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Know the different types of energy systems
Transcript of Know the different types of energy systems
When energy is required, the enzyme ATPase is released which initiates the breakdown of ATP. It is the outermost bond of ATP that attracts ATPase as it is this bond that stores the most energy. Through the breakdown of ATP, energy is released leaving adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and an inorganic phosphate.
This reaction can be sumerised as follows:
ATP ADP Pi Energy
There is a limited supply of ATP stored within the cell to perform high intensity activity for two or three seconds. Therefore the body must recycle or resynthsise ATP to ensure there is a continuous supply. The fuels that are used to resynthesis ATP are:
The conversion of these fuels into energy for ATP resynthesise will occur through one of the three pathways:
Creatine Phosphate energy system (ATP-PC)
Lactic acid energy system
Aerobic energy system
For movement to occur, chemical energy must be transferred into mechanical energy. Chemical energy in the body is stored as an energy rich compound called Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). ATP exists in all cells and consists of a number of atoms held together by high energy bonds. It is through the break down of these bonds that energy is released. On the other hand when a bond is made energy is stored for later use. When a molecule of ATP is combined with water, the last group splits off and energy is released.
The energy system of the body can function aerobically or anaerobically. Movements that require sudden bursts of effort are powered by energy systems that do not require oxygen (anaerobic systems) - whereas prolonged activities are aerobic and require oxygen.
Advantages of the Lactic Acid System
ATP can be resynthesised relatively quickly due to few chemical reactions.
It is an anearobic procress so it does not have to wait for 3 minutes for sufficient oxygen.
Any lactic acid that has accumulated can be converted back into glycogen
Advantages of the Aerobic Energy System
More ATP can be resynthesised under aerobic conditions compared to anaerobic (36 ATP aerobically and 2 ATP anaerobically).
The body has substantial stores of muscle glycogen and triglycerides to enable exercise to last for several hours.
Advantages of ATP-PC system
The most important feature of this system is that ATP can be resynthesised rapidly by PC.
PC stores are recovered very quickly, within two or three minutes of stopping exercise. This means that high intensity exercise can once again begin.
There are no fatiguing by-products which could delay recovery.
How does the body produce energy
All movement requires energy. In this unit we will look at how the body converts energy from food into energy for muscular contractions. The methods by which the body generates energy are determined by the intensity and duration of the activity being undertaken.
P7 Describe the three different energy systems and their use in sport and exercise activities
M4 Explain the three different energy systems and their use in sport and exercise activities
D2 Analyse the three different energy systems and their use in sport and exercise activities
For example: activities that require short bursts of effort, such as sprinting or jumping, require the body to produce large amounts of energy over a short period.
For example: activities like marathon running or endurance cycling require continued energy over a longer period and at a slower rate.
It is the energy systems of your body that facilitate these processes.
ATP consists of a base (adenine) and three phosphate groups. It is formed by a reaction between an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) molecule and a phosphate. ATP is a versatile molecule that can be used for many things. Energy is stored in the chemical bonds in the molecules. When a bond is broken, energy is released. When a bond is made, energy is stored. When ADP binds another phosphate, energy is stored that can be used later. When a molecule of ATP is combined with water, the last group splits off and energy is released. The energy systems of the body can function aerobically (with oxygen) or anaerobically (without oxygen.) Movements that require sudden bursts of effort are powered by anaerobic systems, whereas prolonged activities are aerobic.
Because some of the energy is given off as heat, this reaction is termed
ATP and creatine phosphate make up the ATP-PCr system. It is the immediate energy system. Creatine phosphate (PCr) is a high-energy compound stored in the muscles.
When exercise intensity is high, or energy needs are instantaneous, creatine phosphate is broken down by the enzyme
into creatine and phosphate in the
of the muscle cell. When the high-energy bond in PC is broken, the energy it releases is used to resynthesise ATP.
In this process, ATP is usually made without the presence of oxygen. Explosive work can be achieved, but only for short periods (up to about 10 seconds) at maximum intensity, as the supply of PCr is very limited. The ATP-PC system is of particular use to athletes who compete at high intensity for about
such as a 100m sprinter, or a gymnast performing a vault.
Disadvantage of ATP-PC system
Limited supply of PC stored in the muscle cell. It is only sufficient to resynthesise ATP for approx 10 seconds.
Resynthesis of PC can only take place when there is sufficient oxygen available - this is usually during resting conditions when exercise has stopped.
Only one mole of ATP can be recycled through one mole of PC.
Lactic Acid System
Most activities last longer than the 10 second threshold of the ATP-PC system. If strenuous exercise is required to continue, ATP must be resythesised from another fuel source.
The body switches to glycogen to fuel the working muscles once PC stores have been depleted. The glycogen which is stored in the liver and muscles must first be converted into glycogen-6-phosphate before it is broken down in to pyruvate by the process glycolysis. It is during glycolysis that energy is released to facilitate ATP resynthesis.
A net of two moles of ATP are gained for every mole of glycogen broken down. In the absence of oxygen pyruvate is converted into lactate.
Explosive work can be achieved for approximately 10sec-2minutes as the supple of PC is limited e.g. 400m hurdles or 800m race.
Disadvantage of the Lactic Acid System
Accumulation of lactic acid which can make glycolytic enzymes acidic. This caused them to lose their catalyic ability, inhabiting energy production through glycolysis.
Only a small amount of energy can be released (2 ATP) in the absents of oxygen.
Aerobic Energy System
Duration: 10 seconds - 2 minutes
Intensity: High to moderate
Sporting example: 400m hurdles or 800m
Energy produced: 2 ATP molecules
NB: Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose or glycogen
Duration: 2-10 seconds
Intensity: High intensity
Sporting example: 100m sprint, shot putt
Energy produced: 1 mole of ATP
Where: the breakdown of PC takes place in the sarcoplasm with the aid of the enzyme creatine kinase
The aerobic system is the body's preferred energy pathway as it is by far the most efficient in terms of ATP resynthesis.
Aerobic energy production occurs in the mitochrondia of the cells. These are the power stations of the cells, responsible for converting the food ingested by the cells (glycogen and fats) into continuous energy. There are two strands of the aerobic system that takes place within the mitochondria:
The Kreb's Cycle
Electron Transport System
Kreb's cycle: A series of chemical reactions that occur in the matrix of the mitochondria yielding sufficient energy to resynthesise 2ATP and carbon dioxide.
Electron transport chain: A series of reactions in the cristae of the mitochondria where the majority of energy us yielded for ATP resythesis. Thirty four moles of ATP can be resynthesised from just one mole of glycogen at this stage of the aerobic system.
Aerobic metabolism of glucose:
C6H1206 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
Disadvantages of the Aerobic Energy System
When we go from resting state to exercise it takes a while for sufficient oxygen to become available to meet the new demands of activity.
When glycogen becomes depleted and the body attempts to metabolise fatty acids as a sole source of energy muscle spasms many result. This is commonly known as 'hitting the wall'.
Duration: over 3 minutes
Sport example: Marathon runner, triathlete
Energy produced: 36 ATP
During exercise the body does not switch from one system to the other - energy at any time is derived from all three systems. However the emphasis changes depending on the intensity of the activity.
Each of the three energy systems can generate power to different capacities and this varies within individuals. Through training programmes and appropriate diet this can help maximize ATP resynthesis.
Interplay of Energy Systems
Training method - Plyometrics
A type of training which typically takes the form of bounding and hopping. An eccentric muscle contraction is immediately followed by a powerful concentric contraction
Adaptation following training
Increased stores of ATP and PC
Increased activity of ATPase and creatine kinase
Lactic Acid System
Training method - Interval Training
An intermittent training regime that involves periods of alternating exercise and rest.
Training method - Fartlek
A form of continuous training where the intensity or speed of the activity is varied throughout the session.
Adaptation following training
Increased stores of muscle glycogen
Increased number of glycolytic enzymes
Training method - Continuous Training
Low intensity rhythmic exercise that used large muscle groups and is used to develop endurance.
Adaptation following training
Increased muscular stores of glycogen and triglycerides
Increased number of oxidative enzymes
Name the two anaerobic energy systems.
Do the energy systems work in isolation?
Which energy system is predominate during the first 5 seconds of the 100m sprint?
Which energy systems is predominate source of ATP synthesis at 5-10seconds of the 100m sprint?
Does the aerobic system provide energy during the 100m sprint?
Which energy system is predominate at the start of the 400m?
What is the fuel source at the start of the 400m?
How long into the race will the Creatine Phosphate stores be depleting?
At what point in the race does Anaerobic Glycolysis begin?
What is the fuel source for Anaerobic Glycolysis?
At what stage is it asumed that the aerobic system is the main supplier of energy?
Throughout the entire event which energy system has supplied the most ATP
Training Energy Systems