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Early Modernism, Vienna, Bauhaus, De Stilj
Transcript of Early Modernism, Vienna, Bauhaus, De Stilj
(1841 - 1918) ADOLF LOOS
(1870 - 1933) WALTER GROPIUS
(1883 - 1969) LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE
(1886 - 1969) GERRIT THOMAS REITVELD
(1888 - 1964) VIENNA SECSESSION - EARLY MODERNISM - BAUHAUS - INTERNATIONAL STYLE - DE STILJ 1886 - Born March 27 in Aachen, Germany.
Up until the age 19, Mies worked for his father, who was a stone mason, learning basic elements of architecture
1905 – Mies moved to Berlin and worked for Bruno Paul an Art Noveau architect and furniture designer
1908 – Employed by Peter Behrens, a leader in the modernist movement, who also employed Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier
1921 - Designs Friedrichstrasse Office Building, which was never built but earns Mies high praise, for noone had ever seen entire glass & steel structure
1927 – Weissenhofsiedlung, Stuttgart – designed by 17 European modern architects
1927 - Designs MR Lounge Chair and MR Chair LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE (1886-1969) Mies is renowed for his use and understanding of materials, manmade, industrial manufactured products and also natures finest, thanks to his father.
He refined architecture to its essential elements: stone, steel and glass
designing lightweight framework with steel and glass walls, allowing masses of light to enter any building he designed. Connecting the interior and exterior and the exterior with the interior.
“Reconnecting the individual with nature is one of the great challenges of an urbanized society.”
“I don’t want to be interesting, I want to be good” DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND PHILOSOPHY Built for the 1929 International Exposition in Barcelona Spain
Originally named the German Pavilion
Made from steel, glass, chrome and 4 different kinds of marble; Travertine, Alpine Marble, Green Marble, Golden Onyx
Designed on a grid system
With an open plan interior and combination of a low roof extending beyond its purpose, it allows the interior to become one with the exterior and exterior to become one with the interior. The Barcelona Pavilion was torn down in 1930 – it was reconstructed in 1983-86 THE BARCELONA PAVILLION, BARCELONA SPAIN (1929) •In the late 40’s, Mies designed a weekender for Dr. Edith Farnsworth in a meadow in Illinois outside Chicago, a radically minimalist house, which is still today an icon of international style and modernism.
•Designed to create a space through which life unfolds both independently and interdependently with nature. THE FARNSWORTH HOUSE (1946 - 1950) •Mies Van Der Rohe was a pioneer in the design and development of high-rise buildings
•288 apartments, the building redefined high-rise living for the post-war generation
•Using his signature materials: steel, glass and stone, the building was designed on a grid system,
•Mies believed a buildings structural elements should be visible from the exterior
•Prior to this point, structure was hidden within architecture.•"When technology reaches it true fulfillment, it transcends into architecture." 860-880 LAKE SHORE DRIVE, CHICAGO (1951) 1919-1933
Weimar, Dessau, Berlin
Reunite applied arts and manufacturing
All artistic media THE BAUHAUS SCHOOLS Berlin Weimar Dessau TEACHERS 1883 Berlin – 1969 Boston
Colleges of Technology of Berlin and Munich
Influenced by Frank Lloyd Wright.
Bauhaus – 1919
Harvard and MIT WALTER GROPIUS Bauhaus School (1925-1926) - Dessau, Germany asymmetrical wings
glass curtain wall
no central viewpoint
contrasting colour scheme Glass blocks to shield the entrance Gropius House (1938) Lincoln, Massachusets curved glass façade
curved cantilevered stair
contrast new interest in natural material The Alan I W Frank House (1939-1940)
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania LEGACY HARRY SEIDLER Born in Vienna 1841
1864 he started designing his first buildings
1894 he became a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts
1890 he designed a new city plan for Vienna
1897 Otto joined the Vienna Secession A BRIEF HISTORY OF HIS LIFE The use of new materials
"Modern art must yield for us modern ideas, forms created for us, which represent our abilities, our acts, and our preferences"
Linearity, smoothness, and crispness of design
Honest use of materials
Simplicity and clarity of form
function, material, and structure as the bases of architectural design
Breakaway from traditional architecture PRINCIPLES & PHILOSOPHY EXAMPLES OF HIS WORK Born in 1870
1889 Loos graduated from high school knowing he wanted to be an architect
Loos then decided to study at the Technical University of Dresden
1893 he travelled to America
1897 he had is first project designing the décor of Royal tailor Ebenstien
1902 Loos married
1908 Loos wrote “Ornament and Crime”
1912 Adolf Loos Baushule was founded A BRIEF HISTORY OF HIS LIFE Loos had no issue with copying from the past provided it would completely satisfy it’s use.
Rejection of ornament
Stripping of walls
Waste of time for craftsman to be focusing on ornamentation
Loos saw art and craftsman ship as two completely different things.
Modernists criticised Loos for not being radical enough
Loos always wanted to convey a mood within his designs PRINCIPLES & PHILOSOPHY Loos believed in using materials of high quality and most suitable to there use
Use of Marble and wood
Raumplan MATERIALS & CONSTRUCTION 1908
Interior fit out
Floor – Checker- board marble squares
Division of three case bays in green marble
Translucent backlit onyx marble KARNTNER BAR 1909-1911
New construction with interior fit out
Use of reinforced concrete
First use of Raumplan principle in the mezzanine area HOUSE ON MICHAELERPLATZ 1910
New construction with interior fit out
Oak floor covered with rugs
Stained oak on walls
Floral wallpaper STEINER HOUSE 1915-1916
reconstruction and interior fit out
Marble walls DUSCHNITZ VILLA 1928-1930
New construction with interior fit out
Green marble MULLER VILLA
Mies also designed the iconic Barcelona Chair to complement the minimalist building. Made from chrome stainless steel and bovine leather Theo van Doesburg - Counter Composition V (1924) Piet Mondrian "We speak of concrete and not abstract painting because nothing is more concrete, more real than a line, a color, a surface.” Theo van Doesburg Key Ideas A reaction against the decorative excesses of Art Deco
Embraced an abstract, pared down aesthetic
Composition and balanced played a huge part in their work
Visual elements such as geometric forms - usually straight lines, squares and rectangles
Limited colours, primary colours for the most part DE STIJL Rietveld and staff of his workshop, 1918. Rietveld is seated in the unpainted slat armchair A brief history of his life… Born on the 24 June 1888 in Utrecht, Netherlands.
In 1904, aged sixteen he enrolled for evening classes in the industrial arts at The Utrecht Museum of Applied Arts
In 1917 Rietveld opened his own furniture workshop in Utrecht. Gerrit Thomas Rietveld (1888 – 1964) Sketches for the coloured slat armchair plus the unpainted version In 1918 he designed the first version of the Red-Blue Chair, then still unpainted and best described as the ‘slat armchair’. Rietveld - The furniture maker Rietveld’s baby’s chair was published in the July 1919 edition of the De Stijl journal.
Two months later illustrations of the first unpainted version of the slat armchair were published.
The publication of Rietveld’s work in De Stijl gave his career and life in general a considerable boost. It created a market for his work. Convertible child’s chair - 1922 Examples of his early work 1920 - 1923 Side Table1923.
Material - Wood The Berlin Chair 1923. Colour-Space-Composition – Berlin 1923. Hanging Lamp 1920.
Materials - Wood, glass, and tubular bulbs Red-Blue Chair 1923.
Materials – Painted wood The original design of the Red-Blue chair known as the slat armchair was back in 1918.
It wasn’t until 1923 that he produced the coloured version in red, yellow, blue and black.
The Red-Blue chair brought him international fame.
The chair combined all the elements which Rietveld wanted to evoke in his work.
It is composed of horizontal and vertical rectilinear planes.
The Red-Blue chair is reduced to basic geometric elements.
A precise colour scheme is used: red, yellow, blue and a black - the traditional De Stijl colours. The Red-Blue Chair 1923 One year later Rietveld’s begins on his most influential and famous architectural work.
The only building in which the formal principles of De Stijl were applied. South view The Schroder House 1924 Sketches plus images of the first floor open space Isometric and Perspective drawings for the Schroder House Drawings, images Video link First architectural commission.
Designed the house in collaboration with Truss Schroder.
For Rietveld the main point was to work with the space within the building and its continuation beyond the shell.
The house has three levels.
The first floor was completely open with the open-plan living space, with sliding partitioned walls were installed.
The house is built from brick, timber, iron and glass on concrete foundations. Interior image Rietveld with model of the Schroder House Model Table Lamp 1925. Materials – Metal and half painted glass bulb The key design from this period is the Zig-Zag chair. The design is the result of Rietveld’s experiments with one-piece fibreboard as well fulfilling his spatial objectives. Zig-Zag Chair – 1932-3 De Stijl had guided Rietvelds career in a different direction and in 1925 he decided to became a full-time architect.
Began experimenting with new ideas, techniques and materials such as tubular steel, particle board, sheet metal and laminated wood.
Making variations on his earlier chairs.
He became affiliated with Functionalist architecture and participated in CIAM.
During the 1930s he concentrated on designing mass-produced furniture and architecture. Rietveld – The Architect (late 1920s -1960s) Gerrit Rietveld Academy The Gerrit Rietveld Academie occupies two buildings: the main building, designed by Gerrit Rietveld, and the new building from 2003, designed by the architectural firm Benthem Crouwel Architects. Examples of his buildings 1964 Built, designed and renovated a many projects
Receives an honorary doctorate from Delft Technical College
Made an honorary member of the Association of Dutch Architects.
25 June 1964, Gerrit Rietveld dies in the Rietveld Schroder House. Above left: The Theissing House, Holland. 1958-59
Above right: Van Slobbe House, Zandweg. 1961-63
Below left: Model of Mees House. 1934-36
Below right: The Hague and Metz & Co., rooftop pavilion Amsterdam. 1933 Examples of his buildings “When building we must also bear relativity in mind and should exercise sobriety, but however we build it will only truly become reality for us and be able to bring us joy of the visual sense of space, which we hereby give to others as a gift yet retain for ourselves, is not fragmented but complete and clear and above all unambiguous” Gerrit Rietveld From his first design piece, the Red-Blue chair followed by the Schroder House to his final design for the Van Gogh Museum, Gerrit Rietveld created a significant body of work - in buildings, interior and furniture, and left a remarkable legacy.
His unconventional approach and stunning furniture has inspired many of his contemporaries just as it continues to encourage many of today’s designers, he has been quoted by many as a source of inspiration. He experimented with materials and techniques his objective remained the same, the perception of space - boundaries by/through and of planes and lines.
Rietveld believed that it to be better to work with simple shapes and primary colours at least in the beginning of the design.
His application of the colour palette of De Stijl to his own designs especially in the beginning of his career are said to be a stroke of genius: the colours add an extra dimension to these designs, a cheerfulness that appeals to a broad group of people to this very day. Rietveld’s Principles Summary Residential influences New York Skyline Chicago Skyline “I am interested in the shape of the building only as a consequence of the issues about the responsibility toward materials, process of production, the ability to recycle, light, ventilation, the relationship to the outside and the natural landscape.”
— Glenn Murcutt LEGACY & INFLUENCES