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Unit 4 - Expansion and Reform

La. Purchase to Mex. War

Jennifer Byrd

on 8 October 2018

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Transcript of Unit 4 - Expansion and Reform

Expansion and Reform (1801-1850) I can assess the competing forces of expansionism, nationalism, and sectionalism
Learning Targets:
I can illustrate how the United States expanded and developed through treaties, purchases, and wars.
•I can analyze the causes of the early industrial revolution, and the social, political and economic effects on the US.• I can understand the significance of key events during Andrew Jackson’s administration.
I can analyze the causes and effects of the reform movements of the mid-1800’s.
I can explain the concept and consequences of Manifest Destiny.
I can analyze the causes and effects of the Texas Revolution.
I can analyze the causes and effects of the Mexican War.
Major concept: The rationale for and the consequences of expansion.
The most significant achievement during Jefferson's
administration was the purchase of the
Louisiana territory.
By 1802,

was experiencing major difficulties with his empire in the New World.

A slave revolt in Santo Domingo (Haiti), led by Toussaint L’Ouverture, caused Napoleon to send troops to try to recover the island. Yellow fever wiped out many of his troops. In addition, war between France and Britain was renewed.
I am Napoleon Bonaparte. I’m a beast. But I gotta get rid of my land in America!! Too much

Kewl! I am called
the “Black Napoleon”!
We’ve got skeeters
in Haiti, don’t ya know!

Fearing the French would keep the US from using
New Orleans, unlike the Spanish had, Jefferson sent James Monroe and Robert Livingston to France to offer to buy the port of New Orleans. Authorized to spend $10,000,000, they were surprised to learn that Napoleon was willing to “unload” the entire Louisiana Territory for

This doubled the size of
the US for only 3 cents an acre!!!
This doubled the size of the US for only 3 cents an acre
BUT -- It presented a dilemma, as the Constitution did not providefor the purchase of land.

But Jefferson reasoned that the Constitution did allow
the president to make treaties, and the benefit was worth
the “
loose” interpretation
”. The Senate approved the treaty.

Because the boundaries were not clearly defined, Jefferson sent an exploratory expedition under
Lewis and Clark
from 1804-1806.
With the help of Indian guides, including
, they followed the Missouri and Columbia rivers all the way to the Pacific coast, acquiring important geologic and scientific data along the way.
In 1805-1807, Zebulon Pike explored Colorado and New Mexico.

As new territories applied for statehood, they generally maintained an equal number of slave and free states. When Missouri applied, it would have upset the balance between slave and free states.
Henry Clay of Ken.
proposed the first of several compromises to head off the growing tension between pro- and anti-slavery groups. This was the
Missouri Compromise of 1820

Missouri would be
added as a slave state.

Maine would be
added as a free state.
No slavery north
of 36 30
Such conflicts are only made worse by
the transformation of life in the early
industrial revolution....


Transportation, Communication,

Eli Whitney

Robert Fulton
Steam ship

John Deere
Steel plow

Cyrus McCormick
Mechanical Reaper

Eli Whitney
Cotton Gin

Elias Howe
Sewing Machine

Eli Whitney
Cotton Gin

Issac Singer
Sewing Machine

Samuel F.B. Morse

Youse guys keep
planting that cotton.
We need it for our
factories. But do it
without slaves!
Down here, cotton
is KING, ya’ll!! It’s the
most important part of
our economy! That’s why we need our slaves
Because the North became dependent on manufacturing, it favored
while the South favored

because it depended on foreign countries to buy their cotton.

The slavery and tariff issues helped increase SECTIONALISM in the US....
Growth of
Because of the growth of industry, thousands of immigrants came from northern and western Europe during the mid-1800s…mostly Ireland and Germany

American workers feared loss of jobs because the immigrants would work for less money. They also feared that many of these immigrants were Catholic. Nativists hate foreigners.

By 1854, the
American Party, or the Know-Nothings
had formed (but did not last long.)
1854 Know-Nothing Cartoon
To help increase nationalism and to tie the North, South, and West together, Henry Clay promoted the American system:

Protective tariff
(to help American industries)
A new national bank
Internal improvements
, such as roads, canals, and bridges
the American System
1825 – Ran from Albany to Buffalo, linking Lake Erie to the Hudson River.
Erie Canal
It ran from Cumberland, Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois. It was like the first interstate!
National Road
In the election of 1824, the US held the first popular vote
for president (ONLY landowners could vote!).

John Quincy Adams defeated Andrew Jackson by electoral vote, but Jackson won the popular vote!

Henry Clay had supported Adams, so when Adams appointed Clay his Secretary of State, Jackson cried foul and called it a “
corrupt bargain
Major Concept: Jacksonian Democracy
Would you like some
cheese with that
whine?? Get over
it, loser!!
Wah, wah! Let
me call the
Oh, goody! I’m
Sect. of State!
OMG! That is SO not
fair! I won the popular
vote! I should be president!
Corrupt bargain! Corrupt
Jackson and his supporters formed the Democratic party in opposition to JQ Adams

Property requirement to vote was now gone, so
voter turn out was huge. (Only white males
could vote prior to this.)

Jackson was the 1st western president
and appealed to the “
common man

Jacksonian Democracy means a greater voice
for the people (except women and minorities!)
Election of 1828
The union, next to our
liberty, most dear .
Our Union: It must be
Jackson helped create the
spoils system
– rewarding
political supporters by giving them jobs.

Crisis: Congress passed 2 tariffs which hurt the South economically, but helped the North:
Tariff of 1828 (Abominations) and the Tariff of 1832.
Jackson’s V-P was John C. Calhoun, from S.C. He wrote the
SC Exposition and Protest
, stating that S.C. was going to nullify (make null and void) the tariffs. Some in S.C. even talked about secession (leaving the Union) if the tariffs weren’t removed.
Jackson gets Congress to pass the Force Bill
Key events under Jackson:
Our Union: It must be
The union, next to our
liberty, most dear .
This action caused a financial depression called the
Panic of 1837
When the bank came up for renewal, Jackson vetoed the bill and took all the money out and put it in several states banks, nicknamed “
pet banks
”. Some were unstable “wildcat” banks.
Jackson hated the National Bank and its president,
Nicholas Biddle
He did not believe it was constitutional, and he thought it only served the wealthy.
National Bank
Way to go, Jackson…
You just hurt the financial
stability of the US!!
Nicholas Biddle, Bank president
“The bank is trying to kill me, but
I will kill it!”
Like many Americans, Jackson wanted to clear out the Native Americans for white settlement

1830 – Congress passed the
Indian Removal Act
, which would move thousands from the South and move them

The Cherokee of Georgia fought it all the way to the Supreme Court in
Worcester v. Georgia.
The court ruled in favor of the Cherokee, but Jackson refused to enforce the ruling.

Thousands of Cherokee were forcibly moved from the South to Oklahoma on the
Trail of Tears.
Jackson and Native Americans
William Henry Harrison
was elected in 1840 as the 1st Whig president…but died 1 month after being sworn in. His V-P,
John Tyler
, was the 1st V-P to move into the presidency this way.
Martin Van Buren
followed Jackson to the presidency. Their opponents formed the
The Whig Party

Shhhhhhh .....be very, very quiet!! We don't talk about slavery!!! Too many problems! (It's called the

dislike or hatred
of foreigners
The 2nd mass religious movement in America.
Charles G. Finney
was the leading preacher
The religious fervor of the period helped to
spearhead a number of reforms in America.
2nd Great Awakening
American Reformers
Is there such a thing as a perfect society??
Brook Farm
New Harmony
Many wanted to escape what they saw as an evil society. They formed
communities in
an effort to live and work together according to their
Utopian Communities

Brook Farm
New Harmony

(Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints)
Founded by Joseph Smith in 1827
Had some different views (like polygamy – marrying more than one person); Smith was killed by a mob in Illinois
Brigham Young led the Mormons to Salt Lake City, Utah



perfect or ideal
the Mormons
Brigham Young
Put down that
liquor, buster!!

Another reform led primarily by women was the
temperance movement
, which sought to ban the sale of alcohol. The
Women’s Christian Temperance Union
was one of the most famous groups. These reformers believed alcohol contributed to domestic abuse, work place accidents, poverty, unemployment and other social ills.
The Temperance Movement

Abstaining from drinking
or selling alcolhol
Steve Young
Mental Illness & Prison Reform

Dorothea Dix
traveled around the US, observing the horrible treatment of the mentally ill. Testified before Congress and helped establish a number of hospitals.
She also campaigned for prison reform. For the first time, prisons began to seek rehabilitation rather than just punishment.
The Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 is the most
important early attempt at womens’ rights.

The growing abolitionist (anti-slavery) movement convinced some women to demand more rights for themselves as well as slaves.
Women essentially had no rights in America. The cult of domesticity kept women in the home, focusing on husband and children.
Women’s Rights
Key Women’s Rights Activists

Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Lucy Stone
Lucretia Mott
Susan B. Anthony
Amelia Bloomer
Bloomer Stone
Stanton Mott Anthony
“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men AND women are created equal.”
Walt Whitman – “Leaves of Grass”
Emerson – “Self-Reliance”
Henry David Thoreau – “Walden” and "Civil Disobedience"
literary and philosophical movement
, associated with Ralph Waldo Emerson and Margaret Fuller, asserting the existence of an ideal spiritual reality that transcends the empirical and scientific and is knowable through intuition.
Horace Mann
– Supt. of Education in Mass.

spearheaded mandatory public education
for everyone
Pushed for education of teachers as a profession

Noah Webster
– his dictionary Americanized the English language, in keeping with the development of our own unique culture
Education Reform
American Literature
The developing American culture was seen through the literature and art of the period:

James Fenimore Cooper, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, Herman Melville, Washington Irving

The beauty of the American countryside is
captured in the landscape paintings of the

Hudson River School of Art.
Led by those who wanted to end slavery

William Lloyd Garrison – Editor of “The Liberator”, an anti-
slaverypaper; wanted
immediate emancipation (freedom)
Frederick Douglass – former slave, editor of the “North Star”
Harriet Tubman – ran the Underground Railroad, to help slaves
escape to the North
Sojourner Truth – gave moving speeches on emancipation
David Walker – advocated violence to end
Abolitionist Movement
Vocabulary alert!!!!

Slave revolts: Few tried, none were successful. Nat Turner, Denmark Vesey and Gabriel Prosser were the most famous. Fear of more revolts led to ----

Black codes: Laws in the South designed to restrict the movement of blacks (can’t be out after sundown, can’t own guns, can’t be unemployed, can’t testify against whites, etc.)

South tried harder to defend slavery as a “positive good”.

As Americans spread further westward, the more intense the battle over slavery became.
Effects of slavery
The Louisiana Purchase and its exploration by Lewis and Clark quickly led to westward migration of Americans and immigrants.
By 1845,newspaper editor John O’Sullivan gave a name to the continuing expansionist mood when he wrote that it was America’s “…
manifest destiny
to overspread the continent allotted by providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions.”
Lured by land grants from Mexico, Stephen Austin led a group of settlers to Texas, agreeing to; 1) abide by Mexican law, 2) become Roman Catholic, and 3) have no slaves. American settlers made no attempt to follow these rules, and when dictator General Santa Anna seized power in Mexico, Texas declared itself the independent Republic of Texas or the Lone Star Republic. The fight for Texas independence led to only a few battles before Mexico signed a treaty. Sam Houston was the commander of the Texas forces.
Antonio de Santa Anna
Sam Houston
Stephen Austin
Col. William B. Travis led less than 200 defenders against over 2000 Mexicans at the Alamo. All of the defenders were killed. Among the dead were Jim Bowie and Davie Crockett. “Remember the Alamo” will be the battle cry.
William B. Travis
To The People of Texas and
all Americans In The World February 24, 1836
Fellow citizens & compatriots -- I am beseiged, by a thousand or more of the Mexicans under Santa Anna -- I have sustained a continual Bombardment & cannonade for 24 hours & have not lost a man -- The enemy has demanded a surrender at discretion, otherwise, the garrison are to be put to the sword, if the fort is taken -- I have answered the demand with a cannon shot, & our flag still waves proudly from the walls -- I shall never surrender or retreat. Then, I call on you in the name of Liberty, of patriotism, & every thing dear to the American character, to come to our aid, with all dispatch -- The enemy is receiving reinforcements daily & will no doubt increase to three or four thousand in four or five days. If this call is neglected, I am determined to sustain myself as long as possible & die like a soldier who never forgets what is due to his own honor & that of his country --
William Barret Travis Lt. Col. Comdt.
P.S. The Lord is on our side -- When the enemy appeared in sight we had not three bushels of corn -- We have since found in deserted houses 80 or 90 bushels & got into the walls 20 or 30 head of Beeves --
David Crockett
You can all go to *@#!.
I’m going to Texas!
Jim Bowie
Now that’s a knife!!
The Alamo – Hollywood Style
After the Alamo, a Texas detachment was surrounded by Mexicans and marched to the town of Goliad. Most of the 350 men were executed.
April 21, 1836 -- about 800 Texans under Houston went up against 1,250 Mexicans at San Jacinto. Attacking during their siesta, it was over in fifteen minutes with 630 Mexicans killed in retaliation for the Alamo and Goliad. Santa Anna surrenders and agrees to Texas independence and the Rio Grande as boundary.
Howdy, Texas!
to the US!!
Abolitionists feared the annexation of Texas would mean an extension of slave territory, but after 9 years, Texas was annexed by joint resolution of Congress just before Polk’s inauguration in 1845.
I’m James K. Polk. I’m an
and I got me a mullet!
(Business in the front, party in the back!)

Many Americans flocked to Oregon for the vast farmland. Many came by way of the
Oregon Trail
– ran from Independence, Mo. to Portland, Oregon
Between the early 1830's to about 1869, about 400,000 settlers traveled the Oregon trail.
Election of 1844 – Democrat James K. Polk (dark horse) ran on a platform of expanding the US. He defeated Whig candidate Henry Clay....

The US had earlier agreed to joint occupation of the Oregon territory, but Manifest Destiny and Polk’s expansionist policies made some Americans demand control of ALL of Oregon, demanding
“54 40 or FIGHT!”

Neither Britain nor the US wanted war, so Polk finally accepted the original boundary of the 49th parallel, which is the current boundary between the US and Canada
Gold was discovered at Sutter’s Mill on January 24, 1848. By 1849, thousands gave up whatever life they had to come to California to get rich.
Over the next few years, hundreds of thousands would come, either to pan for gold or to get rich by selling goods to gold miners (Levi Strauss).
Most found a terribly difficult life with little wealth involved.
The Gold Rush left a string of “ghost towns” – settlements which were completely deserted when the gold was depleted, but....
it also populated California and
the far west very quickly, bringing statehood in a only a couple years.
The Mexican War

Mexico had long insisted that the boundary between Texas and Mexico was the Nueces River.

The US insisted that it was the Rio Grande River, some 200 miles south. Sent John Slidell to negotiate. Offered to buy NM and CA. Mexico refused to see him.

Diplomatic relations broke off, and when Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande, President Polk said, “Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States, has invaded our territory, and shed American blood upon the American soil.”!!!
Take 10 and talk! -- Study the cartoon and then take 10 seconds to think about key points the artist is trying to make. Share with a table partner!

Industrial Revolution
started in England and was brought to the US by
Samuel Slater
The first textile mill was in Pawtucket, RI
Lowell, Mass
. perfected the factory system (mill girls, mill towns.....
As the North became more industrial, the South continued to depend on "King Cotton" and slavery for its economy.

Remind you of anyone????
1's -- read the Jackson document
2's -- read the Boudinot document

Answer the guiding questions for your document
1's & 2's - get together and compare answers
Let's all share!!!
Were your answers correct??
Interactive Standards.....
A little known Congressman, Abraham Lincoln, demanded to know the very “spot” upon which American blood was shed.
Show me
the blood!!
That’s exactly our
point, you big
Oh, no they DIDN’T!!
The North saw this war as just another opportunity to acquire new slave territory and opposed it. Polk, however, convinced Congress that Mexico was the aggressor and it overwhelmingly voted for war in May 1846.
The Wilmot Proviso was an attempt in Congress to ban slavery on any land acquired in the war. It repeatedly failed in the Senate.
Go ahead and throw me
in jail…I refuse to pay taxes
to support a war that will
expand slavery!!! (And I look
like a leprechaun!!)
Transcendentalist writer Henry David Thoreau wrote “Civil Disobedience” – an essay urging non-violent opposition to a war to expand slavery

Official cause:
Boundary dispute over Texas; Mexican aggression at the border.
Manifest Destiny and the desire to acquire California and other lands,
September 17, 1847 Mexico surrendered to General Scott after he captured Mexico City.
General Winfield Scott laid siege to and captured the city of Veracruz. Many of his troops died of disease.
General Zachary Taylor’s troops defeated the Mexicans at Monterrey and Buena Vista.
The Mexican War
In the meantime, an expedition under the command of John C. Fremont (‘the Pathfinder”) entered California and the Bear Flag Republic was established in June 1846. Colonel Stephen Kearney invaded New Mexico and then met up with Fremont in California.
Mexico ceded to the US: New Mexico (included parts of Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and Colorado) and California
The Rio Grande was established as the boundary
US agreed to pay $15 million
US agreed to assume various claims against Mexico
10 years later...
the US buys another strip of land from Mexico called the
Gadsden Purchase
, which completed what is now the continental US
Think you'll never hear about the Gadsden Purchase for as long as you live?? Think again....
The size of the US increased by a third, with its territory now reaching the Pacific Ocean
Additional Native Americans and Latinos were now part of the population
The divisive issue of slavery was renewed
Mexican resentment continued
The war contributed to disunity in both major political parties – Whig and Democrat, particularly over the issue of slavery
Full transcript