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Copy of THE PSYCHOLOGY OF TRAVEL
Transcript of Copy of THE PSYCHOLOGY OF TRAVEL
2. To clarify the relationship of needs, wants, and motives to tourist motivation
3. To explain the relation between Maslow's hierarchy of needs and the travel motivations listed in travel literature
4. To describe the characteristics of psychocentrics and allocentrics
5. To get acquanted with the characteristics of travelers based on purpose of travel
6. To analyze the travel constraints OBJECTIVES: Motivation for travel
The need for Escape or Changes
Effect of Consistency and Complexity on Leisure Travel
Business Travelers Attending Meetings, Conventions, Congress Motivation for Travel
1.Physical motivators – include those related to physical rest, sports participation, beach recreation, relaxing entertainment and other motivations directly connected with health.
2.Cultural motivators – include the desire to know about other countries – their music, art, folklore, dances, paintings and religion
3.Interpersonal motivators – pertain to the desire to meet other people, visit friends or relatives, escape from family and neighbors.
4.Status and prestige motivators – concern ego needs and personal development. Included in this group are trips related to business , conventions, study and pursuit of hobbies and education. Travel would enhance one’s recognition and good reputation. The key to understand tourist motivation is to view vacation travel as a vehicle to satisfy one’s needs and wants. Tourists do not go on vacations just to relax and have fun, to experience another culture or to educate themselves and their children. They take vacations in the belief that these vacation will satisfy, either completely or partially, various needs and wants. Travel as a Means to Satisfy a Need and Want Needs Relationship of Needs, Wants, and Motives
Satisfy Objectives Wants Marketing Suggests Motivation Several Studies of tourist motivations have listed various reasons why people travel. Some of these motivations listed in travel literature are:
3.Relief of Tension
9.Roots or ethnic
10.Maintain social contacts
11.Convince oneself of one’s achievements
12.Show one’s importance to others
13.Status and prestige
19.Interest in foreign areas
The psychology of travel. Travel as means to Satisfy a Need and Want. Relationship of Needs, Wants, and Motives. Maslow's Theory of Motivations.
The Need for Escape or Change. Travel for Health.
The Learning Process of a Tourist. Effect of Consisitency and Complexity on Leisure Travel.
Classification of Travelers Based on Personality. Classification of Travelers Based on Purpose of Travel. Travel Constraints. Self-actualization
(realizing one's potential) Self-esteem
(self-confidence,recognition) Social needs
(love, belongingness,acceptance Safety needs
(protection against physical or mental danger) physiological needs
(food,drink,rest,shelter) Maslow's hierarchy of needs Maslow’s Theory of Motivation and Travel Motivations Maslow proposed the following hierarchy of needs as determinants of behavior:
1. Physiological Needs – hunger, thirst, rest, activity.
2. Safety Needs - safety and security, freedom from fear and anxiety.
3. Social Needs – love, affection, giving and receiving.
4. Self-Esteem – self- respect, and esteem from others.
5. Self-actualization – personal self-fulfillment.
This hierarchy suggests that lower needs demand more immediate satisfaction than the satisfaction of higher needs. The first needs is physical; the other four are physiological. To this original list, two intellectual needs were added. These are:
1. To know and understand – acquiring knowledge.
2. Aesthetics – appreciation of beauty.
The relationship between needs, motives and references from tourism literature is shown in Table 1.
• “To escape” or “to relieve tension”
• Passive and active
• Health and recreation
• Belonging and love
• Organized tour
• Motivation is referred to as the “VFR” market “visit friends and relatives”
Maslow’s concept of the need for esteem has two components:
• Esteem to others
Self-actualization can be regarded as the goal of leisure. Leisure is the state of being free from the urgent demands of the lower-level needs.
Need to know and understand is motivated by the desire for knowledge.
Need for aesthetics is shown in those who travel for environmental reasons – to view the scenery. Need Table 1. Maslow’s Needs and Motivations Listed in Travel Literature Motive Tourism Literature References Physiological Relaxation Escape
Relief of tension
Mental relaxation of tension Safety Security Health
Keep oneself active and healthy
for the future Social Love and Affection Family togetherness
Enhancement of kinship relationships
Facilitation of social interaction
Maintenance of personalities
Show one’s affection for family members
Maintain social contacts Self-esteem Achievements Status Convince oneself of one’s achievements
Show one’s importance to others
Professional/business Self-actualization Personal Fulfillment The greatest reason for travel can be summed up in one word, “escape” – escape from the dull daily routine; escape from the familiar, the commonplace, the ordinary; escape from the job, the boss, the customers, the house and the accelerated pace of modern life.
Everyone is searching for change , According to a marketing research Director Russ Johnston.
Travel can provide diversity.
It removes a person from familiar surrounding to something that is new and exciting. The Need for Escape or Change Development in the field of medicine have influenced travel for centuries, giving rise to the concept of HEALTH TOURISM.
The search for health and long life has popularized the spas, seaside resorts as well sun resorts. Majority of people think of vacationing as a means of regaining one’s energies, interest and enthusiasm for the job.
Mineral water of different spring were believed to cure different ailments such as rheumatism, heart and circulation disorders, diabetes and problems of the kidneys and gall bladder. Travel for Health Interest in sports, either as a participant or a spectator is attracting large segments of the population. People demand activity and excitement during their leisure hours to relieve them from the boredom of their work.
Indulging activities nowadays are
Millions attend a variety of games such as hiking, surfing, scuba diving, mountaineering, and skiing. Sports Much travel grows out of the social nature of people. Human beings are social animals. They need contact and communication with others. They feel comfortable in a tour group.
According to Charles Metelka, travel increases the “Sociability Resources” of individuals. It makes them more interesting to themselves and to others. Social Contact Basic travel motivators can be divided into four classes: The search for knowledge and truth is inherent in every individual. Travel offers an opportunity to satisfy the urge to learn. Once an interest has been developed in a destination area, the urge to see that area emerges and the interest grows as knowledge increases. Travel for Education The notion of personal values is important travel motivator. Many people are urged to travel to satisfy personal values such as the search for spiritual experience patriotism and wholesomeness. Pilgrimages to religious sites or Holy places such as the Vatican, Lourdes, Jerusalem, Mecca are undertaken for spiritual reasons.
Trips to Disneyland in Los Angeles and Tokyo and o Corregidor in the Philippines are made to satisfy personal values of wholesome environment and patriotism. Personal Values Cross-cultural exchanges, experinsing how other people live and fostering international understanding some of the reasons to satisfy curiosity about other cultures. Lifestyles and places. Studies conducted among travelers abroad reveal that seeking a new cultural experience is a primary reason for international travel. Cultural Experiences To many people, the joys derived from buying certain goods may be the major reason for travel. Millions of travelers go to Hongkong, Singapore and other tax-free ports to shop. Almost everybody wants to buy and to bargain.
Bargain hunting or being able to get special merchandise at low cost is a travel motivator. Tourists are looking for places that are inexpensive. Shopping and Bargain Hunting Edward J. Mayo and Lance Jervis in The Psychology of Leisure Travel believe that individuals differ in the amount of psychological tension they can handle. To reduce the tension he will attempt to introduce some complexity in his life.
This example why tourist, who for many years spent his vacation spot, will either change the destination or the method of retching it.
Similarly, too much complexity may result in more tension than a person can endure. For example, a Filipino tourist in Europe may find the different language and culture (complexity) need to be balanced by staying in a hotel chain with which he is familiar (consistency) Effect of Consistency and Complexity on Leisure Travel Stanley C. Plug, a biological researcher, classified travelers based on their different personalities as psychometrics and allocentrics.
Psychometrics or people centered on self, are inhibited and adventuresome .When traveling, they prefer to visit ‘safe” destination. The low-energy psychocentric is quite content to stay home. The high-energy psyshocentric will take a tour that is completely arranged at the destination.
ALLOCENTRICS,or people having interest and attention on other person, are highly curious and thrive on stimulation and change. They have a strong need variety and new experiences. They want to explore and discover and go on their own rather than buy package tours. The low-energy all centric is still curious and adventuresome but foregoes the more demanding schedule. The high-energy allocentrics is the hiker, the biker, the driver; he prefers activities with high activity level.
Between the pscychocentric and the allocentics is the midcentrics.The Midcentrics constitutes the mass market or the bulk of the population. Classification of Travellers Based on Personality The two major classification of travellers based on travel-purpose are the business travellers and the pleasure/personal travellers. Classification of Travellers Based on Purpose of Travel Major of travelers in most develop countries such as the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom are business travellers.
1.Regular Business travellers
2.Business travellers attending meeting, convention, and congresses
3.Incentive travelers Business Travelers Among business travelers, the cost of the trip is shouldered by a company .Hence; travel is not influence by personal income. The volume and rate of growth of business travel is not greatly affected by the cost of travel. This means that business travelers will continue even if the price of travel service increases.
The surveys show that there are major differences between male and female business travelers.
*Women business travellers are slightly younger.
*They tend to stay longer at their destination.
*They are more apt to be unmarried than males.
*They are more likely to a book through a travel agent.
*They have greater preference for downtown accommodation facilities closer to work.
They are more concerned with security aspects of accommodation facilities.
Many airlines and hotels are exerting efforts to cater to the business executive travelers.More recent innovation includes special check-in arrangement, bigger seat and sleeper seats. Many hotel chains have begun to allocate whole floor or wings of their building for those business travellers seeking greater luxury in their accommodation. The rooms or suites are more spacious, contain more personal ‘give-away’ and they provide their guests white a complimentary drinks and express check-in and check-out service.
Regular Business Travelers Travel Pulse surveys that 20% of all businesses travel trips are for the purpose of attending meetings, conventions, congresses. It’s a regular formalized meeting of association or body on a regular or ad hoc basis.
Four Kinds of Conventions:
1.International conventions- involve members and nonmembers for more than two foreign countries and they take place in different countries every year.
2.Continental conventions- have delegates coming from a continent such as North America, Europe or Asia.
3.National conventions- are meetings organized by associations at the state, provincial or regional level.
4.Regional conventions. Business Travelers Attending Meetings, Conventions, Congresses It is a special type of business travel. It is a travel given by firms to employees as a reward for some accomplishment or to encourage employees to achieve more than what is required. Incentive trips have risen sharply according to the Society of Incentive Travel Executives (SITE). Incentive trips last for 5 days. Prize trips are often combined with business and sales meetings especially those to foreign destinations in order to eligible for tax deduction.
They act as specialized types of tour wholesalers. To their prices, they add a markup of 15-20% for their services and costs in packaging the incentive travel trip.
Corporations usually have the following objectives in buying incentive travel trips:
1.Increase overall sales volumes
2.Sell new accounts
3.Improve morale and good will
4.Introduce new product
5.Offset competitive promotions
6.Bolster slow seasons
7.Help in sales training
8.Sell slow items
9.Obtain more store displays and support consumer promotions.
Companies who buy incentive travel trips are usually those involved in insurance sales, electronics/ radio/ television manufacturing, automobile and truck manufacturing, farm equipment manufacturing, electrical appliances manufacturing, building materials manufacturing, etc… Incentive Travelers: This group consists of people traveling vacation or pleasure. They are also called non- business travelers. Experiences and research have shown that non-business travelers have different spending patterns from business travelers. In general, the demand for travel services by non-business travelers is elastic with respect to prices. This means that non-business travelers are very much concerned with the increase in the price of travel services since the cost of travel is usually shouldered by the traveler himself. The traveler likewise chooses the vacation area. Traveling for pleasure is the largest segment of the international market and the fastest growing. The reason for the growth are the rising income levels in developed countries, urbanization, higher educational levels, increase in leisure time and the length of paid holidays.
Pleasure/ Personal travelers are classified into the following categories:
2.Family pleasure travelers
4.Singles and couples Pleasure/ Personal Travelers: Surveys have shown that resort travelers are better educated, have higher household incomes and are more likely to have professional and managerial positions. It is also notable that majority of resort travelers have families with children. •Resort Travelers The family pleasure travelers can be divided into 3 groups:
1.The Junior families- families with parents aged 20-34 having preschool and or grade school children only.
2.Mid-range families- with parents aged 35-44 or over with grade school and or high school children only.
3.Mature families- families with parents aged 45 or over with children who are of high school age and older.
1.To use travel as an educational experience for their children.
2.To do something different.
3.To use travel to bring the family closer together.
The major hindrance to family major travel are the cost of travel particularly the cost of transportation, accommodation, food, and the ability of the parents to have privacy from their children and the problems of organizing and coordinating family pleasure plans. •Family Pleasure Travelers An examination of population trends in developed countries particularly in North-America clearly indicates that the population is aging. At present, there are many people in the retirement age category. These population shifts have made the “elderly” persons a lucrative target for tourism destination areas. Persons in “50 plus” age bracket are called “active affluents” or people with the money and the desire to travel extensively. They generally search for learning experiences, cultural enrichment, socialization and activities which lead to self- fulfillment. •The Elderly They take their vacations to fulfill their psychological, intellectual and physical needs by giving them the opportunity to rest, relax, escape the routine of pressures of daily living, enjoy the naturalness of life.
Club Mediterranee( Club Med)
– A resort chain that targets the singles and couples. It is not the onlu organization which taps the singles and couples pleasure travel segment. Other resorts and destinations in the Caribbean region have also targeted this market segment. •Singles and Couples The main constraints to travel are:
1.Lack of money
2.Lack of time
3.Lack of safety and security
6.Lack of interest in travel
7.Fears of travel TRAVEL CONSTRAINTS It is the major constraints. Less money less travel. The wealthy members of the society are the ones who travel most. People with more disposable income will be able to travel more than those who just earn enough to live on. •Lack of money Lack of available time is another inhibiting factor to tourist travel. The desire to travel and the financial ability to travel are insufficient if one does not have plenty of money to spend but very little time available. A combination of time and money must be present for travel and tourism to take place. •Lack of time Lack of security in public places, hotels and travel centers cause people to prefer to remain in the security of their neighborhood and home. Areas may acquire reputation of being dangerous and thus become less desirable travel destinations as what has happened in the Philippines, the Caribbean, and parts of Mexico, Spain and Italy, where the have been a sharp increase in the number of thefts, robberies, shootings and assaults among the local people. Tourists will not go to destinations which they consider unsafe. •Lack of safety and security Physical disability in the form of bad health or physical handicap may keep people at home. The elderly who are more susceptible to illnesses such as heart trouble, hypertension, arthritis, bronchitis travel less. After the age of 70, very few travel because for most of them, long trips are tiring, changes in food travel because for most of bed may cause sleeplessness. •Physical disability Family commitments inhibit travel. Parents with young children find it inconvenient and expensive to go on holiday. During the child-rearing period, family obligations increase significantly for women and to a similar but lesser degree, for men. Travel is curtailed and more time is spent at home. Indeed, family commitments of any kind, whether it be young children, taking care of the sick, or looking after older people really affects travel. •Family commitments This is mainly due to a preference to simply stay at home. This condition may be due to a variety of factors such as dislike of travel, shyness in meeting people, dislike or changing routine and many more. •Lack of interest in Travel Some people do not want to travel because of fears of travel. Fear of lying is quite common and accounts for many people who insist on driving to a vacation area instead of boarding a plane. Fear of the unknown keeps many people from leaving their own country or even their own city. Many travelers are afraid to go to countries where they cannot understand the language. Some potential travelers are afraid of the unfamiliar decisions they will have to make in a strange place such as how much to tip and how to get around a strange city. All these fears are deterrents to travel. •Fears There are several reasons why people travel. The basic travel motivations can be divided into four classes: the physical motivators, the cultural motivators, the interpersonal motivators,and the status and prestige motivators.
Several tourist motivations are listed in travel literature. some of these are: the need for escape or change, travel for health, sports, social contact, status and prestige, education, personal values,cultural experience, shopping bargain hunting, professional and business motives and search for natural beauty. A study of these motivations shows that they fit into Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory.
Travel is a means to satisfy a need and want. For the individual to be motivated to satisfy a need, an objective must be present. Part of the marketing task is to make people aware of their needs and present them with an objective, the purchase or attainment of which will help satisfy that need.
An individual learns of the alternative ways of satisfying his from personal experiences amd from information gained from the commercial or social environment. the alternatives are linked to the persons motives by a set of decision criteria-guidelines used by the individual to select among alternatives.
Based on personality, travelers may be divided into psychocentrics and allocentrics. psychocentrics are generally non-adventurous and inhibited while allocentrics are adventurous, curious and have a strong desire for new experiences.
Based on travel purpose, travelers are divided into business travelers and pleasure/personal travelers. Business travelers are categorized into regular business travelers, business travelers attending meetings,conventions and congresses and incentive travelers.Pleasure travelers are classified as resort travelers, family pleasure travelers, the elderly and the singles and couples.
Travel constrains are the following: lack of money,lack of timing, lack of safety and security,physical disability, family commitments, lack of interest in travel and fears of travel. Summary The need for Escape or changes Motivation for Travel Effect of Consistency and Complexity on Leisure Travel Business Travelers Attending Meetings, Conventions,Congresses