Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Anatomy: Muscles of the Lower Limb

No description
by

Meagan Macalalag

on 30 April 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Anatomy: Muscles of the Lower Limb

MUSCLES OF THE LOWER LIMB MUSCLES OF THE GLUTEAL REGION MUSCLES OF THE ANTERIOR THIGH MUSCLES OF THE MEDIAL THIGH MUSCLES OF THE POSTERIOR THIGH MUSCLES OF THE ANTERIOR AND LATERAL LEG MUSCLES OF THE POSTERIOR LEG MUSCLES OF THE FOOT The glutei maximus, medius, and minimus, from superficial to deep, form the bulk of the buttock. They are supplied by the gluteal nerves and vessels, which reach them through the greater sciatic foramen. THE 3 LAYERS GLUTEUS MAXIMUS * Powerful extensor of the thigh
* Not important posturally because it is relaxed when one is standing and slightly used when one is walking
* Employed in running, climbing, and rising from a sitting or stooped position
* Controls flexion at the hip upon sitting down (paradoxical action) Proximal Attachment
- ilium posterior gluteal line
- dorsal surface of sacrum and coccyx
- sacrotuberous ligament

Distal Attachment
- most fibers end in iliotibial tract, which inserts into lateral condyle of tibia; some fibers insert on gluteal tuberosity of femur

Innervation
- inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1, S2) Main Action(s)
* extends thigh and assists in its lateral rotation
* steadies thigh and assists in rising from sitting position GLUTEUS MEDIUS Proximal Attachment
- external surface of ilium between anterior and posterior gluteal lines

Distal Attachment
- lateral surface of greater trochanter of femur

Innervation
- superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5, S1) GLUTEUS MINIMUS Proximal Attachment
- external surface of ilium between anterior and inferior gluteal lines

Distal Attachment
- anterior surface of greater trochanter of femur

Innervation
- superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5, S1) GLUTEUS MEDIUS AND MINIMUS Main Action(s)
* abduct and medially rotate thigh
* keep pelvis level when opposite leg is raised ILIOTIBIAL TRACT The iliotibial tract or iliotibial band (a.k.a. Maissiat's band, IT Band) is a longitudinal fibrous reinforcement of the fascia lata. The action of the ITB and its associated muscles is to flex, abduct, and medially rotate the hip. In addition, the ITB contributes to lateral knee stabilization. During knee extension the ITB moves anterior, while knee flexion moves the ITB posterior. It is attached to the anterolateral iliac tubercle portion of the external lip of the iliac crest and to the lateral condyle of the tibia.

It stabilizes the knee both in extension and in partial flexion, and is therefore used constantly during walking and running. In leaning forwards with slightly flexed knee the tract is the main support of knee against gravity. IlIOTIBIAL BAND SYNDROME Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS or ITBFS, for iliotibial band friction syndrome) is a common injury to the knee, generally associated with running, cycling, hiking or weight-lifting (especially squats).

ITBS is one of the leading causes of lateral knee pain in runners. The iliotibial band is a superficial thickening of tissue on the outside of the knee, extending from the outside of the pelvis, over the hip and knee, and inserting just below the knee. The band is crucial to stabilizing the knee during running, moving from behind the femur to the front while walking. The continual rubbing of the band over the lateral femoral epicondyle, combined with the repeated flexion and extension of the knee during running may cause the area to become inflamed. Treatment
While ITBS pain can be acute, the iliotibial band can be rested, iced, compressed and elevated (RICE) to reduce pain and inflammation, followed by stretching. Using a foam roller to loosen the iliotibial band can help prevent and treat ITBS although the treatment itself can be very painful to some. Also, an ultrasound machine can be used around the area to relax it, followed by a machine that utilizes electrode stimulation to the area to further relax it. Tensor fascia latae Proximal Attachment
- anterior superior iliac spine
- anterior part of iliac crest

Distal Attachment
- iliotibial tract, which attaches to lateral condyle of tibia (Gerdy tubercle)

Innervation
- superior gluteal n. (L4, L5, S1)

Main action(s)
* flexes thigh The anterior thigh contains a large muscle called the quadriceps.

It consists of four heads:
* rectus femoris
* vastus lateralis
* vastus medialis
* vastus intermedius MUSCLE

Rectus Femoris ORIGIN

Anterior inferior iliac spine and ilium above the acetabulum INSERTION

Patella ACTION

Extension of leg MUSCLE

Vastus Lateralis ORIGIN

Upper end shaft of femur INSERTION

Quadriceps tendon into patella ACTION

Extension of leg MUSCLE

Vastus Medialis ACTION

Extension of leg ORIGIN

Upper end shaft of femur INSERTION

Quadriceps tendon into patella MUSCLE

Vastus Intermedius ACTION

Extension of leg ORIGIN

Shaft of femur INSERTION

Quadriceps tendon to patella MUSCLE

Sartorius ACTION

Flexes, abducts, laterally rotates thigh; flexes and medially rotate legs at knee ORIGIN

Anterior superior iliac spine INSERTION

Upper medial surface of tibial shaft MUSCLE

Psoas Major ACTION

flexes thigh; if thigh is fixed, it flexes the trunk on the thigh as in sitting up ORIGIN

12th thoracic vertebral body transverse process, bodies and intervertebral disks of lumbar vertebrae INSERTION

Lesser trochanter MUSCLE

Iliacus ACTION

flexes thigh; if thigh is fixed, it flexes the trunk on the thigh as in sitting up ORIGIN

Iliac Fossa INSERTION

With psoas into lesser trochanter MUSCLE

Pectineus ACTION

Abducts and flexes thigh at hip ORIGIN

Pectineal line along superior ramus of pubis INSERTION

Posterior surface of femur, inferior to the lesser trochanter Frequently called the adductor compartment because the major action of these group of muscles is adducting MUSCLE

Gracilis ACTION

Adducts thigh; flexes leg ORIGIN

Inferior ramus of pubis; ramus of ischium INSERTION

Upper part of shaft of tibia on its medial surface MUSCLE

Adductor longus ACTION

Adducts thigh and assists in lateral rotation ORIGIN

Body of pubis INSERTION

Posterior surface of shaft of femur Superficial Layer MUSCLE

Adductor brevis ACTION

Adducts thigh and assists in lateral rotation ORIGIN

Inferior ramus of pubis INSERTION

Posterior surface of shaft of femur MUSCLE

Adductor magnus ACTION

Adducts thigh and assists inlateral rotation.
Hamstring part extends thigh. ORIGIN

Inferior ramus of pubis; ramus of ischium; ischial tuberosity INSERTION

Posterior surface of shaft of femur; adductor tubercle of femur Group of muscles are called hamstrings.

Consist of:

* Biceps femoris (long head)
* Semimembranosus
* Semitendinosus MUSCLE

Biceps Femoris (Long Head) ACTION

Flexes and laterally rotates leg, extends thigh ORIGIN

Ischial tuberosity INSERTION

Head of fibula MUSCLE

Biceps Femoris (Short Head) ACTION

Flexes and laterally rotates leg ORIGIN

Shaft of femur INSERTION

Head of fibula MUSCLE

Semimembranosus ACTION

Flexes and medially rotates leg; extends thigh ORIGIN

Ischial tuberiosity INSERTION

Medial condyle of tibia; forms oblique popliteal ligament MUSCLE

Semitendinosus ACTION

Flexes and medially rotates leg; extends thigh ORIGIN

Ischial tuberiosity INSERTION

Upper part medial surface of tibia Peroneus longus

Origin:
- head of the fibula
- proximal 2/3 of lateral fibula
- adjacent intermuscular septum

Insertion:
- plantar surface of cuboid
- base of 1st & (2nd) metatarsal
- plantar surface of medial cuneiform Action:
- eversion & abduction of the foot
- weak plantarflexion of the foot at the transverse tarsal joint

Blood:
- muscular branches of the peroneal artery

Nerve:
- superficial peroneal nerve, L4,5,S1 Tibialis anterior

Origin:
- lateral tibial condyle
- proximal 2/3 of anteriolateral surface of tibia
interosseous membrane
- anterior intermuscular septum & crural fascia
Insertion:
- medial & plantar surface of base of 1st metatarsal
- medial & plantar surface of the cuneiform
Action:
- strongest dorsiflexor
inverts & adducts the foot
Blood:
- anterior tibial artery
Nerve:
- deep peroneal nerve, L4,5,S1 Extensor hallucis longus

Origin:
- medial aspect of the fibula
- interosseous membrane
- crural fascia
Insertion:
- dorsal surface of base of proximal and distal phalanx of hallux
Action:
- extends distal phalanx of big toe
- weak dorsiflexor
- weak inversion & adduction
Blood:
- anterior tibial artery
Nerve:
- deep peroneal nerve, L4,5,S1 Extensor digitorum longus

Origin:
- lateral condyle of the tibia
- upper anterior surface of fibula
- interosseous membrane
- crural fascia
Insertion:
- dorsal surface of the bases of the middle & distal phalanxes of the 2nd-5th rays
(via 4 tendons and giving a fibrous expansion)
Action:
- extends the lateral 4 toes
- weak dorsiflexor & everts foot
Blood:
- anterior tibial artery
Nerve:
- deep peroneal nerve, L4,5,S1 Peroneus tertius

Origin:
- distal 1/3 of anterior fibula
- distal & lateral aspect of extensor digitorum
Insertion:
- dorsal surface of base of 5th metatarsal
Action:
- extends the 5th toe
- weak dorsiflexor & everts foot
Blood:
- anterior tibial artery
Nerve:
- deep peroneal nerve, L4,5,S1 Abductor hallucisOrigin:1.medial process of calcaneal tuberosity2.flexor retinaculum3.plantar aponeurosis4.medial intermuscular septumInsertion: medial aspect of base of proximal phalanx of halluxAction:1.flexes the big toe (primary action)2.may assist in abduction of big toe Flexor digitorum brevis
Origin:
1.medial process of calcaneal tuberosity
2.plantar aponeurosis
Insertion:
1.both sides of the bases of the middle phalanx of rays 2-5
2.(each of the 4 tendons splits forming tunnel for FDL)
Action: flexes toes 2-5 Abductor digiti minimiOrigin:1.lateral & medial processes of the calcaneal tuberosity2.plantar aponeurosis3.lateral intermuscular septumInsertion: lateral aspect of base of proximal phalanx of 5th rayAction:1.abducts 5th toe2.aids in flexing Abductor ossis metatarsi quinti
Origin: from fibers of abductor digiti minimi
Insertion: into the 5th metatarsal
Action: abducts the 5th ray Quadratus plantae
Origin:
1.medial head: medial calcaneus
2.lateral head: lateral calcaneus & long plantar ligament
Insertion:
1.lateral margin of tendon of flexor digitorum longus (FDL)
2.may send slips into the distal tendons
Action:
1.assists FDL in flexing the distal phalanxes of 2nd-5th toes
2.corrects FDL from pulling toes medially Lumbricals
Origin: from tendons of FDL:
1.1st: medial aspect of tendon to 2nd ray
2.2nd-4th: two heads between the tendons in which they lie
Insertion: extensor tendons of EDL on dorsal foot
Action:
1.flex proximal phalanges at MTP
2.extend middle & distal phalanges at IP Flexor hallucis brevis
Origin:
1.medial aspect of the cuboid
2.lateral cuneiform
Insertion:
1.medial aspect of base of proximal phalanx of hallux
2.lateral aspect of base of proximal phalanx of hallux
Action: flexes hallux at MTP Adductor hallucis
Origin:
1.oblique head: base of 2nd-4th metatarsals & long plantar ligament
2.transverse head: deep transverse metatarsal ligament & plantar ligaments at MTP joints
Insertion: lateral aspect of base of proximal phalanx of hallux
Action:
1.adduction of hallux at MTP
2.flexes hallux at MTP Flexor digiti minimi brevisOrigin:1.base of 5th metatarsal2.digital sheath of peroneus longusInsertion: lateral aspect of base of proximal phalanx of 5th rayAction: flexes the 5th toe at MTP Plantar interossei (3 muscles)Origin: medial aspect of 3rd-5th metatarsals (each muscle has a single head)Insertion: medial aspect of base of proximal phalanx of the same ray (of 3rd-5th rays)Action:1.adduct toes 3-52.flex toes 3-5 at MTP Dorsal interossei (4 muscles)
Origin: from both metatarsals between which they lie
Insertion: base of proximal phalanx closest to the axis of the foot (2nd ray)
Action:
1.abduct toes 2-4
2.flexes toes 2-4 at MTP Extensor hallucis brevisOrigin:1.upper anterolateral calcaneus2.inferior extensor retinaculumInsertion: base of proximal phalanx of halluxAction: extends halluxExtensor digitorum brevisOrigin:1.upper anterolateral calcaneus2.inferior extensor retinaculumInsertion: middle & distal phalanges of 2nd-4th rays (via EDL)Action: extends 2nd-4th rays The posterior compartment of the leg is usually subdivided into superficial and deep parts. The superficial part of the posterior compartment of the leg is made up of three muscles:
* gastrocnemius
* plantaris
* soleus The deepest layer of muscles includes the:
* tibialis posterior
* flexor digitorum longus
* flexor hallucis longus
Full transcript