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Chemistry in Cleaning Agents

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Nancy Duong

on 23 May 2013

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Transcript of Chemistry in Cleaning Agents

Nancy Duong Cleaning Agents!
soap is also known as a alkali salt of fatty acid
process of soap making is called Saponification
reaction between fatty acids and alkali to create soap
the fatty acids used are either sodium and or potassium salts
sodium hydroxide(NaOH): forms solid bar soaps
potassium hydroxide(KOH):forms liquid soaps; it does not crystallize therefore forming the translucent liquid soap
the animal or vegetable fat reacts with potash (potassium hydroxide) or to lye (sodium hydroxide) Soap Stain Remover Toothpaste whiten fabrics, remove stains and or colours
a common household bleach is chlorine based bleach which removes stains and it is a disinfectant
contains 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and mostly water
organic stains has a chemical compound called chromophores
when the bleach is mixed in with water, the chemicals reacts which creates hydrochloric acid and oxygen
stain molecules are broken down by the oxygen that is released from the bleach molecules
the oxygen molecules pulls apart that stain molecules and the detergent helps rinse away the stain molecules
strong base - pH level is around 12 Bleach Ammonia Dangers of Mixing
Cleaning Chemicals! How It's Made: Soap Bar. (2009 February 09). fatty acids are carboxyl (carbon + hydrogen + oxygen) that is either saturated and or unsaturated fat
which are found in oils and fats fatty acids glycerin water lye fatty acids & lye water glycerin Double Displacement BYPRODUCTS PRODUCT REACTANT REACTANT solidifies the soap
gives the soap structure
most common commercial used saturated fat is beef fat Saturated comes from vegetable oil
conditioner/moisturizer for the skin Unsaturated Beef Fat Olive Oil Soap soap molecule has a polar and a non-polar end
the non-polar end is hydrophobic, which attaches to the non-polar dirt/grease/oil molecules
the polar end is hydrophilic, it will be attracted to the water molecules
when soap dissolves in water, it produces carboxyl and the carboxyl is attracted to non-polar dirt/grease/oil and surrounds the non-polar dirt/grease/oil
then the dipole of the water molecule is attracted to the ion of the carboxyl and pulls it away along with the dirt/grease/oil (ion-dipole) H 0 H H H 0 H H 0 H H 0 The Chemistry Behind Soap -acid: can lead to tooth enamel loss
-Listerine: pH 4.3 / Scope: pH 5.0
-average saliva: pH 6.4-6.8
-Mouthwash: 50% is made up of water (diluent) - 20% is alcohol - 30% other extra ingredients
-3 types of mouthwashes:
1.fluoride - help reduce tooth decay
2.anti bacterial - eliminates bad breath, plaque and gingivitis
3.remineralizing - rebuilds teeth minerals (strengthens the teeth) Mouthwash Dental Care
Products Active ingredients:
-triclosan: antibacterial agent
-zinc salts: decreases the amount of calculus build up
-sodium bicarbonate: decreases the acid level of plaque
-2 types of fluoride
1.stannous fluoride - protects against gingivitis and plaque
2.sodium fluoride - prevent cavities
enzyme (seaweed): protect against tooth decay
>plaque is decomposition of bacteria; bacterial dies and the DNA residue is left behind
which results as a stain on the teeth
Inactive Ingredients:
-water
-binding agent (cellulose)
-abrasive
-preservatives
-natural and or artificial flavouring/colouring -toothpaste are surfactant that removes bacteria from the teeth and gums
-binder chemical agent keeps toothpaste thick (cellulose - thickening agent)
-glycerin or sorbitol gives toothpaste the smooth texture
-methylparaben and propylparaben act as preservatives, used to help protect the toothpaste from microbes bacteria growth
-white toothpaste comes from titanium dioxide -Only one side of the denture has been rubbed with enzyme
-Disclosing tablets (purple colouring) indicates
the build up of bacteria where no
enzyme was applied on NH3 NaOCL cleaning windows, disinfecting kitchen counter tops, cleaning stainless steel applications, removing grease and etc
gas made of 1 atom of nitrogen and 3 atoms of hydrogen
when put under high pressure, the NH3 becomes a liquid
colourless and transparent
bronsted lowry acid-base law applies to the NH3 process, stearic fat (saturated fatty acid) donates the proton to ammonia (base) which receives the proton
then the stearic fats transforms into sterates which are negatively charged and the water molecules (the positively charged hydrogen) attracts to the sterates ions = soluble and rinses away Reactant Reactant Reactant Product Reactant Product Reactant Reactant Product Bleach Toilet Bowl Cleaner Chlorine Gas Cl2 Bleach Ammonia Chloramine NH2Cl Bleach Vinegar Chlorine Gas Cl2 Experiment With... 3 Types of Stain Removers 1. Cover up the stain - whitening detergents, whitens the stain but does not disinfect it. The detergent takes in ultraviolet light and release it back as visible light
2.Break the stain molecule's chain - using chemicals such as ammonia to break the tough stain molecule chain which makes it easier to be removed
3.Use a surfactant to remove the stain - surfactant has long hydrocarbon tails and a polar side. The hydrocarbon tail attaches to the grease/oil/dirt molecules and dissolves it. The polar side dissolves in water. 1.Vinegar
2.Oxiclean stain remover
3.Soapy warm water Jakubovics, N (n.d.) Environment Canada. (2012 June 13.) The Home Depot. (n.d.). The Home Depot. (n.d.). The Home Depot. (n.d.). Todd, J. (2008 August 23). The Home Depot. (n.d.). Gale. M. (n.d.). Amazing Rust. (2011 February 01). Amazing Rust. (2011 February 01). Philips, S. (2011 December 23). Par Pool and Spa. (n.d.).
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