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Coaching the Sprinter

Event technical analysis, sport psychology, motor learning, exercise physiology, biomechanics, strength & conditioning
by

Adam Benz

on 20 August 2013

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Transcript of Coaching the Sprinter

Coaching the Sprinter
Bioenergetics of Sprinting
Nutrition for the Sprinter
Sport Psychology Related to Sprinting
in Track & Field
Introduction
1: Coaching Philosophy & Theory
2: Sport Psychology & Sprinting
3: Motor Learning & Sprinting
4: Bioenergetics of Sprinting
5: Biomechanics of Sprinting
6: Speed Training for the Sprint Events
7: Resistance Training for Sprinting
8: Plyometric Training for Sprinting
9: Flexibility Training for Sprinting
10: Nutrition for Sprintng
Topics of Discussion
Coaching Philosophy & Theory
Coaching Philosophy
A coaching philosophy is a set of guiding principles that one follows when making any kind of decision related to coaching.
Success
Effective Communicator
Positive
Sincere (Honest)
Caring
Open-minded
Adaptable
Process Oriented
Trusting & Trustworthy
Self-Aware
Dedicated
Approachable
Consistent
Ethical
Prepared
Traits of an Effective Coach
Model for Developing a Successful Athletics Program
Preparation for Quality Practice & Competition
High quality training is performing up to what one is capable of at the present moment in time.
Question
: How does one increase the quality of their own practice?
Answer
: Mindfulness.
Mental Skills Training
Mental Skills
: Psychological skills that can be applied by an individual to optimize effectiveness of physical training, technical skills and competitive simulation and competition.
Physical Training
Body (Somatic) Control
Cognitive (Emotional) Control
Motivational Control
Focus Control
Technical Skills
Mindful to tempo and rhythm.
Objectively evaluate performance.
Be purposeful.
Competitive Simulation
Develop concentration procedures.
Create adversity during practice.
Be adaptable to the current situation.
Motor Learning & Sprinting
Practice Considerations
Transfer
Environment
Practice Schedule
Cuing
3 Phases of Motor Learning
1)
Acquisition Phase
:
Learner familiarizes themselves with the skill being performed.
2)
Refinement Phase
:
Learner continues to perform the skill at basic level.
Learners efficiency and accuracy of skill performance improves.
3)
Stabilization (Diversification) Phase
:
Learner develops ability to consistently replicate the skill.
Learner can modify the skill depending on the situation.
Pre-Practice Considerations
Orientation to the task goal
.
Description of skill.
Demonstration of skill.
Allow athlete to attempt the skill.
Post-Movement & Practice Considerations
Feedback - Internal & External
External (Augmented) Feedback
This is Not What Coaching is About
Biomechanics of Sprinting
Conceptual Technical Model for Sprinting
1) Body Positioning
Core stabilization and postural control
Vertical alignment
2) Recovery Mechanics
1) Residual phase
Cue sprinter to maintain postural control and vertical alignment.
Cue sprinter to keep feet dorsiflexed ("toe-up")
2) Recovery Phase
Maximize thigh acceleration, reducing recovery time and moments of inertia.
Done by closing the gap between the heel and the glutes.
Thigh blockage signals the end of recovery phase
3) Transition Phase
Begins once the thigh is blocked.
Facilitates transfer of momentum and projection of sprinter during flight time.
Ends with negative acceleration of thigh.
4) Ground Preparation Phase
Sprinter prepares leg and foot for ground contact.
Sprinter should actively accelerate thigh downward via gluteal and hip extensor muscles.
5) Ground Phase
1) Frontside Phase
Objective is horizontal displacement as quickly as possible.
Cue to sprinter to "claw the track."
2) Backside Phase
Commences when center of mass is over base of support.
Cue the sprinter to use hips in pushing the ground.
6) Arm Action
Palms facing each other.
Thumbs pointing upwards.
Arms bent at approximately 90 degrees.
Cue sprinter to "hammer the nails"
Speed Training for the Sprint Events
Assisted Sprint Training
Resisted Sprint Training
(Supramaximal or Overspeed Training)
Purpose: Designed to allow the sprinter to achieve higher speeds beyond their current capability and to train the neuromuscular system to maintain high rates of speed.
Work on improving overall speed, but also stride frequency.
Assisted Towing
High-Speed Treadmill
Downhill (Decline) Sprinting
Purpose: Enhance sprinting speed via increasing stride length, hip extensor strength and neural recruitment patterns of muscles.
*Best choice between all assisted sprinting options.
Sled Pulls
Parachute Sprinting
Elastic Band Sprinting
Uphill (Incline) Sprinting
Wetsuit Sprinting
Resistance Training for Sprinting
Creating a Resistance Training Program for the Sprinter
1) Needs Analysis
2) Exercise Selection
3) Training Frequency
4) Exercise Order
5) Training Load & Repetitions
6) Training Volume
7) Interset Rest Periods
Plyometric Training for Sprinting
Plyometric Program Prescription Considerations
1) Plyometric Program Length
2) Plyometric Program Progression
3) Plyometric Program Volume & Frequency
4) Plyometric Program Intensity
5) Plyometric Program Sequencing
6) Plyometric Program Recovery
7) Plyometric Program Specificity
Flexibility Training for Sprinting
Unassisted Stretching
Assisted Stretching
1) Static stretching
2) Isometric stretching
3) Eccentric stretching
4) Dynamic stretching
5) Ballistic stretching
1) Passive stretching
2) Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) stretching
Developing a Flexibility Program for the Sprinter
4 Guidelines for Developing Flexibility
1) Stretch only to the point of comfortable tension.

2) Hold position, do not bounce.

3) Hold stretch for a total of 30 sec. per muscle group. This can be done in multiple sets or all at once.

4) Stretch frequently and consistently.
Concerns & Issues Regarding Stretching
Performance
: Static stretching prior to activity has not been shown to enhance performance. In fact, stretching prior to sprinting may actually worsen performance.
Stretching to decrease muscle soreness:
Neither pre- nor post-practice or competition stretching is effective at reducing or preventing delayed onset on muscle soreness (DOMS).
Stretching to warm-up:

Static and passive stretching decreases muscle temperature.
When should the sprinter stretch and how long should the program last?
When the sprinter should stretch
1) After practice or competition.
2) As a separate session.
Duration & Frequency of Flexibility Program
Duration:
Duration should be based on the individual.
Frequency:
As little as stretching 2x per week for 5 weeks can significantly improve flexibility.
Assessments and flexibility tests should be carried out to determine if the athlete needs to continue flexibility exercises.
Protein Needs for the Sprinter
Sources: Eggs, meat, fish, poultry, dairy, beans, lentils,
soy, breads, cereals, pasta.
Protein requirements:
1.5-2.0 g/kg body weight per day
Carbohydrate (CHO) Needs for the Sprinter
General CHO requirement:
5-6 g/kg body weight per day
CHO requirement for immediate recovery:
1g/kg body weight per hour
CHO requirement for low-volume training:
3-5 g/kg body weight per day
CHO requirement for moderate-volume training:
5-7 g/kg body weight per day
Supplementation for Sprinting
Purpose of creatine consumption is to increase muscular strength, muscular power and lean body mass in order to enhance sprint performance.
The purpose of sodium bicarbonate is to enhance muscle buffering capacity in the sprinter.
Injury prevention:

Unclear as to whether or not stretching helps prevent injuries.

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References
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