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Korean War

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by

Samantha Chiu

on 8 January 2014

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Transcript of Korean War


Samantha Chiu

The War Begins!
Began on
June
25th, 1950 until 1953
North Koreans invaded South Korea and advanced to Seoul
Objective: To reunite Korea by
force
"ROK" troops resisted, but were crushed
UN appointed US General, Douglas
MacArthur
to command UN forces to save South Korea
Soviet Union missed the chance to veto the decision

Meanwhile, the North Koreans advanced relentlessly:
June 27th, the invaders took Seoul
July 5th, they brushed aside US troops at Osan
July 20th, they crushes UN troops at Taejon

ROK troops established a 200-mile defensive line around the port of Pusan
Now it was time for the UN forces to invade North Korea:
UN troops captured the North Korean capital of
Pyongyang
While ROK forces went forward and reached the Chinese border
Just as North Korea's territory reduced greatly, Chinese forces intervened
They counter-attacked forcing the UN forces to a standstill
By July 1952, both armies had constructed such a strong defensive line that neither sides could undertake a major offensive without incurring loses
For. e.g. the Communists sent infantry against hills along the UN line in the "Battle of the Outposts"
These attacks succeeded at first
But the UN retook the hills with significant loses
Video:
Geography of Korea
Korean peninsula is
450
miles long and averaging 160 miles wide
Can be comparable to the size of Great Britain or Southern California
3000 small islands ring the coast of Yalu and Tumen Rivers that separate Korea from the Republic of
China
and the Soviet Union
Korean War
Background Information
In 1910, Korea was occupied by Imperial
Japan
The allies promised Korea's independence
Japanese troops north of the 38th parallel surrendered to the Soviet occupying forces and those in the south surrendered to the U.S. army
Thus the Soviet-American "Cold War" intensifies

President Syngman Rhee proclaimed the "Republic of Korea" on behalf of 21 million South Koreans
President Kim il-Sung then declared the communist North Koreans, the "
Democratic
Republic of Korea"

Both states claimed sole legitimacy over all of Korea, which led to mutual suspicion and border tension
38th Parallel
A circle of latitude that is 38 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane
The Battle of the Pusan Perimeter
US forces and ROK forces defended an area around the port
North Koreans deployed their forces along the entire perimeter instead of
concentrating
them
September 14th, 1950 the UN forces had won the battle
US forces then continued to take back the land that North Korea had conquered
Recaptured Seoul
Trapped enemies in the South
By September 30th, North Korean resistance was over
Invasion of North Korea Continues...
On November 24th, MacArthur launched the final offensive against North Korea
But the next day, a massive Chinese force broke out
Marooned in North Korea, the UN troops retreated to the coast at Hungnam
POP-UP QUESTION!
How long did the Korean War last?
(How fun)
What Does the Chinese Involvement Mean?
Means that victory was unattainable for either sides, but the prospect of defeat was also unthinkable
The war was now centered on the 38th parallel
The War Continues...
In 1951, the Communists attacked all along the front, forcing the UN troops back
Seoul was abandoned once more
January of 1951, UN forces began a cautious advance
Repelled a Chinese counter-attack
By March 15th, 1951 Seoul was reclaimed by South Koreans
The Final Battles
March 1952, the "Final Battles" commenced:
With a Chinese attack in the west
Followed by heavy pressure on the central sector in June and July
Which forced the UN lines back 3 miles

Finally, on July 27th, 1953 the long awaited Armistice was signed at Panmunjom and the 3 year Korean War was over
Was designed to "insure a complete cessation of hostilities and of all acts of armed force in Korea until a final peaceful settlement is achieved
No "final peaceful settlement" has been achieved yet
Aftermath
Casualties were unexpectedly high:
84,000 UN/ROK
140,000 Chinese and North Koreans
2 million civilians
Korean War Brought Change
The People's Republic of China took its place as a world power
Communist states were seen as aggressive forces
Which led to the strengthening of NATO
The continuing sense of anticlimax brought opposing sides still arguing
South Korea modernized and industrialized with the help of the United States
North Korea remained a communist country
The Korean War
Full transcript