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Katherine Naim

on 27 July 2015

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Word Bank
Endogenous Process
The processes of internal origin which originates within the earth's crust. These processes take place inside the globe & are governed by forces inherent in the earth.
Seismic Activity
The result of the endogneous process occurs inside the earth's interior. This activity refers to sudden release of energy or stress in the earth's crust or upper mantle accumulated along geologic faults or volcanic activity
Volcanic Activity
A process where molten magma finds it ways to the surface of the earth as in volcanic eruption.
Earth's Internal Heat
Endogenous Process
Process of internal origin.
A process that leads to changes in the mineralogy, texture, structure and chemical composition of rocks.
A class of igneous rocks that have solidified far below the earth's surface
Igneous rocks that form when molten rock solidifies at the surface.
The bending in the rock layer.
The fractures in the crust along which appreciable displacement has taken place.
An irreversable change in the shape & size of a rock body.
Heat generated inside the earth is responsible for the powers driving internal processes such as volcanic eruption, seismic activity as in earthquakes, emergence movements of plate/continents, mountain building and metamorphism. Earth’s interior is characterized by a gradual increase in temperature, pressure and density with depth.
The heat to metamorphose rocks comes mainly from energy release by radioactive decay and thermal energy stored in Earth’s interior.
At high temperatures, rocks in the lower crust and upper mantle are nearly at their melting points resulting in the formation of magma that produces igneous activity.
Generating Magma
Magma is formed when solid rock at the lower crust and upper mantle melts to depth of approximately 250 km (Magmatism). Once formed, a magma body buoyantly rises toward the surface because it is less dense than the surrounding rocks.

Magma is completely or partially molten material which on cooling solidifies to form igneous rocks. Water vapor, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide are the most common gases found in magma.
Igneous rocks that form when mlten rock solidifies at the surface
When a magma loses its mobility before reaching the surface and solidify at depth giving rise to magmatic bodies.
Metamorphism occurs when pre-existing rock is subjected to physical or chemical environment which have been imposed at depths that is different from in which it was initially formed.
The factors induced metamorphism include: temperature, pressure, and introduction of other chemical fluids. Most metamorphic changes occur at the elevated temperatures and pressures that exist in the zone a few kilometers below Earth’s surface and extending into the upper mantle.
Compression Stress
when stress tends to shorten the rock body.
Tensional Stress
when the stress tends to elongate or pull apart a rock.
causes the displacement of rock.
Folds usually occur in a series and look like waves. The crest of the waves folds are called
anticlines and the troughs are
called synclines.
Sudden movements along faults are the cause of most earthquakes. Fault plane is the surface along which two plates or sides move. While fault scarp represents the exposed surface of the fault prior to modification by weathering and erosion.
Normal Fault
a fault in which the rock above the fault plane has moved down relative to the footwall block or rock as a result of extensional stress
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