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2004 Tsunami & Earthquake

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Minoshka Bocarro

on 6 February 2014

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Transcript of 2004 Tsunami & Earthquake

2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami & Earthquake
It occurred off the coast of the coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra

It occurred on the 26 of December, 2004 at 7:59 AM Local Time
2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake & Tsunami
What is an Earthquake?
An earthquake is a sudden shaking of the ground.
Definition from Oxford Dictionaries
"A sudden, violent shaking of the ground, typically caused great destruction, as a result of movements within the earth's crust or volcanic action."
What causes Earthquakes?
Changes in the Earth's Crust
Earthquake can be caused by changes in the Earth's crust. These are called tectonic earthquake. They are generated by the rapid release of strain within the crust. They mostly occur at a fault, where two plates meet.
Human Activity
Few earthquakes are caused by human activity.
For Example:
Dynamite or atomic explosions can sometimes cause mild quakes.
The weight of large reservoirs of water, such as dams, can quicken the rupture of a fault.
Volcanic Eruptions
Volcanic eruptions can cause earthquakes. For example when an earthquake vent is blocked, the buildup of pressure can cause an earthquake.
Earthquakes cause by meteors are rare. They can sometimes strike the earth causing the ground to shake and an earthquake to generate.
What causes Tsunamis?
Tsunamis are mostly caused by underwater earthquakes which occur when the ocean floor abruptly deforms. The seabed is jolted up by the earthquake and the water above the epicenter of the earthquake gets displaced. The tall column of water that is created splits and moves away from the earthquake's epicenter.
Volcanic Eruptions
When a coastal volcano, island volcano or an underwater volcano collapses, the destruction caused by the collapse results in massive landslides, which causes a tsunami.
When a meteor hit the sea, it causes huge ripples that span out in every direction. It is like a rock being thrown in a lake.
Underwater landslides can cause a tsunami because of water displaced. A large mass of sand, mud and gravel moves down the the slope.
Countries Affected
Sri Lanka
India's South-East Coast
India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Reunion Island
South Africa


Homes were destroyed


Total Damages

Environmental damage


A quarter of a million people died (225,000)
The death toll in Indonesia was more than 200,00

Two million people were made homeless

500,00 people were injured

Damages exceeded $10 billion
The value of economic infrastructure and human development loses was originally estimated at $9 billion

Drinking water was contaminated
Coral reefs, forests and many other natural features were destroyed
Miles of coastline were ruined
It completely covered some islands
Fishing and tourism industries are ruined (for example, in Thailand
Ready for Future Disasters
The Indian Ocean Tsunami has highlighted the lack of disaster preparedness in the Indian Ocean. Now, the countries are finally recognizing the need for a warning system. In Thailand, the government and United Nations are working together to prepare for and reduce the impacts of future disasters in the region. An early waring system that consists of 26 national tsunami information centers receiving information from 35 new seismographic stations and 3 deep ocean sensors to detect and report tsunamis.
Early Warning System
In addition, governments have resettled population away from to coast. For example, on the 17th of January, 2005, the Sri Lanka Public Security Ministry announced the relocation of its coastal communities and building restrictions have been put in place, preventing construction within 100m (in the southwest) and 200m (in the northeast) from the sea. Sea walls, dikes, tsunami breakwaters, tsunami gates, etc. have been proposed in order to slow down a tsunami.
Coastal Safety Measures
However, the early warning system will not be effective if the people are not educated about tsunamis. Education for Natural Disaster Preparedness in Asia-Pacific is a project that was instituted. Projects in Indonesia Sri Lanka, Thailand, Kenya, Tanzania and Somalia are training communities to recognize natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes and landslides and to utilize survival strategies.
Public Education
Homes have been modified so that they can, to some extent, withstand a tsunami. A tsunami safe(r) consists of 4 smaller cores, stronger than one big one; in order to maximize the resistance to an incoming tsunami, four independent liner support perpendicular to the coast are created. The total surface area of a tsunami safe(r) is approximately the same as current houses, which means that the cost will be equal.
Tsunami safe(r)
Indonesia vs. Australia

Buildings more than 3 stories high collapsed or were damaged due to earthquake shaking

Residential neighborhoods and fishing villages in coastal areas were entirely devastated because of multiple massive waves

Death Toll - 200,000 people

Missing - 113,937 people

Environmental Damage - 48,925 ha of forest area was affected by tsunami, wells were contaminated by salt water.


Several boats were ripped from their moorings and were damaged

A single wave came to Australia, some tremors were felt and dangerous rips and currents were experienced.

Death Toll - 0 people

Injuries - 0 people (30 people were rescued)

Minor flooding
Who was affected the most?
Indonesia was affected the most; the result of being extremely close to the epicenter of the earthquake whereas Australia was much further away.
What is a Tsunami?
A tsunami is a disastrous wave usually generated by an earthquake.
Oxford Dictionary Defintion
"A long, high sea wave caused by an earthquake or other disturbances"
What is an Earthquake?
An earthquake is a sudden shaking of the ground.
Definition from Oxford Dictionaries
"A sudden, violent shaking of the ground, typically causes great destruction, as a result of movements within the earth's crust or volcanic action."
Epicenter – http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/img/earthquakes/Epicenter.gif
How plate tectonics work - http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/about/edu/dynamicplanet/images/nutshell.gif
Atomic Bomb - http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2013/05/17/article-2325859-19D336F8000005DC-387_634x1004.jpg
Tsunami Causes Graph – http://www.ga.gov.au/servlet/BigObiFileManager?bigobjid=GA9549
Map of Countries Hit - http://movingimages.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/countries-affected-by-2004-dec-tsunami-graphic-courtesy-bbc.gif
Meteor Crater - http://discovermagazine.com/~/media/Images/Issues/2007/nov/meteorcrater.jpg
Tsunami - http://www.secretsofthefed.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/karachitsunmai.jpg
Earthquake Tsunami - http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/tsunami-formation.gif
Volcanic Tsunami - http://www.sea-way.org/blog/TongaVolcano1.JPG
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