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Chapter 4 Sociology 1010

References: Brym, Robert J., John Lie. 2013. Sociology: Pop Culture to Social Structure, Third Edition. Mason, Ohio: Cengage Learning

Deborah Downey

on 25 April 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 4 Sociology 1010

From Social Interaction to Social Organizations

People communicating, acting & reacting to each other.
Social Interaction:
Social Interaction is based on 3 building block
What are they?
Status: A recognized social position
Role: A set of expected behaviors
Norm: Generally accepted ways of doing things
Status Set:
All statuses a person occupies
Role Set:
Cluster of roles attached to a single status
Role Conflict:
When the duties of a person's multiple roles are contradictory and overlap
Role Strain:
When the demands of one single role are incompatible
working moms
flight attendants
Are our emotions Involuntary?
Arlie Russell Hochschild:
Leading figure in the study in
Emotional Management:
People obeying "feeling rules" and responding appropriately to the situation they find themselves in
Hochschild estimates:
1/2 Women's jobs
1/5 Men's jobs
Emotion Labor:
Emotional Management that many people do as part of their job and for which they are paid
Require SUBSTANTIAL emotional labor
Conflict Theories of Social Interaction
Back & Forth of conversations
Competing for Attention
Charles Derber:
Interaction as Competition & Exchange
conflict theory
Social Interaction involves competition over valued resources.
Symbolic Interaction Theory
Social Interaction

Mead's Looking Glass Self
People often act in ways they consider fair or just, even if it doesn't maximize their personal gain
Social Interaction is not ALWAYS
a struggle.
"All the world's a stage and all the men and women merely players."
Goffman's Dramaturgical Analysis
Dramaturgical analysis:
An approach that views social interaction as a sort of play in which people play and negotiate roles
Role distancing:
Involves giving the impression that we are just going through the motions and that we lack serious commitment to a role
Involves people typically trying to place themselves in the best possible light as they interact with others.
Impression Management:
"The best way of impressing [advisers] with your competence is asking questions you know the answer to. because if they ever put it back ton you, "Well what do you think?" then you can tell them what you think and you'd give a very intelligent answer because you knew it. You didn't ask it to find out information. You ask it to impress people."
Verbal & Nonverbal Communication
6 Similar Facial Expressions Across Cultures
Rigid views of how members of various groups act, regardless of
whether individual gro
up members really behave that w
Status Cues:
How Social Groups Shape Our Actions
1. Norms of solidarity demand conformity

2. Structures of authority tend to render people obedient (Milgram 1974)

3. Bureaucracies are highly effective structures of authority
A large, impersonal organization composed of many clearly defined positions arranged in a hierarchy. A bureaucracy has a permanent, salaried staff of qualified experts and written goals, rules, and procedures. Staff members always try to find ways of running the bureaucracy more efficiently
Social Networks:
Social groups:
Social categories:
Reference Group:
Primary Groups:
Secondary groups:
Formal Organizations:
Albert Mehrabian

-says that 93% of commmunication is non-verbal

Consists of:
1. intonation in one's voice
2. body language
3. facial expressions
A bounded set of individuals who are linked by the exchange of material or emotional resources
One or more networks of people who identify with one another and adhere to defined norms, roles, and statuses
People who share similar status but do not identify with one another
The people we evaluate our situation or conduct by
Social groups which norms, roles, and statuses are agreed upon, but not put in writing. Strong ties, lots of activities, long standing interactions.
Social groups that are larger and more impersonal than primary groups
Secondary groups designed to achieve specific and explicit objectives.
Visual indicators of a person's social position
Full transcript