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Crassostrea Virginica

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http://www.northcarolinasportsman.com/pics/p1277840147.jp g
Mechanical dredging
NCDENR
Solutions
Impacts
Erosion Prevention
Oysters reefs prevent erosion in low energy environments and require no continual maintenance (Grabowski et al, 2012)
Disease Introduced to Oyster Population
$5 Million Landing
Hypoxia
Harsh Winter Freezing
Rehabilitation Program Expanded
Department of Environment and Natural Resources
Division of Marine Fisheries
Under the Dock Oyster Culture Program
Oyster Shell Recovery Program
Shellfish Sanitation Program
Water Quality Regulations
Division of Water Resources
CZMA/CAMA
Coastal Non-Point Pollution Control Program
Increase non-point source pollutant standards
Develop non-point source pollution programs
Increase enforcement of standards
Increased funding for restoration
Excise tax on oysters and harvesting equipment
Fund created in Division of Marine Fisheries
Supply revenue to restoration projects
Allow underfunded plans to continue operation
Additional oyster sanctuaries
Oyster Sanctuary Program
Allows for additional safe havens for oyster reproduction
Currently, all oyster sanctuaries located in Pamlico Sound
Create additional sanctuaries along the entire coast of North Carolina
Oyster Restoration Fund
Oyster Excise Tax
Oyster Restoration Fund
Created within the NC Division of Marine Fisheries within DENR
Managed by the Marine Fisheries Commission
Three responsibilities:
Approval of funding applications
Setting standards for use of funding
Long-term monitoring of fund to determine success
10% excise tax on oysters and oyster harvesting equipment
Modeled on the Pittman-Robertson/Dingell-Johnson
Collected by the NC Department of Revenue and given to NC DENR
Policies and Funding
Chesapeake Bay
Oyster Degradation Causes

Water Quality through Filtration
Decreased turbidity
Increased light avaliable for photosynthesis by benthic plants
Removal of suspended solids and phytoplankton
Aids in control of eutrophication events
[16 U.S.C. 5B § 669k]
September 2nd, 1937
11% excise tax on guns and ammunition
Wildlife Restoration Act
Pittman-Robertson Act
[16 U.S.C. 10B § 777]
Sport Fish Restoration Act
Dingell-Johnson Act
December 9th, 1950
10% excise tax on tackle
3% excise tax on trolling motors, yachts, smaller boats, gasoline
Fish and Wildlife Improvement and National Wildlife Refuge System Centennial Act of 2000

[PL 106-408]
November 1st, 2000
This act further enhanced the funds available for grants to States for fish and wildlife conservation projects.
Create new revenue for restoration
Continuous cycle of growth
Harvest produces taxes
Tax fuels fund
Fund restores resource
Resource is harvested
Benefits of ORF
Prominent Restoration Efforts Outside of North Carolina
Shellfish Rehabilitation Program
Oyster Sanctuary Program
Meet requirements

Pass test from DMF and NC Sea Grant

Acquire permit
Shellfish Harvest Area Closure Map
NC Policies (1996-Present)
Fisheries Reform Act of 1997
Key Points:
Increased commerical licensing fees
Created a commercial and recreational gear license
Mandated CHPP development
Increased law enforcement and penalties
Set up advisory committee
Mandated the development of FMPs
Blue Ribbon Advisory Council
on Oysters
(BRACO) (1995)
Recommendations:
1. Encourage private enterprise to engage in mariculture
2. Restore and protect oyster reef habitat
3. Restore and protect coastal water quality
4. Establish and support an industry-based Seafood Council
5.Require the MFC to monitor the implementation of these recommendations and report progress
Fishery Management Plan on Oysters (2001)
Goal
Restore the oyster population so that it may produce optimum yield and regain its role in providing ecological benefits to NC estuaries.

Oyster Restoration and Protection Plan for NC: A Blueprint for Action
2nd Ed. (2008)
Goals
Restore and protect NC's native oyster population and habitat in an effort to restore our estuaries to robust and diverse ecosystems
Build broad public awareness and support for the value of oyster restoration, estuarine conservation, and sustainable fisheries
Establish and work with a comprehensive coalition to build and maintain significant and meaningful progress towards oyster restoration in the next five years.
Summary
Moratorium Steering
Committee Report (1996)
Recomendations
License Committee- Develop Fishery Management Plans (FMPs) and restructure system
Gear Committee- FMPs and system to collect catch-per-unit-effort data
Habitat Committee-Development of Coastal Habitat Protection Plan (CHPP)
Organization Committee- Downsize the Marine Fishery Commission (MFC), establish Standing Advisory Committee, and refocused the Division of Marine Fisheries (DMF)
Law Committee-Strengthen police force and develop a point system
Photo Courtesy of Jessica Stitt
Lowest Recorded Harvest
Paent tongs, n.d
.
Oyster dredge, n.d.
Shellfish Deposit Boat , n.d.
Division of Marine Fisheries depositing shells, n.d.
Oyster cage, n.d.
Fisheries
-Historically important food source
-Vital Habitat
-Substantial Fishery
Shell Bags, n.d.
Oyster Cultivation, 2012
Recommendations
Identify, restore, and protect oyster habitats
Restore oyster populations to levels capable of maintaining sustainable production
Identify and encourage research
Identify, develop, and promote oyster harvesting practices
Division on Marine Fisheries
Division of Marine Fisheries, n.d.
https://extension.umd.edu/sites/default/files/styles/extra_large/public/_images/photogalleries/2013-04-30/Oyster%20Dredge.jpg?itok=259u1B7S
Moratorium Steering
Committee (1996)
North Carolina Blue Ribbon
Advisory Council
on Oysters Study (1995)
Fisheries Reform Act (1997)
Fishery Management Plan
on Oysters (2001)
Oyster Restoration and Protection Plan for North Carolina:
A Blueprint for Action (2003)
Oyster Restoration and Protection Plan for North Carolina:
A Blueprint for Action (2008)
Citations
(n.d.) Department of Marine Fisheries. Retrieved from the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources http://portal.ncdenr.org/web/mf/home

(n.d.). Oysters. Retrieved from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Chesapeake Bay Office website: http://chesapeakebay.noaa.gov/fish-facts/oysters

(n.d.). Federal aid in wildlife restoration act. Retrieved from Digest of Federal Resource Laws of Interest to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service website: http://www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/fawild.html

(n.d.). Federal aid in sport fish restoration act. Retrieved from Digest of Federal Resource Laws of Interest to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service website: http://www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/fasport.html

(n.d.). North Carolina marine commercial finfish and shellfish harvest. website: http://portal.ncdenr.org/web/mf/statistics/comstat/oysters

(2012, ). Land use and pollution across the bay watershed. Retrieved from About the Bay website: http://www.cbf.org/about-the-bay/land-use/agriculture-vs-developed
Baldera, A.A., & Orbach, M. (2010). An integrated analysis of oyster fisheries management in Pamlico Sound, North Carolina. Retreived from http://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/10161/2167/Baldera_mastersproject.pdf?sequence=1

(2013, ). Dermo fact sheet. Retrieved from Virginia Institute of Marine Science - Dermo Fact Sheet website: http://www.vims.edu/research/departments/eaah/programs/shellpath/Research/perkinsus_marinus/index.php

City of Wilmington Stormwater Services. (2010). Pet Waste is a Danger to your health and our waterways! [Brochure].

Evans, S. (2013). Ulysses s. grant's second inaugural ball. Retrieved from The History Chef! Retrieved from: http://lincolnslunch.blogspot.com/2013/05/ulysses-s-grants-second-inaugural-ball.html

General Assembly of North Carolina. (1997). House Bill 1097 (S.L. 1997-400). North Carolina: North Carolina General Assembly

Geraldi, N.R., Simpson, M., Fegley, S.R., Holmlund, P., & Peterson, C.H. (2013). Addition of juvenile oysters fails to enhance oyster reef development in Pamlico Sound. Marine Ecology Progress Serie, 480, 119-129. Retrieved from http://www.intres.com/articles/meps_oa/m480p119.pdf

Grabowski, J. H., Brumbaugh, R. D., Conrad, R. F., Keeler, A. G., Opaluch, J. J., Peterson, C. H., . . . Smyth, A. R. (2012). Economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by oyster reefs. BioScience, 62(10), 900-909. Retrieved from http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1525/bio.2012.62.10.10

Grace, R. M. (2004, April 29). Oysters: A dish fit to be serve to a president. Retrieved from Metroplitan News-Enterprise website: http://www.metnews.com/articles/2004/reminiscing042904.htm















Record 1.2 billion oysters added to Bay restoration effort in 2013
Division of Marine Fisheries, n.d.
Division of Marine Fisheries, n.d.
Grimes, Jay. (n.d.). Oyster dredge [JPG]. Retrieved December 1, 2013 from http://www.usm.edu/gcrl/microbiology/marine.microbial.ecology.php

Nash, C., & Rubio-Zuazo, A. M. (2012). Monitoring the canaries of our catchments.
North Carolina Marine Fisheries. (1996). Final Report of the Fisheries Moratorium Steering Committee to the Joint Legislative Commission on Seafood and Aquaculture (NCU-T-96-007 C2). North Carolina: North Carolina General Assembly

North Carolina Marine Fisheries. (2001). North Carolina Fishery Management Plan Oyster. North Carolina: North Carolina General Assembly
North Carolina Marine Fisheries. (2003). Oyster Restoration and Protection Plan for North Carolina: A Blueprint for Action. North Carolina: North Carolina General Assembly

North Carolina Department of Marine Fisheries & Sea Grant. (2005). Under dock oyster culture program. Retrieved from http://portal.ncdenr.org/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=f03430ab-d3a5-46a3-80cc-4e1f5d1c6c31&groupId=38337.

North Carolina Marine Fisheries. (2008). Oyster Restoration and Protection Plan for North Carolina: A Blueprint for Action- Second Edition. North Carolina: North Carolina General Assembly

NOAA Fisheries Eastern Oyster Biological Review Team. (2007). Status review of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica): Report to the National Marine Fisheries Service. Retrieved from http://spo.nwr.noaa.gov/tm/TMSPO88.pdf

Oyster cage. (n.d.). Oyster cage [JPG]. Retrieved December 1, 2013 from http://bayoyster.com/equip_go.html

Patent tonging for oysters. (n.d.) Patent tong [JPG]. Retrieved December 1, 2013 from http://www.vims.edu/research/units/labgroups/molluscan_ecology/monitoring/patent_tong/index.php

Piazza, B. P., Banks, P. D., & La Peyre, M. K. (2005). The potential for created oyster shell reefs as a sustainable shoreline protection strategy in louisiana. Restoration Ecology, 13(3), 499-506.

Powers, S.P., Peterson, C.H., Grabowski, J.H., & Lenihan, H.S. (2009). Success of constructed oyster reefs in no-harvest sanctuaries: Implications for restoration. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 389, 159-170. Retrieved from http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps_oa/m389p159.pdf.

Sunila, I. (n.d.). Dermo disease. Retrieved from Connecticut Sea Grant website: http://www.ct.gov/doag/lib/doag/aquaculture/dermo.pdf

Sunila, I. (n.d.). Msx disease. Retrieved from Connecticut Sea Grant website: http://www.ct.gov/doag/lib/doag/aquaculture/msx.pdf

United States Fish and Wildlife Service. (1937). Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act (16 U.S.C. 5B § 669k). Washington, D.C: U.S. Governmental Printing Office.

United States Fish and Wildlife Service. (1950). Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act (16 U.S.C 10B § 777). Washington, D.C: U.S. Governmental Printing Office.

United States Fish and Wildlife Service. (2000). Fish and Wildlife Programs Improvement and National Wildlife Refuge System Centennial Act of 2000 (PL 106-408). Washington, D.C: U.S. Governmental Printing Office.
Smithsonian National Museum of American History (n.d.)
Chesapeake Bay Foundation (2013)
Calvert Independent Newspaper (1954)
Chesapeake Bay Foundation (2012)
Virginia Institute of Marine Science (n.d.)
Virginia Institute of Marine Science (n.d.)
Maryland Sea Grant (n.d.)
Maryland Sea Grant (n.d.)
NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office (2012)
Federal Register (2011)
Federal Register (2011)
Maryland Department of Natural Resources (n.d.)
University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science (2013)
Upstream "Poo"-lutants
33, 800 dogs X 3/4 lbs daily = 12.5 tons of dog waste just in New Hanover County
(City of Wilmington, 2010)
(Crassostrea virginica)
Eastern Oyster
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