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Race and Ethnic Relations

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Cayce Jondro

on 2 May 2014

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Transcript of Race and Ethnic Relations

Race and Ethnic Relations
Learning Outcomes
Presented by Team Ice Cream Rocket Ship
Ayanna Harrington
Cayce Jondro
Jessica Williams
Learning Outcome One
Assimilation, Cultural Pluralism, and Conflict Theory
Assimilation
is the process in which formerly distinct and separate groups come to share a common culture and merge together socially.

As society undergoes the process of assimilation, differences among groups tend to decrease.
Cultural Pluralism

exists when groups maintain their individual identities.
In a pluralistic society, groups remain separate, and their cultural and social differences persist over time.
Assimilation and Pluralism may appear to be contradictory processes, yet they are not mutually exclusive from one another. Within minority groups you will find that some members are assimilating, while others are maintaining their differences.
Both of these forces are important in the lives of the individuals within a minority group.
CONFLICT THEORY
A theory first propounded by Karl Marx that claims society is in a state of perpetual conflict due to the competition for limited resources.

Conflict theory holds that social order is maintained by domination and power, rather than social consensus and conformity. Accordingly, those in power attempt to hold onto it by any means, mainly through suppression of the poor and powerless.

Example: A fundamental development in human history, such as civil rights, would be ascribed to capitalistic attempts to control the masses rather than a desire for social equality.
Learning Outcome Two
Capture the development of a subordinate group status relationship and the consequences of minority group status.
In Arizona the issue of illegal immigration has caused much social debate in recent years. It has become such an issue in fact that laws that directly discriminate against specific groups of people of color have been enacted (LAtimes).



One such law, SB1070 granted law enforcement the ability to stop people at random and demand they show proof of citizenship (ncsl). This law not only stereotyped people based on their color of skin, but also perpetuated a social stigma that immigrants were unwelcomed by means of harassment.

Because of Arizona’s close proximity to Mexico, the Latino community is directly targeted and thus faces discrimination from legal and social forces alike.
The Latino community becomes the subordinate group facing discrimination from the dominant groups of legislative forces and law enforcement.

While the sentences and fines resulting from breaking this law were minimized, it is still so that if an immigrant is caught without their papers they can be arrested and detained (ncsl).
What does it mean this piece of paper?

So much stress on this design

When we are only neighbors

And laws are only lies

The king sits atop

A throne so cold and loyal

While the penny pickers rot

As they mend his tender soil

Yet without their breaking backs

His kingdom falls to curse

And still he only laughs

When they ask for what they’ve earned

Evaluate the structural, economic and personality effects of prejudice and discrimination and how these factors perpetuate social inequalities among racial/minority groups.

Learning Outcome Three


Less job opportunities : minorities cannot generate an income comparable to the dominant group

Cannot afford houses: stuck with less wealth

Cannot afford optional choices of wealthy schools

Stuck in their situation: unlike the dominant groups, minorities cannot always change course when it pleases them


Cause

Underprivileged

Marginalized: not allowed the mainstream, or ability to be a part of the upper mobility

Stress causes anger: people are less able to handle problems

Higher health risks due to constant stress

Effect

Example chart of unemployment of whites and blacks.

Competition for Employment

Minorities hired less than whites


This causes scarcity for job opportunities. Competition is higher.


This means another deficit to overcome


As unemployment grows for minorities, so does the economic gap

High poverty
Poor living conditions
High crime rate
High drug abuse
Higher alcohol abuse
Poorer school zones in
high minority areas

With Less Income, Comes Less Opportunity


Poor social support

Low socioeconomic status

Statistically Higher depression

Possible abuse cases

Plausible anxiety




A growing literature shows discrimination raises the risk of many emotional and physical problems. Discrimination has been shown to increase the risk of stress, depression, the common cold, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, and mortality. - TheAtlantic.com

Learning Outcome Four
Illustrate the concepts of institutional discrimination and its impact on minority groups.
In America institutional discrimination is embedded in our political, economic and social system.

Europeans arrived and colonized the land, murdering and displacing the Native peoples who previously inhabited it. And years later, Europeans enslaved peoples of African descent and used them for exploitative labor and economic gain. Although early laws contained seemingly all-encompassing phrases like “all men created equal”, they indeed only held up in regards to white land owning men.

As a result this force of white privilege has made it so that minority groups have unequal access to things like education, housing and health care. On surface level America may appear to be progressive and beyond race but a number of social issues that exist today prove that we cannot escape our history.
Arizona’s Ethnic Studies Ban (or HB2281) is an example of one social issue in current debate.

In Tucson, the Mexican American Studies program was banned from schools because it was said to promote radical ideas and resentment towards a race of people (LAtimes). But defenders of the program said it touched on neglected parts of US History and inspired Latino students by offering them a course on culture and history (Huffington Post).
If we take a look at who wrote the bill, Attorney General Tom Horne, and a significant amount of its supporters we see that they are indeed privileged peoples of European descent .

Here the connection between institutional discrimination and privilege is documented in the form of a dominant group vs. subordinate group debate.
While Ethic Studies programs such as this offer students a different cultural and historical perspective then general education courses, they threaten the very framework of the educational, political and economic system.

By denying students the ability to research their cultural heritages in school we are promoting the idea that ignorance is bliss. The idea that our individual histories are unimportant and that there is only one collective history, a history that refuses to acknowledge its faults and grow from them.
Content in knowing nothing

Eat, and work, and die

And what of overcoming?

A fool would only try

They sell you your salvation

Decide what you can think

Infest your education

And inject you with deceit

For if you were to question

The way the pieces fit

Then you would only threaten

The very system that exists

Without it you are worthless

Or so the mighty say

You are just a person

And this is just a game

Learning Outcome Five
Synthesize the social issues and problems that perpetuate ethnic and religious conflict
There are many social issues that play into the perpetuation of religious and ethnic conflict.

Some examples are the use of religion in the formation of law and the creation of discriminatory law. When European settlers came to this land they brought with them the idea of Protestantism and shunned other religions being practiced here previously (311).

Protestant Christianity claimed to be the only true religion and thus became the majority religion practiced. This affected the way our social structures developed and helped influence the creation of our society.
Social stigmas against people who do not practice Christianity or are said to practice non- Christian lifestyles have developed over time.

Recently a bill was passed, and soon after vetoed by Governor Jan Brewer, that would allow Christian business owners to deny service to gay/lesbian peoples (cnn). This bill claiming that gay/lesbian lifestyles are offensive to peoples who practice religion was originally passed by the House of Representatives in a 33-27 vote (cnn).

Much controversy was stirred over the bill partly because of Arizona’s history with other discriminatory bills (SB1070) and the backlash they have faced. In the end Brewer vetoed the bill for economic reasons, believing the bill would drive away corporate businesses looking to relocate to Arizona (usa).
The fact that the bill was vetoed for economic reasons rather than social ones shows that religious right still plays a huge role in our society.
For a law to say that one person can deny rights to another based on their lifestyle choices is no better than old law saying every man is created equal, even though it only actually refers to white land owning men.
Stereotyping is also a factor. How would you know about someone’s sexuality without asking them directly?
In a book behind the counter

A few pages decide

Whether I am worth your time

For it is not what I have done

But how I identify

Defending your own rights

Means passing judgment on

Though the road is cold and long

It is a righteous one

Speak loudly of that person

For they have come undone

And you are far too perfect

The type of perfect

That only god can love

The concept of Religious pluralism

Learning Outcome Six

Religious pluralism generally refers to the belief in two or more religious worldviews as being equally valid or acceptable.


More than mere tolerance, religious pluralism accepts multiple paths to God or gods as a possibility and is usually used in contrast with “exclusivism,” the idea that there is only one true religion or way to know God.



Religious tolerance

Not allowed to be persecute because of their faith.

Americans have the right to practice any religion he/she wishes

Free to peacefully worship as a fundamentally equal and valid belief

Public Schools are not allowed to teach one singular religion



As America is the melting pot of diversity (having so many different types of people, races, culture and more), America believes we need to be tolerant of these different viewpoints.

Identify cultural elements that are unique to racial/ethnic minority groups.

Learning Outcome Seven



Racial Differences:


Health risk factor

“Health Gap”

Stress of racism

Distribution of recourses (pg. 198)

Unhealthy behaviors – drinking, smoking, drug usage, overeating, ect.

Possible Colloquialism




Learning Outcome Eight
History of minority groups in the United States
The United States Census Bureau officially recognizes six ethnic and racial categories: White American, Native American and Alaska Native, Asian American, African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and people of two or more races; a race called "Some other race" is also used in the census and other surveys, but is not official.











The United States Census Bureau also classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that composes the largest minority group in the nation
History of Americans of African descent
1619- Present
1619
The first African slaves arrive in Virginia.
1857
The Dred Scott case holds that Congress does not have the right to ban slavery in states and, furthermore, that slaves are not citizens.
1863
President Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring "that all persons held as slaves" within the Confederate states "are, and henceforward shall be free."
1868
Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution is ratified, defining citizenship. Individuals born or naturalized in the United States are American citizens, including those born as slaves. This nullifies the Dred Scott Case (1857), which had ruled that blacks were not citizens.
1896
Plessy v. Ferguson: This landmark Supreme Court decision holds that racial segregation is constitutional, paving the way for the repressive Jim Crow laws in the South.
WWI Black Soldiers
Although African Americans had participated in every major U.S. war, it was not until after World War II that President Harry S. Truman issues an executive order integrating the U.S. armed forces.

1948
1964
President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act, the most sweeping civil rights legislation since Reconstruction. It prohibits discrimination of all kinds based on race, color, religion, or national origin (July 2).
1978
The Supreme Court case, Regents of the University of California v. Bakke upheld the constitutionality of affirmative action, but imposed limitations on it to ensure that providing greater opportunities for minorities did not come at the expense of the rights of the majority (June 28).
2003
In Grutter v. Bollinger, the most important affirmative action decision since the 1978 Bakke case, the Supreme Court upholds the University of Michigan Law School's policy, ruling that race can be one of many factors considered by colleges when selecting their students because it furthers "a compelling interest in obtaining the educational benefits that flow from a diverse student body."
2008
On November 4, Barack Obama, becomes the first African American to be elected president of the United States, defeating Republican candidate, Sen. John McCain.
History of Americans of Hispanic and Latino descent
1598 - Present
1598
New Mexico is settled by the Spanish—making it the largest and oldest Spanish settlement in the Southwest
1821
The first Anglo settlers arrive in the Mexican state of Texas after being invited by the government of Mexico, which had recently declared its independence.
1845
Texas is officially annexed to the United States—which angers the Mexican government. Conflict over the official border line arises.
1862
The Homestead Act is passed in Congress, allowing squatters in the West to settle and claim vacant lands—many of which were owned by Mexicans.
1902
The Reclamation Act is passed, dispossessing many Hispanic Americans of their lands.
1925
The "Border Patrol" is created by Congress.
1932
The United States government begins to deport Mexicans. Between 300,000 and 500,000 Mexican Americans would be forced out of the United States in the 1930s.
1948
Dr. Hector Garcia, a witness to racial injustice, begins holding meetings for Mexican Americans to voice their concerns, and in March they establish a new Mexican American movement: the American GI Forum.
1954
In the case Hernandez v. The State of Texas, the Supreme Court recognizes that Latinos are suffering inequality and profound discrimination, paving the way for Hispanic Americans to use legal means to fight for their equality. This is the first Supreme Court case briefed and argued by Mexican American attorneys.
1964
Congress passes the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The act establishes affirmative action programs, prohibiting discrimination on the basis of gender, creed, race, or ethnic background: "to achieve equality of employment opportunities and remove barriers that have operated in the past"
1974
Congress passes the Equal Educational Opportunity Act to create equality in public schools by offering bilingual education to Hispanic students.
2004
Anti-immigrant sentiment reaches a tipping point when Arizonans organize a group of volunteers known as "The Minutemen" to patrol the border.
2010
In April, Arizona Governor Jan Brewer signs the broadest and toughest anti–illegal immigrant law in U.S. history. The legislation, SB-1070, cracks down on anyone harboring or hiring undocumented immigrants and gives local police unprecedented powers.
2013
Hispanics make up about one-sixth of the U.S. population—nearly 51 million people. By the middle of the century, the Latino population is expected to reach 127 million—nearly 30 percent of the projected population of the country.
History of Americans of Asian descent
1763 - Present
1763
First recorded settlement of Filipinos in America. To escape imprisonment aboard Spanish galleons they jump ship in New Orleans and flee into the bayous of Louisiana.
1790
First recorded arrival of Asian Indians in the United States.
1850
California imposes Foreign Miner's Tax and enforces it mainly against Chinese miners, who were often forced to pay more than once.
1858
California passes a law to bar entry of Chinese and "Mongolians".
1886
Residents of Tacoma, Seattle, and many places in the American West forcibly expel the Chinese.
1917
Arizona passes an alien land law prohibiting "aliens ineligible to citizenship" from buying land or leasing it for longer than three years.
1924
Immigration Act denies entry to virtually all Asians.
1965
Immigration Law abolishes "national origins" as basis for allocating immigration quotas to various countries -- Asian countries now on an equal footing with others for the first time in U.S. history.
1942
The U.S. government ordered the internment of over 110,000 people of Japanese heritage who lived on the Pacific coast of the United States. They were held in"War Relocation Camps".
1989
President George Bush signs into law an entitlement program to pay each surviving Japanese American internee $20,000.
2002
In Seattle, Japanese Americans help sponsor Hate Free Zone forum to speak out against hate crimes against Arab Americans, South Asian immigrants, and other immigrants
2010
Asian American activists join protests against Arizona’s racist anti-immigrant law and attacks on ethnic studies.
2010
Asian American activists join protests against Arizona’s racist anti-immigrant law and attacks on ethnic studies.
History of Native Americans in America
1492 - Present
The one who tells the stories rules the world. - Hopi
1492
When Christopher Columbus first came in contact with native people, he wrote:
"They all go around as naked as their mothers bore them; and also the women."
He also noted that
"they could easily be commanded and made to work, to sow and to do whatever might be needed, to build towns and be taught to wear clothes and adopt our ways,"
and,
"they are the best people in the world and above all the gentlest.
1598
Juan de Onate declared possession of Hopi land (in what is now northern Arizona) in the name of the Spanish crown. Four hundred years later, the Hopi have still never signed any treaty with any non-Indian nation.
1709
A slave market was erected at the foot of Wall Street in New York City. Here African-Americans and Indians -- men, women and children were daily declared the property of the highest cash bidder.
1763
The Proclamation of 1763, signed by King George III of England, prohibits any English settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains and requires those already settled in those regions to return east in an attempt to ease tensions with Native Americans.
1823
Johnson v. McIntosh Supreme Court decision -
The Court held that that Indian tribes had no power to grant lands to anyone other than the federal government. The government, in turn, held title to all Indian lands based upon the "doctrine of discovery".
1838
Trail of Tears - Despite the Supreme Court's rulings in 1831 and 1832 that the Cherokee had a right to stay on their lands, President Jackson sent federal troops to forcibly remove almost 16,000 Cherokee who had refused to move westward under the unrecognized Treaty of New Echota (1835) and had remained in Georgia.
American soldiers herded most into camps where they remained imprisoned throughout the summer and where at least 1,500 perished. The remainder began an 800-mile forced march to Oklahoma that fall.

4,000 Cherokee died during the removal process.
1872
The Mining Act of 1872 was passed by the U.S. Congress. Alaskan natives were excluded from claiming ownership to their own land. During this period of history natives were not accepted as citizens of the nation and had no land or load claim rights.
1893
Indian Education - This Congressional Act made school attendance for Indian children compulsory and authorized the BIA to withhold rations and government annuities to parents who did not send their children to school
1924
Indian Citizenship Act - This Congressional Act extended citizenship and voting rights to all American Indians.
1948
Trujillo v. Garley Supreme Court decision - In response to the allegation that many states had successfully prohibited Indians from voting, the Court ruled that states were required to grant Native Americans the right to vote.
1953

Under House Concurrent Resolution 108, the trust relationship with many Indian tribes was terminated. Terminated tribes were then subject to state laws and their lands were sold to non-Indians.
Congress terminated over 100 tribes.
1978
Indian Child Welfare Act - This Congressional Act addressed the widespread practice of transferring the care and custody of Indian children to non-Indians. It recognized the authority of tribal courts to hear the adoption and guardianship cases of Indian children and established a strict set of statutory guidelines for those cases heard in state court.
1996
National American Indian Heritage Month - President Clinton declared November of each year to be National American Indian Heritage Month.
2000
Shannon County, South Dakota, home of the Oglala Lakota on Pine Ridge Reservation is identified as the poorest place in the country.
2014
Today there are only 52 million acres left from the original American Indian homeland of the about 6.1 billion acres that form North America and this trust land is mostly of inferior quality.

So for many Native Americans there is no possibility to make a living by farming without the use of chemicals and in some reservations commercial hunting and fishing are prohibited.

Considering these circumstances, it is not surprising that the rates of unemployment are between 50 and 70% (in some reservations they are higher than 80%), and that the American Indians have the lowest average income in the USA.

The government in the 1990s promised high financial and economic rewards to the tribes who would agree to the storage of toxic and radioactive waste on their reservation land for several decades.

Many American Indians were tempted by the money and were not aware of the consequences for their health, their environment and life base, which makes the barriers to the reservations' development even more unbreakable.
Acknowledgments and References
Student Contributors
Ayanna Harrington- Learning Outcomes 3, 6, and 7
Cayce Jondro - Editor- Learning Outcomes 1, and 8
Jessica Williams- Learning Outcomes 2, 4, and 5
Works Cited:

http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/conflict-theory.asp

http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/American_Indians_Today/Current_problems

http://jalegacy2011.wordpress.com/about/japanese-american-activist-timeline-five-generations-of-community-activism/

http://www.legendsofamerica.com/na-proverbs2.html

http://www.legendsofamerica.com/na-timeline.html

http://www.cetel.org/timeline.html

http://www.pbs.org/latino-americans/en/timeline/

http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmtimeline.html

Carcamo, Cindy. "Judge Upholds Arizona Law Banning Ethnic Studies Classes." Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, 12 Mar. 2013. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.

Morse, Ann. "Arizona's Immigration Enforcement Laws." Analysis of Arizona's Immigration Law. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2014.

Carcamo, Cindy. "Judge Upholds Arizona Law Banning Ethnic Studies Classes." Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, 12 Mar. 2013. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.

Ramos, Kristian. "What Arizona's Ban on Ethnic Studies Says about America." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 01 June 2012. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.


Scott, Mona. Think Race and Ethnicity. Boston: Pearson, 2012. 211. Print.

Marquez, Ray Sanchez and Miguel. "Arizona Lawmakers Pass Controversial Anti-gay Bill." CNN. Cable News Network, 21 Feb. 2014. Web. 20 Apr. 2014.

Sanchez, Dan Nowicki Yvonne Wingett, and Alia Beard Rau, The Arizona Republic. "Arizona Governor Vetoes Anti-gay Bill." USA Today. Gannett, 26 Feb. 2014. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.

http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2013/08/28/these-seven-charts-show-the-black-white-economic-gap-hasnt-budged-in-50-years/

http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/03/how-racism-is-bad-for-our-bodies/273911/

http://www.gotquestions.org/religious-pluralism.html#ixzz30GRwYcUZ


Very Special Thank You to

Professor Shannon Field
We appreciate all that you do to educate, listen, and make the world a better place. Have a great summer.
Team Ice Cream Rocket Ship
Full transcript