieve previously stored information.
Can we all think of a time in the last week where we forgot something?

Mind map - what do we know about forgetting?
The forgetting curve
In 1885, Hermann Ebbinghaus scientifically studied forgetting.

His experiment – and his results are
widely accepted as a general theory for how we learn and retain information.

Graphing his results, he developed a formula for how long items remain in our memory.

Read pg 312-13 The first persion to..
When learning occurs over a period of time (days, weeks months), overall retention is better,
- but the forgetting curve retains the same shape (same speed of loss)

How does this inform your study habits?
The forgetting curve shows the pattern
(rate and amount)
of forgetting that occurs overtime.

orgetting is rapid soon after learning and slows down over time.

- 50% occurs within the first hour.
- all information that will be forgotten (65%) will be lost in the first 8 hours.

- Results consistently indicate a characteristic pattern
- The more meaningful the material, the slower rate of forgetting. (+ vice versa)

- The better the initial learning / or encoding / the longer the material will be retained! (Mr Berry - teach us well!)

- When info is well learning, the rate of retention is the same regardless of the degree of difficulty of material or learning ability of the learner!

What implication does this have for your studies?
Box 8.1 pg 316 (3mins)

Learning Activity 8.1 pg 314
Note books Q1,2a,5ab,
Extension 3,6

At home L.A. 8.2 - Fun Exp
Do at home with family pg 315
Recall: involves reporducing information stored in memory

Free Recall –involves reproducing as much information as possible in no particular order
- List of grocery items
- Notebooks: Example

Serial Recall – involves reproducing information in a particular order
- Names of Cities (itinerary, in order of trip)
- Notebooks: Example

Cued Recall - involves the use of specific prompts (cue's) to aid retrieval and therefore reproduction of required infomation.
-Seven Dwarfs: first letter of
- Notebooks: Example

Measures of Retention
Recognition involves identifying the correct information from among alternatives

More sensitive measure: Can retrieve more this way as recognition provides more cues for retrieving from LTM.

Reasearch shows recognition is more sensitive measure (meaning easier) than recall (even cued recall).

Example – multiple choice Q’s.
- Exceptions...whether distractors are present.

- Notebooks: Example

Research 69% free recall. 86% recognition (7 dwarfs).
Even if we cant recall or recognize doesn’t mean there is no memory. (apparent forgetting.....not aware we know it)

Relearning (or Methods of Savings ) invovles learning info again that has been previously learned and stored in LTM.
- this is why we study for the exam

- If information is learn it more quickly the 2nd time the assumption is that there was some memory available. (even if you realize it or not)

- Relearning takes less time
- A weak association (neural path) regains its original strength in memory

Read pg 343 Ebbinghaus (1885)....

Method of savings as we can measure how much time we save.
Measuring Memory - Relearning
Measuring Memory - Recall
There are 3 main kids of measures that are used to determine if information has been retained:
Recall, Recognition, and Relearning.
Measuring Memory - Recognition
The sensitivity of a measure of retention (recall, recognition, relearning) refers to its ability to assess the amount of information that has been stored in memory.

- think of sensitivity as easiness. The more sensitive a test the easier it

- A sensitive measure can detect more information in LTM

Research indicates that:
- relearning test to be most sensitive measure
- recognition tends to be less sensitive that relearning but more sensitive than recall
- recall is the least sensitive measure

Read pg 369 Nelson (1978)...
Relative sensitivity of measure of retention
- explains why recognition produces better results that free recall (more cues)
- Why we can't recall information (right now) even though we know we know it (think test).
- Explains o
ne of the most frequent experiences of retrieval failure is the
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

Doesn't account for:
- Failure to access anxiety-laden memories
- disrupted memories due to brain trauma
- memories interfering like one another

Theories of Forgetting
Forget occurs in LTM because other memories interfere with the one we are trying to retrieve, particularly those that are similar to the one we are trying to recall.
Interference theory

Motivated forgetting occurs because we want to forget (have a strong desire to) because the experience is too disturbing/upsetting to remember
- its a defense mechanism that protects us from distressing memories.

Freud: Information not lost but hard to retrieve during normal waking consciousness. Hence why Freud used hypnotism.

- Research shows...Motivation
can also lead us to recode distressing memories as more pleasant. Eg. Upsetting childhood memory.

- Two types. Repression and Suppresion.
Motivated forgetting
Forgetting occurs because the neural representation of the memory (memory trace) fades through disuses time passes unless it is reactivated by being used.

Think grass field. You walk the path (use the memory) and create a path. Less you use the path the worse it gets, until it disappears.

Can you think of an example?
Decay theory
Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) is
a state, or feeling, that
occurs when you are aware
of knowing something but
you are not able to retrieve
it from memory at that point
in time.

The information then
typically ‘pops up’ when
you are not thinking about it
some time later.
It has been suggested that the TOT phenomenon
involves a ‘partial retrieval process’.

- we know bits about the memory. eg. It starts with s has 4 letters, another word for poo.

What does this mean?
- It shows that LTM is stored in an organised way in a variety of forms.
- Information is stored in logical ways

Does the TOTphenomenon provide evidence for or against the semantic network theory?
Retrieval failure
Memory fades
over time
due to disuse.

Decay theory
There is a
strong desire
(motive) to
Other competing
memories interfere
with retrieval of
what we are trying
to recall.
We lack, or fail to
use, the right cues
to retrieve
information stored
in memory.
Theories of
There are a number of theories to explain why we forget. The ones we need to know are
retrieval failure theory
- interference theory
- motivated forgetting
- decay theory
Need to know: Strengths and weaknesses
Retrieval failure theory
- Wickens and collegues (1963) found that information
must be similar
to the info you are trying to recall in order to interfere with its retrieval.

- Retrieval is more complicated when there is more similar info to remember.

- According to interference theory, interference comes from memories of similar information.
Strengths and Weaknesses
- Anecdotal. This happens to every quite a lot. (think pins/passwords)
- Research. As above. Harder to retain word list the more you have to retain and the more similar they are.

- Does not explain why we forget items that could not be due to interference. E.g. Our first birthday.
- Forgetting due to inappropriate cues
- Anxiety laden memories
- Brain trauma (or neurodegenrative) diseased.
Repression - involves
blocking a memory of an event or experience from entering conscious awareness.

- Involves unconsciously blocking a memory/event from entering consciousness.
- Person unaware of memory/event
- Also unaware that they don't remember
- Also called a
defense mechanism

Eg. Forgetting you saw your dog get hit by a car (and not realizing it)

Can you think of an example?
Strengths and Weaknesses
Strengths (research findings)
- fMRI. Actively not thinking about words made their recall harder later.
- Researchs concluded that when people actively try not to think of something they are less likely to remember it (Anderson & others, 2003).
- PYs generally believe that people block memories

- Theory has been of limited value as it only explains specific cases.
Eg doesn't explain why we forget items on our shopping list (not distressing) (cue dependent)
- Doesnt explain interference
- Impossible to experiment on repressed memories.
Contribution to memory/forgetting
Our motivations not only prevent certain memories but change the tone and content of memories that are retrieved.
Research showed: recollection of traumatic memories reworked as neutral or even

Memory can be affected by a persons conscious or unconsciousness needs, fears, anxieties and desires.
- Eg. So anxious that you can't remember an answer.
Strengths and Weaknesses
Explains forgetting in sensory memory and STM (decay over time)....
- Explains brain trauma. Memory traces disrupted.

.....but not LTM (decay not thought to be due to time).
- eg. Random vivid memories that we experience (unused trace that has not decayed).
- Does not explain how Cues assist retrieval.

Manipulation and improvement of memory
Manipulation of memory
Improvement of memory
Context and state dependent cues
Mnemonic devices
Narrative chaining
Context-dependent cues
State dependent cues
Studies by Elizabeth Loftus
New memory is not simply recorded. It is actively constructed.
- to form a new memory, we organise and encode visual, auditory, tactile into one memory.

When remembering we reconstruct details of memory.
- we organise and encode visual, auditory, tactile into one memory.

- This process can cause errors, distortions in what you think you remember.
Bartlett believed Ebbinghaus studied memory in a artificial way.
- Bartlett has people read a story or look at a picture
- He found each time participants 'remembered' the original stimulus a little differently.

- Bartlett concluded that we tend to remember only a few key details, during recall we reconstruct the memory - drawing on personal views, beliefs, expectations to make up the missing bits. It is usually done unconsciously.
American Psychologist Elizabeth Loftus is the world leader in eyewitness testimony and memory reconstruction.
- Loftus found that eyewitness testimony is reconstructed and not always accurate.

Loftus research highlighted how leading questions can manipulate memory (specifically the reconstruction of memory)

A leading question is a question that has content or phrased in such a way as to suggest what answer is desired or to lead to the desired way.

eg. What speed was the car traveling vs
How fast was the car going?
Class Discussion -
What implications does Loftus' research have on eye witness testimonies?
Read Loftus and Palmer research (1974)
pg 394 - 396.

Key points 1st experiment
- 45 students from university
- Shown 7 clips of car accidents
- Participants were required to write a description of the accident

5 exp groups. Asked different question. "About how fast were the cars going then they _____ each other" I.V. was word: smashed, collided, bumped, hit, and contacted. D.V. speed.

- Results: Most intense verb 'smashed' brought highest speed estimate (40.8 miles) and least intense verb 'contacted' 31.8 miles per hour.
- Differences were statistically significant

- Concluded it was due to participants memories being distorted by the verbal label used.

- E.V. uncertain about speed of car - used the verb to fit in with expectations of researcher. Experimenter effect.
Key points - 2nd experiment
- 150 different university student, volunteered, randomally assigned to either 3 groups (or conditions)
- Group 1 - About how fast were the cards going when they
each other?
- Group 2 - About how fast were the cards going when they
each other?
- Group 3 - No questions

Results - Smashed 10.46, Hit 8.00 - statistically significant

- Participants returned 1 wk later. Required to answer 11 questions. Key - did you see any broken glass? (no actual glass)

Results - Smashed 16, Hit 7 there was glass - statistically sig

Conclusion - Part 1 participants had formed a memory of event. Part 2 participants added information into memory after the event. They actually remembered seeing broken glass.

Defined as source confusion - when the true source of memory is forgotton or attributed to wrong source.
Learning Activity 9.11
Ext 3
Almost every human is interested in improving their memory

Improving memory often requires more effort.

- Enhancing memory is NOT that difficult.
Effective way to improve retrieval is to recreate the conditions under which it was learnt.

- Called context (external environment) and state (internal environment) dependent cues

- Cue is a clue!

- Research has showed recreating context and state cues increases sensitivity (or recall!)

Can you come up with some examples?
Context-dependent cues are external environmental cues in the specific situation (context) where the memory was formed that act as retrieval cues to help access the memories developed in that context.

For easiest retrieval match the environment you are in when you encoded the memory to the one you are in when trying to retrieve it.
- Where should you study for the exam?

Anything/Everything in the environment act as retrieval cues to make the recall of memory easier.
- Can be sights, sounds, smells, that were specific to that situation

State dependent cues are associated with an individual's internal physiological/psychological state at the time which the memory was formed, and act as retrieval cues to help access those memories.

For easiest retrieval match the internal state you are in when you encoded the memory (happy) to the one you are in when trying to retrieve it (happy).
- What should your physiological state be for when studying for the exam?
- What should your psychological state be for when studying for the exam?

- Can be current emotional state (happy, sad) current physiological state (drunk, stoned, caffeine rush.)

- Need to re-create the state of consciousness (ASC vs NWC spectrum) to make memory recall possible

Mood also is a state dependent cue. We recall more information associated with our current state.

- When happy we recall happier memories (or recode memories to be happier)

- When sad (or depressed) we recall sadder memories (or recode memories to be happier)

- This has real implications for depression. Why?

- Depression cycle?

Also important when encoding memories

When Sad we code in sadder aspects of information into LTM. When happy we focus in on and remember the happier aspects of current events.

- Why is it important to be positive/happy/hopefull?
Learning Activity 9.5 Pg 350
Q1, 3
Ext 2
Describe how you would remember the
shopping list underneath using each of the
three mnemonic devices:

narrative chaining

The effectiveness of narrative chaining was studied by Bower & Clark in 1969.

Read..in a study...pg 353

Do the results of the study provide evidence that narrative chaining is an effective mnemonic device?
Source: Getty
What is the acronym commonly used to remember the colours of the rainbow?
Other example....?ANZAC,EFTPOS,

Key - it is a pronounceable word
Acronyms are pronounceable words formed from the first letters of a sequence of words.

The acronym doesn’t have
to be a real word e.g. it is often a pronounceable abbreviation.

The letters of the abbreviation act as a retrieval aid in the recall of more complex material.
Mnemonic devices are
techniques for enhancing
or improving memory.

Mnemonic devices
make use of memory
already stored in LTM.

The devices do not simplify information, they actually make it more elaborate.

What does this mean?
Narrative chaining involves linking otherwise unrelated items to one another (chaining) to form a meaningful sequence or story (narrative).
Construct a narrative
that would help you
remember the following

birthday card
"Every good boy deserves fruit."

"my very energetic mother just sits up near pop''
- planets in order
KEY difference
acromyns - pronouncable work
acrostic - first letter to make phrase/sentance

What are some examples?

Useful when you have to remember information in order.
Acrostics involve making
verbal associations for items
to be remembered by
constructing phrases or
using the first
letters of the information to
be remembered.

Acrostics are also known
as the
wombat hair is combed high
teachers and ugly giants hate tickling
does every cat in Melbourne attract lice?
big elephants cannot always use small exits
Identify the word each of the following acrostics are
helping you spell
I wonder if I can remember,
wait a second...... Great Scott!!!

If I just use a Mnemonic device

Ill be able to!

Gee I'm good looking!
Carlson (1987) found the ease or difficulty with which we learn new information depends not on how much we must learn, but on how well it fits with what we already know.
- The better it fits the easier it is to retrieve.

Each mnemonic device is based on a particular kind of elaboration, encoding or rehearsal strategy.

3 types we need to know Acronyms, Acrostics, and Narrative chaining
The research provides strong evidence that using a technique that adds organization and meaningfulness to otherwise meaningless information is a form of elaborated rehersal and will improve retrieval.
It is well established that memories are not stored in any one location rather they are sorted through out the brain and linked with neural tracts or pathways - described as memory circuits.

Research shows that
changes occur in the FUNCTION and STRUCTURE
of neurons involved in memory formation.
Thin extensions that receive info from other neurons.
Spread out like a tree
Have receptor sites for accepting neurotransmitters
Transmit information to the Soma (cell body)

The Soma integrates the neural information from all the dendrites and transmits it down the axon...
Single tube like extension
Carries information away from the Soma to other neurons
Covered by the Mylon Sheth (super charger and protector) Interesting mylonation is occuring right now
Axon end splits into many branches called axon terminals
Axon terminals have buttons on the end that release neurotransmitters across the synaptic space to the dendrites of the next neuron.
Info only travels in one direction
Dendrites and Axons in action
Occur where two neurons meet. At the end of axon (terminal button) and dendrite.
synaptic gap (or cleft)
500x thinner than your hair

Has two components:
Presynaptic neuron (sending neurons Terminal buttons)
Postsynaptic neuron (recieving neurons dendrites)

The synapse is the site where communication occurs b/w adjacent neurons.
chemical substances produce by a neuron
carry a message to the ajoining cells
are released from the axon button (presynaptic neuron)
accepted by the receptor sites on the dendrites (post synaptic neuron)
binds itself to the receptor site (those that dont bind are reuptaken)

Neurotransmitters have two effects
excitatory effect (encourages the postsynaptic neuron to fire)
inhibitory effect (prevents the postsynaptic neuron from firing)

The process of communication is called neurotransmission.

Each neurotransmitter (chemical) has a similar shaped receptor site
Neurons and memory
Cool Summary Vid
Change in
Evident in:
increase in amount of neurotransmitter produced and released by presynaptic neuron an/or
greater effects of neurotransmitter at receptor site on post synaptic neurom

Draw on board

Eg. 5x5 - takes less than a second to answer bc (lots of neurotransmitters and sensitive receptor sites)
12x30 - takes longer (less neurotransmitters and less sensitive receptor sites)
Evident in:
Growth and strengthening of synaptic connections
When a new memory is being formed the number of dendrites increases and become Brushier!!
More dendrites touching axon buttons = more synapses
These connections are believed to be the mechanism for storing memories as long as we do

Draw on board
Eg President of America (pathway bushy)
President of New Zealand (not bushy pathway)

The functional and structural changes at the neuronal level create a memory cicruit.

Each time it is used the F and S occur again strengthing
Learning Activities Pg 288
Q 1, 2, 5
Ext 3,4

L.A. 7.2

L.A. 7.3
Proposes that
structural changes occur in brain neurons when something new is being learned (and immediately after learning).

- it requires a period of time to occur
- changes to the neurons and their connection are said to be the long term memory
Research evidence suggests that new information transferred from STM (or working memory) to LTM requires a period of time for a process of consolidation to occur in order for it to be encoded and permanently stored.
Research on Consolidation theory
Brain trauma – umbrella term: damage inflicted through injury interferes or impairs with normal functioning (temp or permanent)

Two main types:
Inflicted brain injury (knocks, shaking) -deliberate
Aquired brain injury (accident, stroke, neurodegenerative)
Neurodegenerative Diseases
- a disorder characterized by a decline in structure, activities and function of brain tissues

one example is
Antergrade VS Retrograde
It is also one of the symptoms experienced by people with Alzheiemer's disease. (we'll learn about in a sec)

– hippocampus damage common (where we form new memories)
Learning Activities 7.7 Pg 300
Q1, 5, 6ab
Ext Q2, 4
Symptoms (of the diseases)
Memory loss (main one)
Decline in mental abilities (reasoning, problem solving, decision making)
Behaviour and personality changes (more assertive, more withdrawn, aggression telling same story over and over)
Read as class Box 7.4 pg 301
Neuro = brain
Degenerative = degrade
*usually age related

E.g. Alzheimer's disease age related brain degrade
Depends on nature of task.

STM not effected by simple tasks
However more complex (working memory) tasks with divided attention are impacted

Implications - safety of elderly drivers
Effect of age on LTM
No overall decline. Specific on type of memory

Episodic memory = steady decline starting around 30/50 yrs

Procedural memory = no decline

Semantic memory = no decline
- Speed and fluency of retrieval slowed

Older ppl do take longer to learn new information/skills

Why do you think then that people view elderly as having poorer memories?
- Lack of motivation
- Loss of confidence (see below)
- Much poorer at recall but not recgonition
Cognitive slowing
Most common hypothesis is memory decline with age is the slowing of CNS functioning.

as ppl age thier CNS slows
unable to process with speed

This is called cognitive slowing.
Can impair performance in tasks involving memory as ppl age. Includes attention for a task.

This was researched though neuroimaging to record frontal lobe activity.
Older ppl who showed reduced activity did poorer on memory tasks compared to young ppl.
However older ppl with normal activity in did the same in memory tasks.

It seems that maintenance of cognitive abilities into old age is dependent upon the condition for the frontal lobes.
Learning Activities 7.9 pg 307
Q1 (as a class)Q3
Ext Q2
Now assumed that information does not simply flow through sensory register to short term then long term.

There is now considerable evidence for many types of sensory registers and different types of long term stores.

Psychologists now use the terms
Sensory Memory
Short-Term Memory
Long-Term Memory
pg 239 Learning Activity 6.2
Ext 2c, 4
We need to know 3 of these:
- Atkinson-Shiffrin's (1968) multi-store model
- Baddeley and Hitch's (1974) model of working memory
- Craik and Lockhart's (1972) level of processing framework
Updated Model
Pg 241. Learning Activity
In Class 3b
Note book Q1, 2, Ext 3a
Sensory Memory
Capacity = Unlimited.
Duration = Very brief
It remains in sensory memory long enough for us to
to it and select the info to be transferred to Short term memory.
- If we don't attend it is lost forever
- Attention very important.
Eg. Feeling of socks.

There is probably a sensory register for each sense. This system retains an unbelievable amount of information.
Showed 12 letters for 1/12 of sec.
Asked for recall
People on avg remembered 5/12 (41%)
Could not report all

Then he created 3 tones. H, M, L. Represented a line.
If the random tone (H,M,L)was right after the visual
- People were able to repeat with 75% accuracy
- Shows that all images had been momentarily stored

He then delayed the tone for longer and longer, determining how quickly images faded from iconic memory.

Duration: 0.2 - 0.4 seconds
Capacity: Unlimited
Pg 245 L.A 6.4
Research Method revision
Questions 1-7: Due 1 week
Iconic Game
Pg 249 L.A. 6.5
Q1,4ab Ext 6,7
Short Term Memory
Duration: 12 – 20 seconds
Capacity: 7_+2 pieces of information

Information is lost though
decay (fading)
displacement (being pushed out by new).
Research Peterson and Peterson (1959)

Participants given trigram words (qlg, jfb)

Given a distractor exercise (count backwards in 3s from 1000)

Recall time interval varied from 3-18 seconds

Results showed by 18 seconds almost all participants had forgoten trigrams.

- Were given a distractor activity because one way you can overcome the duration of STM is through
maintainable rehearsal.
Eg Remembering phone number

Experiment Time.
Estimates of the capacity of STM are/were obtained by asking participants to memories simple lists of data.

- Same findings in China with Chinese characters

Information is lost through Decay (not being used/rehearsed) and displacement (being pushed out by new information).

This is why when given a complex problem with lots of variables we have to write it down.
Working Memory examples
Capacity = 7+_2
Duration = 12-18 Seconds
Pg 252 Learning Activity 6.6
In class Q8
In books
Q1,2a,3a, 6a
Ext Q2b, 3b, 5b, 6b
Improving STM / Working Memory
We can improve STM through:
- improving the
duration (rehearsal)
- improving the
capacity (chunking)
Rehearsal - imp Duration
The process of doing something so that information can be retained in memory and then retrieved when required, can be verbal, vocal, non-verbal, sub-vocal, mental imagry etc.

Two types:
- Maintenance Rehearsal
- Elaborative Rehearsal
Maintenance rehearsal:

Involves repeating the information being remembered over and over again so it can be retained (or maintained) in STM (working memory)

- Needs to be attended to consciously
- Can be vocally or sub vocally OR inner eye

- Keeps info in STM but probably doesn't transfer to LTM, so no long term storage.
- If you go to sleep you'll probably forget
- But still useful for overcoming duration of STM, who has remembered a number this way.
One type is called -
Self reference effect:
Involves making new information personal and meaningful to you personally.
Eg. Ill remember Billy's name b/c Billy likes the Hawks like me.
Pg 255 Learning Activity 6.8
Class discussion Q5
In books
Q1, 2ab
Ext Q3
Chunking - imp Capacity
Pg 259 Learning Activity 612
Class discussion Q3
In books
Q1, 2
Serial Positioning Effect
The serial position effect
provides research support to two distinguishable memory systems, STM and LTM.

- PYs have studies participants memory for lists of words, numbers, images ect.
- Usually 15 images within about 30 seconds
- Findings show recall is better at the start and end of the list
The serial position effect is a finding that free recall is better for items at the end and beginning of a list that those in the middle.

PYs argue that:
- items at the start of the list (primacy effect) received more attention (b/c there was less of them) and were transfered to LTM.

- items at the end of the list are still in STM.

- items in the middle were too late to be transferred to LTM and too early to be kept in STM
More attention/rehersal
-Transfered to

Less than 18 secs
- Still in STM
To late for LTM
To early for STM
Further research tested this by:
-testing stright after list
-testing after a 30 sec delay.

Result supported the LTM and STM theory
Models for explaining human memory (2/3)
Initial Model
Practical Exercise
Eg. Think of how many first cousins you have?
Practical Exercise. Place your pen down. Look at the clock while picking up the pen.
You have stored where you put the pen in your visuo-spatial sketch pad. Lets try for 10 second delay.
When information is no longer needed it directs its flow back to LTM.
Newer Model
Most up to date MODEL
Pg 264. Learning Activity 6.14
In class Q6
Note books Q2,3,4
Ext 5
Models for explaining human memory (3/3)
Pg 267. Learning Activity 6.17
Class discussion

Learning Activity 6.16
Q1, 2
Ext Q 3, 6
Review - Andrew Scott
Review - Andrew Scott
Long Term Memory
Long term memory (LTM) is the memory system that stores vast amounts of information for a very long time, perhaps permanently,

Models now consider LTM to have two sub systems
- Declarative memory (broken into semantic / episodic)
- Procedural memory
Procedural Memory
Declarative Memory
Procedural memory is the long-term memory of actions and skills that have been learned previously

- Actions and skills
- '
Knowing how'

Refered to as
implicit memory
- demonstrated through behaviour eg. slam dunk
- hard to put into words. eg slam dunk

Require little conscious effort to retrieve.
Eg. Throw me a pen vs what is the capital of China.

Give me an example..
Declarative memory is the long term memory of specific facts or events, most of which can be 'declared'.

- Facts and events
- 'Knowing that'

Eg. What is the capital of China? / What is your birthday?

Give me an example...

Two subsystems:
- Episodic and Semantic
Episodic Memory
Semantic Memory
Episodic memory is the declarative memory of personal experiences.

-The personal diary of your life
- Usually include time, place, psychological and physiological state of event.

Give me an example..
Semantic memory is the declarative memory of facts or knowledge about the world.

- facts or knowledge learned at school
- everyday facts or knowledge
- meaning of words - rules - areas of expertise

Not tagged with time, place that you learned them.

Eg. When you learned that Canberra was the capital of Australia.

Give me an example...
Type of info stored
Way info is stored
Explicit Memory
Implicit Memory
Explicit memory occurs when information can be consciously/intentionally retrieved.

- Involves memory with awareness
- They are said to be 'declarative memories' because if asked you can consciously declare them

Eg. Where do you live?
Implicit memory occurs when remembering something that does not involve conscious / intentional thought, but is expressed through behaviour

- Involves memory without awareness e.g. Slam dunk
- They are said to be 'implicit' because your memory can be implied from your behaviour.
- Non declarative because people find it difficult to declare them.

Eg. Can you type?
Pg 273. Learning Activity 6.20
Class activity

Learning Activity 6.19
Ext 5,6,7a, 8
Now with 'hopefully' more understanding
Organisation of information in LTM
Comparisons STM/LTM
Proposes that information in LTM is organised systematically (hierarchically) in the form of overlapping networks of concepts that are interconnected/interrelated by meaningful links
- Each concept is called a 'node'
- Each node is linked to other nodes

According to Semantic Network Theory retrieval of information begins with searching a particular region.
Spreading activation proposes that activating one node during retrieval from a semantic network increases the likelihood that associated nodes will become activated.

- Shorter the link (eg. Bike and Scooter) the quicker the activation.
- More nodes activated quicker the retrieval of information from LTM.
Video - Andrew Scott
Pg 277. Learning Activity 6.24
T/F - pg 278
Chapter 6 test score due in 1 week.


Andrew Scott
Let's create a Mnemonic
Exam Questions
Role of Temporal lobe - hippocampus and amygdala
Read pg 289...In 1957
Case study
- Mediation of fear – sympathetic arousal e.g. dog.

- Seizures involving the amygdala involve intense fear

- Involved in remembering the emotional significance of an event

- Flashbulb memories.
- It appears the level of emotional arousal at the time of encoding influences the strength of the LTM formed.

- People and animals with amygdala damage show reduced ability to acquire
conditioned (learned) emotional responses

Pg 291. Learning Activity 7.4
Q1, 2,
Ext 6
The amygdala plays crucial roles in processing and regulating emotional reactions (particularly strong emotions such as fear and anger)

Pg 294 Learning Activity 7.5
In class Q7
Q1, 5
Ext 2,

T/F - pg 308
Chapter 7 test score due in 1 week.


Andrew Scott

Neurotransmitter and their roles

Glutamate (Gu) -
main exitatory for info transmission in brain. Main receptors NMDA, ...found in abundance in hippocampus (key structure in LTMs)

Dopamine (DA)
- attention, voluntary movement, pleasure and reward based learning, formation of LTM
(need normal levels...to high/low..memory issues)

Acetylcholine (ACh)
- learning, attention, slepping, dreaming, motor control. Ab normal low levels in Alzheimers (which causes memory issues).

Norepinephrine (NE)
- encoding and retention of emotional memories, stress hormone.
- High level of emotional arousal during memory (watching a car accident) increases the amount of NW in the amydala which is through to tell the hippocampus, important memory encode well.
Eg Flashbulb memories.
Exam Qns
Capacity = Unlimited
Duration = Potentially Permanent
Not Forgetting
If information has been stored and represented in memory it is said to be

If it can be recovered and brought into conscious awareness it is said to be a
Learning that occurs over time
Results have been replicated with:
- new skills
- new language
- CPR skills
- subject matter of Psychology
We forget because we lack or fail to use the right retrieval cue to retrieve the information from LTM.

- The inability to retrieve previously stored information (not forgotten

- If you can't recall that doesn’t mean that the information is gone forever (fgorgotten), it simply means that for whatever reason you have failed to use the correct retrieve cue

- A retrieval cue is ANY stimulus that assist in locating and recovering information stored in memory.

- Also called to cue-dependant forgetting.

- A cue guides or your memory search much like terms in google do. Google example.

Can you think of an example?
Learning Activity 8.4 pg 321
Practical Exercise

Learning Activity pg 85. pg 322
Q1,2a,3, 5a
Extension Q2b, 4, 5bc
- Retroactive interference – New information interferes with the remembering of old information
- Mr Berry and names: calling Chloe - Brodie (old is interfered by new)
- Serial position effect mistaken for forgetting curve (both curves) (old old is interfered by new).

Can you think of an example?

 - In class activity pg 322 read retroactive interference.
  - Proactive interference - Old information interferes with ability to remember new information
- Mr Berry and names: Calling Brodie - Chloe (old info interfering with new.
- Putting in your old pin number at the ATM (new is interfered by old)

Can you think of an example?

Strengths and Weaknesses
Summary Retro/Pro interference
Learning Activity 8.6 pg 326
In class Q4, 5, 6, 7
Notebooks Q1,2,3
Ext Q8
Suppression – invovles being motivated to forget a memory by making a
deliberate conscious effort
to keep it out of conscious awareness.

- Involves a deliberate

conscious effort (decision) to keep it out of our consciousness.
-person is aware of memory/event
- Also aware that that they are trying to block it
- Brain-scanning tech provide evidence.

Eg. Asking a girl out...she rejects you Simon, like always. Then every time that memory surfaces you start studying to get your mind off it.

Can you think of an example?
Degrading of memory is a progressive, gets worse as time goes onn

Earliest theory of forgetting - based on physiological terms.

Very good for explaining memories that are lost through STM.

But does not look like the passage of time is a big factor in forgetting in LTM

Learning Activity 8.9 pg 334
Note books
Q1a,c, 3a
Ext 2, 7

T/F - pg 337
Chapter 8 test score due in 1 week.


Andrew Scott

Exam Qns
Question7 a16
c2 d1
Making Memories
Learning Activity 9.1 pg 345
Individual then as class

Learning Activity 9.2 pg 346
As class 5
Learning Activity 9.7 pg 356
Q2 in class
Note books Q1,ext 3
New theory
How good is memory

T/F - pg 365
Chapter 9 test score due in 1 week.


Andrew Scott

Exam Qns
Full transcript