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Timeline of the Madinan Era [624 CE- 635 CE]
Transcript of Timeline of the Madinan Era [624 CE- 635 CE]
[624 CE- 635 CE]
The Prophet (SAW) migrated to Madinah
624 CE/ 1 AH
Upon reaching Madinah The Prophet (saw) did four main important tasks:
He built Masjid al Qubaa and Masjid al Nabawi
He established the Islamic brotherhood
He made peace treaties and covenants between pre- existing non- muslim tribes and the Muslims
Fourthly, He made a muslim army
The Change of Qiblah
In this year the command for the change of Qiblah came, and so now the Muslims were to pray in the direction of the Ka'bah, in Makkah instead of facing Bait al- Maqdis in Jereusalem
Friday 17, Ramadan
The Battle of Badr
The Battle of Badr which took place in the plain of Badr is also known as "Yawm al-Furqan",
The day of Distinction
. Truth was distinguished from falsehood through this major event in Islamic history.
With the help of Allah, the Muslims were victorious despite being lesser in number (300 against 1000) and resources. 14 men from the Muslims and 70 of the most prominent chiefs of the Quraysh were killed in the battle.
Expedition against Banu Qaynuqah
After the Muslims victory at Badr, The Jewish tribe of Banu Qaynuqah started to engage in open hostile acts against the muslim community despite being in a treaty with the muslims, one clash resulted in a muslim and a jew being killed in the marketplace. This was a serious offence and the prophet (saw) took action and besieged Banu Qaynuqah until they agreed to peaceful exile from Madinah.
Friday 6, Shawwal
The Battle of Uhud
The Battle of Uhud was not a decisive victory for the Muslims or the Quraysh, The Quraysh were able to overcome the Muslims because some of them had left their stations when they had been told to not leave their positions no matter what happened in battle, resulting in disobedience of their leader. However, Allah (swt) had placed awe of the Muslims in the hearts of the disbelievers, which helped them return to Makkah without any more loss. In this battle the muslims had lost one of their best men, Hamzah ibn Al -Muttalib, the uncle of the Prophet (saw) who was a fierce warrior and one of the strongest supporters of Muhammad (saw)
The Incident of Raj'i
A delegation of the Adal and Qara tribes came to the Prophet (saw) and requested that a few men go with them back to their people to teach the Islamic faith. The prophet (saw) sent 10 of his companions headed by Asim bin Thabit. This turned out to be a trick of the polytheists and the Adal and Qara tribes set some of the Hudhayl tribe on these 10 companions. Over 100 archers besieged these ten companions on a hill and promised that they were safe, but as they came down 8 of these companions were killed and 2 were sent back to Makkah as slaves in the hands of their old tormentors.
Tragedy at Bir Ma'una
This incident was another setback for the Muslims, Abu Bar'aa who was a polytheist, tricked the Prophet (saw) into believing that the people of Najd were inclining towards Islam and requested that He send some of His companions there. Abu Bar'aa even swore protection for them yet when Muhammad (saw)sent 70 of the most learned men to Najd, on the way they were all brutally massacred except for two.
The Believers took solace in making du'a for their martyred brothers and praying against their murderers
Battle of Trench
A year and a half went by since the departure of the Quraysh from Badr, during this year the Muslims were able to focus on their religion and its conveying, but again this peaceful time was disrupted when reports came, that the exiled Jewish tribes had consolidated their base at Khaybar, and wanting vengeance they became allies with the Quraysh to strike Madinah together.
When this news reached (saw), Salman al- Farsi a companion of prophet (saw) of Persian descent suggested digging a trench around Madinah, It was naturally fortified from three sides they then dug a trench around the Northern side of the City.
When the armies came they were dumbfounded and were defeated by the Muslims who were helped by Allah (swt)
Battle of Banu Quraydha
After the Battle of Uhud, Banu Quraydha had entered into a pact with the Muslims but had broken it during the Battle of Trench, resulting in their expulsion from Madinah. This threat was now also gone and the coalition between the Jews and the Quraysh was dispersed and the believers were once again quite safe.
Rabi ul Awwal
Expedition against Bani Lihyaan
Banu Lihyaan was the tribe that had ambushed the 70 muslims at Raj'i. The Prophet (saw) wanted to punish them and now was the time, He marched upon them with 120 cavaliers but the tribe eluded capture until the Prophet (saw) had to leave to go back to Madinah. Although they escaped capture the Bani Lihyaan still received the duas of Muhammad (saw) which He had made against them
Monday 1, Dhul Qa'dah
Departure for Umrah
The Prophet Muhammad (saw) set out with 1400 Muslims to go to Umrah as He had seen a vision, in which He and the Believers were entering the Masjid al-Haram. However, the Muslims were prevented from doing the umrah because the Quraish had blocked the route to Makkah.
The Treaty of Hudaibiya
The same day the Quraysh sent Suhail bin Amr to negotiate with the Prophet Muhammad (saw), and the Peace treaty of Hudaibiya was made.
Treaty of Hudaibiya
In the name of Almighty Allah who is The Most Merciful.
These are the conditions of peace between Muhammad, son of Abdullah and Suhayl ibn Amr, the envoy of Mecca.
There will be no fighting for ten years between the Muslims and the Quraysh.
Anyone who wishes to join Muhammad and to enter into any agreement with him is free to do so.
Anyone who wishes to join the Quraish and to enter into any agreement with them is free to do so.
A young man, or one whose father is alive, if he goes to Muhammad without permission from his father or guardian, will be returned to his father or guardian. But if anyone goes to the Quraish, he will not be returned.
This year the Muslims will go back without entering Mecca. But next year Muhammed and his followers can enter Mecca, spend three days, perform the tawaaf. During these three days the Quraish will withdraw to the surrounding hills.
When Muhammad and his followers enter into Mecca, they will be unarmed except for sheathed swords.
In a way this treaty worked in the benefit of the Prophet Muhammad (saw) that He could now focus more on spreading the message of Islam rather than worrying about safety.
During this time He sent letters to the king of Abyssinia, king of Egypt; Alexander, king of Persia, Khusro Pervez, a letter to the Roman Emperor Heraclius and many more
The Conquest of Khaybar
This area was also cleared
of the Jewish tribes
During this time Prophet (saw) sent Uthman (ra) to the Quraysh as an emissary, but the Quraysh kept him for a while so that they could gather some intelligence about the Muslims, with this delay mor spread that he had been kiled and so the
"Pledge of the Tree", "Bai'a al- Ridwan"
was made on behalf of Uthman (ra).
The pledge was that they would all remain on the battlefield and fight till death.
The pledge of the Tree
After the victory at Khaybar the Jews launched a different attack, they sent the Prophet (saw) roasted goat, knowing He liked the shoulder, they peppered it with poison.
Realizing what it was, He quickly spat it back out.
This would later affect the Prophet (saw) in His last few years
Umrah is finally performed
After a year since the treaty of Hudaibiya, The Prophet (saw) and the companions finally performed Umrah
The Conquest of Makkah
Makkah was finally purified and the Ka'bah and Masjid Al- Haram were cleansed of all Idols.
This was now under the Islamic Rule and most people had believed.
The Battle of Hunayn
Although The conquest of Makkah had silenced its citizen, neighboring tribes were clamoring for confrontation.Banu Thaqif and Banu Hawazen both wanted to fight the Muslims, when the muslims approached the opposing army suddenly ambushed them and the newer muslims fell back. later however Allah sent peace into their hearts and they then fought very fiercely and were victorious
Expedition to Tabuk
The Muslims heard reports of a roman army that was planning on attacking the Muslim army, so they set out on a long journey to Tabuk, where they waited for the Romans, hearing the fact that the Muslims had crossed 400 kilometers to challenge them, the Romans lost courage and decided not to face them. This resulted in an indirect victory for the Muslims
The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Prophet Muhammad (saw) left Madinah on Saturday, 26th of Dhul Qa'adah
He reached Makkah on the 4th of Dhul Hijjah, and did His final pilgrimage
While standing at 'Arafah during the Farewell Hajj, and after praising and glorifying Allah, the Messenger of God, Muhammad (saw) gave his final sermon.
634 CE/ 11 AH
Our beloved Prophet Muhammad (saw) passed away
He passed away at the age of 63 and was buried in the apartment of Aisha (ra).
He was indeed a huge mercy to mankind
May Allah (swt)'s peace and blessings be upon Him.