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how is Ecological Consciousness influenced by urban design?

How Ecological Consciousness is influenced by urban design?
by

matteo giusti

on 8 October 2013

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Transcript of how is Ecological Consciousness influenced by urban design?

ERB
lead internal variables of change
intrinsic satisfaction
theoretical framework
When we focus on generic Environmental Responsible Behaviour (ERB)
this framework seems more appropriate even though in some points they might understand as overlapping
goal-frame
theoretical framework
hedonic goal
background goals
(potential barriers)
Environmental psychology used for Pro-Environmental Behavior (PEB)
The focus is changing a very specific behavior making it PEB
gain goal
normative goal
Competence
Frugality
Participation
Luxury
urban design
ecological -self
family
urban ecosystems are complex, dynamic biological-physical-social entities, in which spatial heterogeneity and spatially localized feedbacks play a large role (Pickett, 2008)
"the commonly perceived direct use values of a place by a specific culture or group" (Stahle, 2006)
citizens tend to talk about urban greenery in terms of how specific green areas can be used (Alm, 2003)
citizens' opinions and perceptions are a starting point for the development of the sociotope map (Stahle, 2006)
"social space is a social product" (Lefebvre, 1991)
space make action possible and in is itself the field of action (Low, 2008)
in the habitual repetition of day-to-day activity, social structures are reproduced recursively (Low, 2008)
space and material interact in the creation of meaning (Low, 2008)
practical consciousness (which covers knowledge in physical and emotional sense)
constitute space through everyday life without conscious reflection (Low, 2008)
in practical consciousness social goods and perople are interlinked through perception (Low, 2008)
spaces develop their own potentiality ('atmosphere') which can influence feelings according to their social pre-structure (Low, 2008)
Ecological Consciousness
shapes
Environmentally Responsible Behaviour
change
in intention
Transformative Learning towards EC
offers tools to
recouple human and Nature
external variables of change
complexity of SE problems
feedback about behavior
economic situation
religious norms
incentives
political situation
social and cultural norms
since ERB is not a static element that can be frozen in a very specific time, but a continuos process of learning and experiencing, the variables of change are a component of the ERB itself.
Ecological Consciousness
Environmental
awareness
Environmental
sensitivity
‘a predisposition to take an interest in learning about the environment, feeling concern for it, and acting to conserve it, on the basis of formative experiences’ (Chawla, 1998)
Among the most frequently mentioned (decreasing in relevance) are:
· Childhood experiences in nature · Experiences of pro-environmental destruction · Pro- environmental values held by the family · Pro-environmental organizations · Role models (friends or teachers) · Education.
During childhood, the most inuential were experiences of natural areas and family; during adolescence and early adulthood, education and friends were mentioned most frequently; and during adulthood, it was pro-environmental organizations (Chawla, 1999)
emotional connection to the natural environment seems to be in fostering environmental awareness and environmental concern
influence
Environmental
concern
Environmental
attitude
Attitudes are dened as the enduring positive or negative feeling about some person, object, or issue. Closely related to attitudes are beliefs, which refer to the information (the knowledge) a person has about a person, object, or issue (Newhouse, 1991). Environmental attitudes have been found to have a varying, usually very small impact on pro-environmental behavior.
Most researchers agree that only a small fraction of pro-environmental behavior can be directly linked to environmental knowledge and environmental awareness
At least 80% of the motives for pro-environmental or non- environmental behavior seem to be situational factors and other internal factors. His study therefore implies that environmental knowledge per se is not a prerequisite for pro-environmental behavior
‘knowing of the impact of human behavior on the environment’. Environmental awareness has both a cognitive, knowledge-based component and an affective, perception-based component
environmental knowledge
emotional involvement

"Awareness of the fundemental interdepence of all phenomena and the fact that we as individuals and societies are embedded in (and ultimately depend upon) the cyclical processes of Nature."
"Life is a network of phenomena that are fundamentally interconnected and interdependent." (Capra, 1996)

The representation of the ecological-self or personal ecological identity
juan
foster
foster
influence
influence
influence
influence
Environmental
values
Values are responsible for shaping much of our intrinsic motivation. Motivation is the reason for a behavior or a strong internal stimulus around which behavior is organized (Wilkie, 1990, as quoted in Moisander, 1998). Motivation is shaped by intensity and direction (which determines which behavior is chosen from all the possible options). Motives for behavior can be overt or hidden—conscious or unconscious (Kollmuss 2002).
The question of what shapes our values is a complex one. Fuhrer et al. (1995) proposed the following hypothesis: A person’s values are most influenced by the ‘microsystem’, which is comprised of the immediate social net—family, neigh- bors, peer-groups, etc. Values are inuenced to a lesser extent by the ‘exosystem’ such as the media and political organizations. Least strong, but nevertheless important, is the influence of the ‘macrosystem’, the cultural context in which the individual lives (Fuhrer et al., 1995, as quoted in Lehmann, 1999)
Ecological Consciousness in its context of environmental psychology
Trasformative Learning in its context of environmental education
all types of behavior that change the availability of materials or energy from the environment or alter the structure and dynamics of ecosystems or the biosphere (Stern,2000). PEB refers to behavior that harms the environment as little as possible, or even benefits the environment (Steg,2009)
How Ecological Consciousness is influenced by Green Urban Design?
What is Ecological Consciousness?
both a static assessment, andt a process analysis
What influence Ecological Consciousness?
How urban design is linked to EC?
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
habitat loss
pollution
more environmental knowledge
principles/religion
vocation
(Chawla 1999)
social justice
more environmental sensitivity
male
organizations
university years
family
organizations
experience of natural areas
social justice
(Kollmuss, 2002)
books
female
friends
education
years of education
habitat loss
education
chilhood
gender
organizations
books
(Kollmuss, 2002)
demographic factors
friends
adulthood
age
more environmental knowledge

The representation of the ecological-self or personal ecological identity

"Awareness of the fundemental interdepence of all phenomena and the fact that we as individuals and societies are embedded in (and ultimately depend upon) the cyclical processes of Nature."
"Life is a network of phenomena that are fundamentally interconnected and interdependent." (Capra, 1996)
Ecological Consciousness
practical learning
demographic factors
responsability
&
priorities
locus of control
age
chilhood
university years
adulthood
habitat loss
social justice
friends
organizations
education
experience of natural areas
organizations
education
family
social justice
habitat loss
vocation
organizations
friends
pollution
books
books
principles/religion
(Chawla 1999)
gender
male
female
more environmental knowledge
more environmental sensitivity
years of education
(Kollmuss, 2002)
more environmental knowledge
(Kollmuss, 2002)
"Our feelings of responsability are shaped by our values and attitudes and are influenced by our locus of control. we prioritize our responsabilities. Most important to people is their own well-being and the well-being of their family or their close microsystem. Whe ERB is in aligment with these personal priorities, the motivation to do them increases. If they contradict the priorities, the action will less likely be taken." (Kollmuss, 2002)
"individual perception of whether he or she has the ability to bring about change through his or her own behavior." (Kollmuss, 2002)
feeling of powerlessness triggers negative feelings, such despair (O'Sullivan 2004), anxiety and a sense of being overwhelmed (NYT, 2010), which are major constraints to a positive change towards ERB.
According to the system understanding of life a living system can only be disturbed and influenced, but not controlled through direct intervention. “Force is not the issue, the issue is meaning”
Educational practices towards transformative learning for relational awareness and action have to teach not only “what”, but also the transformative “how” and ”why” (O'Sullivan 2004)
Transformative learning involves experiencing a deep, structural shift in the basic premises of thought, feelings, and actions. It is a shift of consciousness that dramatically and irreversibly alters our way of being in the world. Such a shift involves our understanding of ourselves and our self-locations; our relationships with other humans and with the natural world; our understanding of relations of power in interlocking structures of class, race and gender; our body awareness, our visions of alternative approaches to living; and our sense of possibilities for social justice and peace and personal joy (O'Sullivan 2004).
Transformative learning is a process by ehich critically assimilated assumptions, beliefs, values, and perspectives are questioned and thereby become more open, permeable, and better validated. It is catalyzed by a disorienting dilemma which results in a process of self-examination and critical reflection (Mezirow, 1991, 2000)
Transformative learning (Mezirow, 1991, 1995, 1996; Cranton, 1994, 1996) is the process of effecting change in a frame of reference. Adults have acquired a coherent body of experience—associations, concepts, values, feelings, conditioned responses—frames of reference that define their life world. Frames of reference are the structures of assumptions through which we understand our experiences (Mezirow, 1997)
ecological education
Education influence change in ERB, but formal education is not primar
“disorienting dilemma”
experiential learning
learning community
change
in motivation
strongly responsible for
Motivation is the reason for a behavior or a strong internal stimulus around which behavior is organized (Wilkie, 1990, as quoted in Moisander, 1998). Motivation is shaped by intensity and direction (which determines which behavior is chosen from all the possible options). Motives for behavior can be overt or hidden—conscious or unconscious (Kollmuss 2002).
coupling
human
&
Nature
methods for transformative learning
strongly shaping
"consciousness" is the mental structure through which we interpret our world, understand ourselves and find meaning. We cocreate our experience. (O' Sullivan 2004)
The goal of ecological education, namely to enhance the ecological culture of the individual and society as an aggreagate of practical and spiritual/intellectual experience of the interaction between human beings and the natural world, in order to endure humanity's survival and development, are desifned to form and develop the ecological consciousness of the individual. (Biriukova 2005) It is not only shaping every citizen's understanding, but also... the assimilation of ecological and ethical norms, a way of lige that is in tune with the principles of stable development. (Biriukova 2005). It is essential that the ecological knowledge that is imparted to the children goes hand in hand with making sure that natural objects have an emotional effect on them, and that the pedagogical organization of their paractical activity serves to stimulate their cognitice involvement.(Biriukova 2005).
Our ecology of learning is both a social and philosophical structure and a series of relationships with ourselves, our community and the environment.
knowledge learning
Mezirow (1995) believes that it usually results from a disorienting dilemma, which is triggered by a life crisis or major life transition, although it may also result from an accumulation of transformations in meaning schemes over a period of time. (Adult education). A temporary sense of meaninglessness, disconnection, fear or loss of security (Mezirow, 1991)
Problem-solving situation might enhance our self-confidence and our own locus of control. (Faith, 2008). In learning towards EC practice is primary and theory serves practical ends. Main focus is apprehend patterns of change (O'Sullivam, 2004).
Activities that encourage our non-rational, imaginative brain functions. Different experiences also stimulates biologically our brain releasing chemicals that promote different spatial or bodily awareness. Meaningfull interaction with the natural world and the sense of wonder and interconnection that this engenders. (Faith, 2008)
The influence of family during chilhood and friends during adulthood is critical in shaping our EC. Further our relationship with family/friends/people/etc.. is an essential component in shaping our relationship with nature (O'sullivan 2004)
Knowledge towards the re-establishment of the relationship between humans, and between human and Nature . The indigenous process of knowing is centered with the identification of the self, then what motived you through your life, what is your vocation, and what are your relationships with the others. (O'Sullivan, 2004)
emotional involvement/reaction
Environmental
awareness
foster
Attitudes are dened as the enduring positive or negative feeling about some person, object, or issue. Closely related to attitudes are beliefs, which refer to the information (the knowledge) a person has about a person, object, or issue (Newhouse, 1991). Environmental attitudes have been found to have a varying, usually very small impact on pro-environmental behavior.
At least 80% of the motives for pro-environmental or non- environmental behavior seem to be situational factors and other internal factors. His study therefore implies that environmental knowledge per se is not a prerequisite for ERB.
influence
Most researchers agree that only a small fraction of pro-environmental behavior can be directly linked to environmental knowledge and environmental awareness
foster
influence
emotional connection to the natural environment seems to be in fostering environmental awareness and environmental concern. environmental sensitivity is a function of an individual’s contact with the outdoors in relatively pristine environments either alone or with close personal friends or relatives.
Peterson initially defined environmental sensitivity as "a set of affective attributes which result in anindividual viewing the environment from an empathetic perspective" (1982,p. 5). She distinguished it from what she called an environmental ethic, which combines "an intense regard for the natural environment" with a willingness "to take action in order to live harmoniously with nature." Hungerford and Volk (1990), in their influential model of environmental citizenship, also defined sensitivity as "an empathetic perspective toward the environment" (p. 11). Peters-Grant (1986)- 88% said childhood natural areas were key for environmental sensitivity. Outdoor experiences in groups of 1-5 are important (Scholl-Wilder, 1983)
influence
Environmental
sensitivity
Values are responsible for shaping much of our intrinsic motivation. Motivation is the reason for a behavior or a strong internal stimulus around which behavior is organized (Wilkie, 1990, as quoted in Moisander, 1998). Motivation is shaped by intensity and direction (which determines which behavior is chosen from all the possible options). Motives for behavior can be overt or hidden—conscious or unconscious (Kollmuss 2002).
The question of what shapes our values is a complex one. Fuhrer et al. (1995) proposed the following hypothesis: A person’s values are most influenced by the ‘microsystem’, which is comprised of the immediate social net—family, neigh- bors, peer-groups, etc. Values are inuenced to a lesser extent by the ‘exosystem’ such as the media and political organizations. Least strong, but nevertheless important, is the influence of the ‘macrosystem’, the cultural context in which the individual lives (Fuhrer et al., 1995, as quoted in Lehmann, 1999)
environmental knowledge
influence
Environmental
concern
‘knowing of the impact of human behavior on the environment’. Environmental awareness has both a cognitive, knowledge-based component and an affective, perception-based component
Environmental
attitude
influence
Among the most frequently mentioned (decreasing in relevance) are:
· Childhood experiences in nature · Experiences of pro-environmental destruction · Pro- environmental values held by the family · Pro-environmental organizations · Role models (friends or teachers) · Education.
During childhood, the most influential were experiences of natural areas and family; during adolescence and early adulthood, education and friends were mentioned most frequently; and during adulthood, it was pro-environmental organizations (Chawla, 1999)
Environmental
values
‘a predisposition to take an interest in learning about the environment, feeling concern for it, and acting to conserve it, on the basis of formative experiences’ (Chawla, 1998)
influence
Affective component of environmental attitude (Takacs-Santa, 2007). It is relevant when dealing with a specific environmental issue.
emotional involvement as the extent to which we have an affective relationship with the natural world. This is very important to shape our beliefs , values, and attitudes towards the environment (Chawla 1998,1999).
The stronger a person's emotional reaction, the more likely that person will engage in ERB (Grob,1991 from Kollmuss, 2002).
- Emotional non-investment for lack of knowledge awareness of a problem (Kollmuss, 2002).
- Emotional non-investment due to defense mechanisms and non-conforming information (Kollmuss, 2002).
- Emotional non-investment due to lack of personal connection with nature.
influence
“we are what we live”
education for ERB
Education is relevant to change in ERB when is the source of significantly new or deepened environmental attitude. (Chawla, 1999)
Knowledge, by itself, is not a prerequisite for ERB (Kollmuss, 2002).
Despite the presence of strong cognitive attitudes, the weakness of the affective component is very likely to also weaken the predisposition to behavior, and thus the realization of the behavior itself. (Takacs-Santa, 2007)
When ERB is costly informative strategies are not very effective (Steg, 2009)
Educate public about environmental disaster with pure information is not effective since it triggers defence mechanisms. (Miller, 2005)
Urban design in its context of urban sociology and urban psychology
Urban design creates transformative experiences
through urban use values in green areas
sociotope
coupling
users
&
green urban areas
living
green urban areas
change
in ERB
if an environmental problem exists
How use values of STKM green areas influence TL towards EC in chilhood?
How use values of STKM green areas are linked to EC in childhood?
How use values of STKM green areas are linked to TL in childhood?
CASE STUDY ANALYSIS
Use Values (UV)
E (evenemang) recreational values
F (flokliv) lively place
G (gron oas) green oasis
L (Naturlek) natural play area
N (vild natur) wilderness
P (Picknick) picnic area
R (ro) peace and quite
U (Utsikt) view point
EC characteristics
environmental awareness (knowledge+feelings)
environmental sensitivity
environmental values
environmental concern (problem-related)
environmental attitude
Problem-solving situation might enhance our self-confidence and our own locus of control. (Faith, 2008). In learning towards EC practice is primary and theory serves practical ends. Main focus is apprehend patterns of change (O'Sullivam, 2004).
knowledge learning
experiential learning
According to the system understanding of life a living system can only be disturbed and influenced, but not controlled through direct intervention. “Force is not the issue, the issue is meaning”
Educational practices towards transformative learning for relational awareness and action have to teach not only “what”, but also the transformative “how” and ”why” (O'Sullivan 2004)
Transformative learning involves experiencing a deep, structural shift in the basic premises of thought, feelings, and actions. It is a shift of consciousness that dramatically and irreversibly alters our way of being in the world. Such a shift involves our understanding of ourselves and our self-locations; our relationships with other humans and with the natural world; our understanding of relations of power in interlocking structures of class, race and gender; our body awareness, our visions of alternative approaches to living; and our sense of possibilities for social justice and peace and personal joy (O'Sullivan 2004).
Transformative learning is a process by ehich critically assimilated assumptions, beliefs, values, and perspectives are questioned and thereby become more open, permeable, and better validated. It is catalyzed by a disorienting dilemma which results in a process of self-examination and critical reflection (Mezirow, 1991, 2000)
Transformative learning (Mezirow, 1991, 1995, 1996; Cranton, 1994, 1996) is the process of effecting change in a frame of reference. Adults have acquired a coherent body of experience—associations, concepts, values, feelings, conditioned responses—frames of reference that define their life world. Frames of reference are the structures of assumptions through which we understand our experiences (Mezirow, 1997)
The influence of family during chilhood and friends during adulthood is critical in shaping our EC. Further our relationship with family/friends/people/etc.. is an essential component in shaping our relationship with nature (O'sullivan 2004)
Knowledge towards the re-establishment of the relationship between humans, and between human and Nature . The indigenous process of knowing is centered with the identification of the self, then what motived you through your life, what is your vocation, and what are your relationships with the others. (O'Sullivan, 2004)
Mezirow (1995) believes that it usually results from a disorienting dilemma, which is triggered by a life crisis or major life transition, although it may also result from an accumulation of transformations in meaning schemes over a period of time. (Adult education). A temporary sense of meaninglessness, disconnection, fear or loss of security (Mezirow, 1991)
"consciousness" is the mental structure through which we interpret our world, understand ourselves and find meaning. We cocreate our experience. (O' Sullivan 2004)
“disorienting dilemma” (problem-related)
Activities that encourage our non-rational, imaginative brain functions. Different experiences also stimulates biologically our brain releasing chemicals that promote different spatial or bodily awareness. Meaningfull interaction with the natural world and the sense of wonder and interconnection that this engenders. (Faith, 2008)
methods for transformative learning
practical learning
learning community
EC
A
defense mechanisms
trasformation
A
EC
*
Trasformative Learning
variables
influence/change
influence/change
A
ERB
ERB
A
*
internal/external
variables
internal/external
variables
this is what is
represented in the
graphic aside
defense mechanisms
juan
emotional blocking of new knowledge
Existing knowledge contradicts
environmental values
defense mechanisms
non-conforming information
rational distancing (problem-related)
apathy (problem-related)
Existing values preventing
emotional involvement
denial (problem-related)
Existing values contradict
learning
emotional blocking of new environmental
values and attitudes
delegation (problem-related)
Existing knowledge preventing
emotional involvement
locus of control (problem-related)
demographic factors
responsabilities & priorities (problem-related)
defense mechanisms
rational distancing
apathy
delegation
emotional blocking of new environmental
values and attitudes
juan
denial
non-conforming information
emotional blocking of new knowledge
Existing values preventing
emotional involvement
Existing knowledge preventing
emotional involvement
Existing values contradict
learning
Existing knowledge contradicts
environmental values
further internal variables of change
Static analysis
Dynamic analysis
change in ERB
change in EC
How GUD recouple human and Nature?
Full transcript