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The Health Benefits of Resistance Training

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by

David W McMillan

on 24 November 2013

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Transcript of The Health Benefits of Resistance Training

Neuromuscular
Psychological
Metabolic
On the Health Benefits of Exercise
Skeletal
Beyond sport performance...
And tank tops.
Cardiovascular
Motor Control
Most of us have an idea about why athletes benefit from exercise: it augments their physical performance. It makes them faster, stronger, more precise. While this might be true, the connection between athletics and exercise can make it unclear why we should exercise on a regular basis if they're not training for a sport (that's most of us). Most often the driving force in exercise is aesthetics. Well fortunately for most of us, the health conditions associated with physical inactivity are not biased toward beauty. But if not for looks or sports then why workout? Here I present a number of bodily-benefits that can come* from chronic exercise and are related to neither to sport performance nor gross muscular architecture. Feel free to scroll around and explore each topic. Notice any relationships?
Whole
Muscles
Muscle
Cells
Vasculature
Heart
Peripheral Nerves
Spinal Cord
Brain/Control
Posture
Coordination
Bone
Fuel
Homeostasis
Glucose
Metabolism
Cholesterol
Inflammation
Hormones
Pain
Connective
Tissue
Sleep
Mood
Motivation
E can increase the
thickness of the walls
of your heart. This can translate to an increase in your heart's capacity to pump blood.
As an outcome of its effects on the cardiovascular system, E can lower
resting heart rate
.
E can increase the
number
of
blood vessels
and
capillaries
in body, specifically those in and around the muscles targeted via lifts.
The impact of E on the vasculature is implied in the prevention and treatment of
hypertension
.
E can increase your blood vessels ability to change diameter (
dilate and constrict
). Within the CV system, vessel diameter is the main variable contributing to pressure.
As an outcome of its impact on the vascular function and structure, E can better
endothelial health
.
E can increase the elastic properties of our vessels (known as "
compliance
") so that the walls of the arteries respond greater to beat-to-beat changes in blood flow and pressure.
E can change the structure of the individual contractile proteins (
actin and myosin
) within our muscles cells, resulting in greater force production at the level of an individual cell.
E can change the
enzyme
content of our muscle cells allowing for more efficient cellular functioning.
E can change the structure and function of the
non-contractile organelles
within our cells, especially those related to fuel utilization and electrolyte transport.
E can increase the size of your individual muscle cells which, when added up, increases the
size
of your whole muscles. The overwhelming majority of whole muscle growth is due to the expansion of individual cells (as opposed to the addition of new cells).
E can increase the
number of muscles recruited
for a given movement by changing the structure and function of all the nerves that lead to muscles.
E can modify your muscle's
receptiveness
to a nerve signal via changing the structure and function of the junction between individual nerves and muscles.
As an outcome of its effects on the cellular components of muscle cells, E can result in more robust contractions which generate more
force production
independent of muscle size.
E can change the way in which the spinal cord modulates the signals (via a process known as "
spinal computations
") being sent from our brain to our muscles.
E can increase our
muscular recruitment efficiency
by changing the structure and function of the neurons in our brain and spinal cord which are responsible for generating movement. The reorganization which can occur makes us better at sending a signal for a given movement.
E can increase the amount of
blood that flows
to our brain and spinal cord, which provides the brain with the oxygen and nutrients that it needs. It can also decrease
blood pressure
in the cranial vessels.
As an outcome of its effects on neuro anatomy and physiology, E can establish more efficient and robust
motor programs
.
E improves the ability for opposing ("
agonist
") muscle groups to work in coordination during a movement. It also improved the ability for muscle groups with similar but not identical ("
synergist
") muscle groups to work together during a movement.
E can increase the structure of your bones. This includes changes in the
width
of the bone walls as well as the
architecture
of the cellular support structures.
E can increase bone
density.
As an outcome of its effects on bone anatomy and physiology, E has the potential to increase
bone strength and mass
.
The impact of E on the cardiovascular system is implied in the prevention and treatment of
cardiovascular disease
(CVD).
The impact of E on bone is implied in the prevention and treatment of
bone-degenerative
conditions.
E can increase your body's
preference
to
utilize fat
as fuel source at rest.
E can increase your body's
ability
to
utilize fat
as a fuel source during exercise.
E increases the ability of our cells to
transport glucose
from the blood into their interior.
E can increase our muscle's
ability
to
utilize glucose
as a fuel source.
E can increase our muscle cell's ability to store glucose (in the form of "
glycogen
").
E can decrease the amount of
LDL-Cholesterol
in the blood.
E can increase the amount of
HDL-Cholesterol
in the blood.
Immune
Function
Attention
Immune/Systemic
*Exercise shows the
potential
to elicit the listed bodily responses. This means that at some time, in some lab, by some scientists, some research participants responded some way (i.e. that which is listed). In many cases the adaptation is highly specific to the (i) mode of training, and (ii) parameters of training variables within that modality. Other adaptations are more universal. Regardless all exercise adaptations are subject to the specificity of the demands imposed by their unique demands and subsequent perturbations.
In response to a single bout of E our body can release
adrenal hormones
(e.g. catecholamines and cortisol). Training can lower chronic resting levels.
E can increase the circulating levels of
growth hormones
in our blood.
E can increase the circulating levels of
androgenic sex hormones
(e.g. testosterone) in our blood.
As an outcome of its impact on glucose and lipid metabolism, E can increase
insulin sensitivity
and
circulating levels.
E can increase the circulating levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines.
E can increase the amount of
chemical messengers
released by our muscles.
E can blunt immune-mediated pro-inflammatory responses (e.g. monocyte pro-inflammatory activity and proportion of inflammatory to classical monocytes.)
E can increase the circulating number of regulatory immune cells.
E can reduce the amount of circulating adipokines (pro-inflammatory chemicals released from adipose tissue).
E can increase the
collagen content
of your connective tissue.
As an outcome of its effects on collagen content, E can increase the size and strength of your
ligaments and tendons
.
E can decrease muscular
imbalances
so that all sides (front vs back, right vs left) of the body are equal.
E can result in more
optimal alignment
of body segments.
The impact of E on connective tissue is implied in the prevention and treatment of connective tissue conditions such as
ligament and tendon strains/tears.
The impact of E on coordination and motor control is implied in the prevention of traumatic injuries due to
falls
as well as musculoskeletal conditions.
The impact of E on posture and symmetry is implied in the prevention and treatment of
joint conditions
As an outcome of its effects on fuel homeostasis, E can decrease the amount of
adipose tissue
in the body, most notably that in the viscera.
This is a work in progress! An organic document...
As an outcome of its effect on muscular size and metabolic activity, E can increase
energy expenditure
both at rest and during exercise.
The impact of E on muscle structure and functions implied in the treatment of condition which could be cause by low strength such as
musculoskeletal conditions
and
falls
.
The impact of E on muscle size is implied in the prevention and treatment of conditions related to
muscle degeneration
.
The impact of E on energy expenditure is implied in the prevention and treatment of conditions related to
low energy balance
and/or
flux
.
The impact of E on energy expenditure is implied in the prevention and treatment of conditions related to
body mass management
.
As an outcome of its impact on hemodynamics related to vascular function and structure, E can decrease the
pressure
and
resistance
in your cardiovascular system.
Oxygen and nutrient delivery
Byproduct removal, buffering and excretion
Increased compliance and dilation
result in lower total peripheral resistance
which can increase stroke volume
Muscular contractions augment
venous return of blood to the heart.
As an outcome of its effects on motor programs, muscles and connective tissue, E can promote optimal
joint function
.
As an outcome of its effects on lipid utilization, E can increase the body's ability to process
dietary fat
.
As an outcome of its impact on glucose uptake and utilization, E can increase the body's ability to process
dietary sugar
.
As an outcome of its effect on the cardiovascular system, E can increase the heart's pumping abilities.
As an outcome of its effects on cholesterol, E can reduce the amount of vascular
plaque accumulation.
As an outcome of its impact on glucose uptake, E can decrease resting glucose levels thereby reducing the body's
prolonged exposure
to
glucose
.
The impact of E on circulating lipoprotein levels is implied in the prevention and treatment of
atherosclerosis
.
... so please, add to the growth by providing feedback!
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