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Genetic Mutations

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by

Jon Infante

on 10 December 2014

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Transcript of Genetic Mutations

Genetic
Thank you for your attention!
And one more thing...
Subject 2
Subject 3
Subject 3
Mutations
A gene mutation is known to be a permanent change within one’s DNA that changes the entire structure that makes up a gene. Its an error that occurs during replication of DNA
Gene mutations occur in two ways: they can be inherited from a parent or acquired during a person’s lifetime.
Mutations that are passed from parent to child are called
HEREDITARY MUTATIONS
This type of mutation is present throughout a person’s life in virtually every cell in the body.
Acquired mutations
are changes in DNA that develop throughout a person's lifetime.
Although mistakes occur in DNA all the time, especially during cell division, a cell has the remarkable ability to fix them. But if DNA repair mechanisms fail, mutations can be passed along to future copies of the altered cell.
The most common gene change involves a single base mismatch--a misspelling--placing the wrong base in the DNA.
The book
(genome)
would contain
23
chapters
(chromosomes
);DNA is tightly coiled in the chromosomes.
each chapter contains
48 to 250 million letters (A,C,G,T)
without spaces;
the book contains over 3.2 billion letters total
(The book fits into a cell nucleus the size of a pinpoint)
There are 3 main types of mutations
A
neutral mutation
has no harmful or beneficial effect on the organism
“Originally, we all had brown eyes”, said Professor Eiberg from the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. “But a genetic mutation affecting the OCA2 gene in our chromosomes resulted in the creation of a “switch”, which literally “turned off” the ability to produce brown eyes”. It is one of several mutations such as
hair colour, baldness, freckles and beauty spots.
A
beneficial mutation
is a mutation that increases fitness of the organism, or which promotes traits that are desirable.
Dean Karnazes
His CPK number, which shows the amount of damage your muscles sustain from exercise,is mutated. So for instance, a normal runner's CPK would be very high after a marathon ,around 2,400. Karnazes' was found to be at 447 ... after 25 consecutive marathons............
He ran
50 marathons
In
50 states
In
50 days
A
harmful mutation
is a mutation that decreases the fitness of the organism.
Full transcript