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The American Revolution

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Gerra Tessema

on 1 November 2014

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Transcript of The American Revolution

Rebellion Against Britain
(1764-1776)

Creating The Constitution
(1777-1789)

Glossary
The Thirteen Colonies
Northern Colonies
New Hampshire
Massachusetts
Rhode Island
Connecticut
Middle Colonies
New York
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
Delaware
Southern Colonies
Maryland
Virginia
North Carolina
South Carolina
Georgia
French And Indian War
The French and Indian war was a conflict between France and Great Britain over territory in North America it lasted from 1754 to 1763.
The French economy mainly revolved around trade with American Indians.
British Colonists started to trade with the Indians on French Territory and it angered the French because they wanted to control all the trade that goes on in their territory .
In 1754 the governor of Virginia sent soldiers to kick the French out of Western Pennsylvania led by George Washington, they fought the french forces and were forced to surrender because they were outnumbered.
After that the leaders of France and Britain started sending troops and supplies to North America and that is how the war started.
The British took over Montreal and Quebec and the french surrendered for good.
The Treaty of Paris was signed and France had to give up virtually all of its North American land to the British.
Here is a video summarizing the French and Indian war
The Sugar Act (1764)
The Sugar Act was a tax on sugar, molasses, and other stuff the colonies imported
This act prompted James Otis, a Massachusetts lawyer to famously proclaim "Taxation without Representation is Tyranny"
The Stamp Act
(1765)
The Stamp Act taxed all legal and commercial documents, like diplomas contracts, newspapers, and even playing cards
The colonists organized the stamp act congress in New York City to decide what to do.
Samuel Adams of Boston organized chapters of the sons of liberty, they burned any stamped paper they could find, they also tarred and feathered british officials
"No Taxation Without Representation
The colonist were being taxed on items and were not allowed to have representation in the british parliament.
The Parliament did not listen to the colonists, in fact they just added more taxes.
King George III
King George III was born in Norfolk House, St. James Square, London in June 4, 1738
He reigned as king of Britain and Ireland from 1760 to 1820.
He Died in January 29 ,1820 at the age of 81.
British Parliament
The British Parliament was unfair to the colonists.
They did not give the colonists any say in anything. The colonists were not allowed to have representatives in the Parliament.
The British Parliament was an unfair legislative body.
Boston Massacre
In 1770 British troops opened fire on rioting colonists.
Five Colonists were killed
The Tea Act
(1773)
The Parliament could make laws affecting the American colonists even though none of the colonists voted.
The Parliament made the Quartering act in 1765 allowing British soldiers in the colonies to stay in any private home they wanted, and the families living there would have to house and feed them.
Here is a short clip of the incident.
The tea act stated that the colonists had to buy all their tea from England.
The colonists responded to this with the Boston Tea Party.
Boston Tea Party
A group of men disguised as Indians boarded three tea ships docked in the Boston harbor on the night of December 16, 1773.
They broke open the tea chests and threw them overboard into the Boston harbor.
The amount of tea that was thrown overboard into the Boston harbor was worth more than $1,000,000 in today's currency.
Here is a clip of the scene.
Intolerable acts (1774)
This act was an act where there was a naval blockade of the Boston harbor until the tea from the Boston tea party was paid for.
In response to the intolerable acts all of the colonies, except Georgia met in the first continental congress.
Here is a quick video of the intolerable acts.
First Continental Congress
Delegates from each colony except Georgia met in secret on September 5, 1774 at Carpenters Hall in Philadelphia.
The congress decided to ban all trade with England until the acts were repealed.
The first continental congress also said to start training militias or armies in each colony.
Second Continental Congress
Delegates from each colony showed up to the second continental congress held at the Pennsylvania state house on May 10, 1775
Most of the people who showed up to the first continental congress a year prior also showed up to the second continental congress
There were three new additions who showed up to the second continental congress that included Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and John Hancock
John Adams
John Adams was born in Braintree, Massachusetts on October 30 1735.
He Graduated from Harvard University at the age 20.
He then entered a career in law
John Adams married Abigail Smith and they had 5 kids.
One of John Adams 5 children John Quincy Adams later became the sixth president of the United States.
John Adams died at home on July 4, 1826.
Declaration of Independence
In 1776 the 13 colonies said that they were going to form a new country outside of Britain's rule.
They wrote declaration of rights and addressed it to King George III
The people who wrote the declaration of independence included Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston.
War of Independence
(1775-1783)

The Battle of Lexington and Concord

The Quote "The shot heard around the world" came from the first shot at Lexington, Massachusetts on April 19, 1775 no one knows who shot the first bullet but they know it was one of the colonists.
700 British soldier fought against 75 colonial militiamen.
The colonists were already warned that the british were coming to Lexington because Paul revere warned the colonists that the british were coming which would later be known as the midnight ride.
The British killed eight colonial militiamen and wounded 10 in Lexington then headed to Concord, Massachusetts

Lots of colonial minutemen were waiting for the british in Concord.
When the british arrived in Concord the stash of weapons they were looking for was hidden because the minutemen arrived earlier than the british to hide the weapons from them.
Patriots
Patriots were colonists of the 13 colonies who rebelled against british control.
Patriots wanted to free themselves from british control.
Many patriots were colonial militiamen or later on part of George Washington's Continental Army.
Loyalists
Loyalists were colonists who remained loyal to Britain and the British monarchy during and after the American Revolution.
By:Gerra Tessema
Loyalists made up about 20% of the colonists population.
Loyalists were known as traders to the colonists but all they were trying to do was live the life they were custom to
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson was born April 13, 1743 to a rich family that lived in Virginia
When Thomas Jefferson was 14 his father died leaving Thomas Jefferson with 5,000 acres of land to him he built his famous home Monticello there
When Thomas Jefferson was 19 he began a career in law and he became one of the best lawyers in Virginia.
When he was 29 years old he married Martha Wayles Skelton and they had six children.
Thomas Jefferson was the main author of the Declaration of Independence.
Thomas Jefferson
On July 4, 1826 exactly 50 years after the Declaration of Independence was adopted he died at his home in Monticello.
George Washington
George Washington was the first president of the United States
George Washington was born on February 22, 1732 in Westmoreland County, VA.
George Washington was the commander-in-chief of the american army during the revolutionary war.
George Washington was considered the foremost of the founding fathers.
George Washington became a government surveyor at the age of 17, that was someone who determines exact land boundaries between towns and states
When war broke out in 1775 Washington was elected general and commander-in-chief of the continental army by John Adams.
In the winter of 1777-1778 a quarter of George Washington's troops died at valley forge.
George Washington appointed all six justices of the first supreme court.
After George Washington finished his presidency he lived the rest of his life in his home in Mount Vernon where he died on December 14,1799
British Evacuation of Boston, Massachusetts
Over the winter of 1775-1776 George Washington's continental army brought cannons over from Fort Ticonderoga to Boston.
On the night of March 5, 1776 George Washington's Continental Army placed cannons on top of Dorchester Heights.
The British then evacuated Boston to New York City.
Battles of Trenton and Princeton, NJ
On Christmas day of 1776 at 11:00 Pm George Washington's Continental Army travel through the nearly frozen Delaware river to Trenton
George Washington's Continental Army fought the hessian in a gun battle until they surrendered.
Battle of Saratoga
A army of sharpshooters, and militiamen invaded the british.
The leader of the army that included sharpshooters and militiamen was Daniel Morgan.
Daniel Morgan shot the native american who was scouting the british through the dense forest.
An Ireland Sharpshooter shot Joe Frazier in the head.
Without leadership the British lost 1000 men
This victory persuaded the french to join the americans in the war.
French Army and Navy
The french navy and the army played a decisive role in helping the americans during the revolutionary war
Dutch Loans
The dutch gave weapons to the americans during the american revolution.
Valley Forge
The rebels built 900 huts in 40 days that houses a dozen men each
Many people in Valley Forge died from cold, starvation, and disease.
One of the reasons people died from valley forge was from the harsh weather there.
Another reason many people died in valley forge was because of starvation the only food there was flour mixed with water.
The final reason many people died in valley forge was from smallpox disease.
Battle of Yorktown
In 1781 George Washington commanded a force of 17,000 french and continental troops against Lord Charles Cornwallis.
George Washington ordered 5000 troops to block Cornwallis escape through land and a french naval fleet to block escape by sea.
After three weeks of this non-stop blockade the Cornwallis finally surrendered.
Treaty of Paris
The treaty of Paris established british recognition of American independence.
The Treaty of Paris also doubled the size of America.
Articles of Confederation
This Document formed a weak national congress and kept a bulk of the power to the states.
It formed a weak national congress.
Shay's Rebellion
During the 1780's many farmers in Western Massachusetts were struggling with debt due to the new farms and more land they were purchasing.
As a result of that local sheriffs seized many farms.
Some farmers were even put to prison because of that.
The farmers organized an armed rebellion against this lead by Daniel Shay, a former captain in the continental army.
Constitutional Convention
A group of men including George Washington met at the constitutional convention in 1787
There they discussed the outgoing problems in the United States.
That is where the U.S constitution was adopted.
James Madison
James Madison was the fourth president of the United States.
He wrote most of the U.S constitution and entire bill of rights.
He was born on March 16, 1751 in Virginia.
He entered politics at the age of 25 as a delegate in Virginia's state legislature.
He retired from politics and he moved to his family's plantation where he died on 1836
The United States Constitution
The Constitution explains how the government works and how we all fit into it.
The bill of rights is the first ten amendments to the constitution.
Legislative Branch
The capital building in Washington D.C is home to the legislative Branch.
They make laws that serve every corner of our nation.
Executive Branch
The White House is home to the Executive Branch.
The Executive Branch Includes the president and vice president
Barack Obama
Joe Biden
This Branch approves and recommend new laws/bills.
Judicial Branch
The Supreme Court is home to the Judicial Branch.
The Judicial Branch is made up of nine justices.
The Judicial Branch's Job is to evaluate laws and use them during court cases.
Federalists Vs. Anti-Federalists
Federalists envisioned a country where the state and national governments shared power.
Anti-Federalists thought that each state should be able to control their own affairs.
Three Fifths Compromise
The three fifths compromise said that each slave will be counted as 3/5 of a person in the population count.
The United States Bill of Rights
James Madison was the author of the bill of rights.
Originally James Madison wrote 12 amendments to the constitution but only 10 were chosen.
An amendment is a change or addition and James Madison added the bill of rights to the constitution which is an addition.
Washington's Election
George Washington was elected in 1789.
George Washington was not only the first president of the United States he was the first president of the world because no one ever tried a government system like that before.
Thirteen Colonies-
The Thirteen Colonies were British Colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America founded between 1607 and 1733.
French and Indian War-
a war in North America between France and Britain (both aided by American Indian tribes); 1755-1760
Sugar Act-
The Sugar Act, also known as the American Revenue Act or the American Duties Act, was a revenue-raising act passed by the Parliament of Great Britain on April 5, 1764.
Stamp Act-
an act of the British Parliament in 1756 that exacted revenue from the American colonies by imposing a stamp duty on newspapers and legal and commercial documents. Colonial opposition led to the act's repeal in 1766 and helped encourage the revolutionary movement against the British Crown.
“No Taxation without Representation”-"
No taxation without representation" is a slogan originating during the 1750s and 1760s that summarized a primary grievance of the British colonists hardy in the Thirteen Colonies, which was one of the major causes of the American Revolution.
King George III-
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of these two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death.
British Parliament-
the British legislative body
Boston Massacre-
The Boston Massacre, known as the Incident on King Street by the British, was an incident on March 5, 1770, in which British Army soldiers killed five civilian men and injured six others.
Tea Act-
The Tea Act was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain. Its principal overt objective was to reduce the massive surplus of tea held by the financially troubled British East India Company in its London warehouses and to help the struggling company survive.
Boston Tea Party-
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor; organized as a protest against taxes on tea
Intolerable Acts-
The Intolerable Acts was the Patriot name for a series of punitive laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 relating to Massachusetts after the Boston Tea party
First Continental Congress-
The First Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from twelve colonies that met on September 5, 1774, at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, early in the American Revolution. It was called in response to the passage of the Coercive Acts by the British Parliament. .
Second Continental Congress-
The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the thirteen colonies that started meeting in the summer of 1775, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, soon after warfare in the American Revolutionary War had begun.
John Adams
-Adams: 2nd President of the United States (1735-1826)
Declaration of Independence-
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the Colonies from Great Britain

Battles of Lexington and Concord, MA-
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. They were fought on April 19, 1775, in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy, and Cambridge, near Boston.
Patriots-
a person who vigorously supports their country and is prepared to defend it against enemies or detractors.
Loyalists
-a colonist of the American revolutionary period who supported the British cause.
Thomas Jefferson-
3rd President of the United States; chief drafter of the Declaration of Independence; made the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and sent out the Lewis and Clark Expedition to explore it (1743-1826)
War of Independence-
The American Revolutionary War, the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War in the United States, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies, but gradually grew into a world war between Britain on one side and the newly formed United .
George Washington-
the first President of the United States, the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States

Battle of Saratoga, NY-
a battle during the American Revolution (1777); the British under Burgoyne were defeated
Valley Forge, PA-
Valley Forge in Pennsylvania was the site of the military camp of the American Continental Army over the winter of 1777–1778 during the American Revolutionary War.
Battle of Yorktown, VA-
The Siege of Yorktown, Battle of Yorktown, or Surrender at Yorktown, the latter taking place on October 19, 1781, was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British .
Treaty of Paris-
The Treaty of Paris was a treaty between Louis IX of France and Henry III of England, agreed to on December 4, 1259 ending 100 years of conflicts between Capetian and Plantagenet dynasties.

Articles of Confederation-
the original constitution of the US, ratified in 1781, which was replaced by the US Constitution in 1789.
Shays’ Rebellion-
Shays' Rebellion was an armed uprising that took place in central and western Massachusetts in 1786 and 1787. The rebellion was named after Daniel Shays, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War and one of the rebel leaders. The rebellion started on August 29, 1786.
Constitutional Convention-
the convention of United States statesmen who drafted the United States Constitution in 1787
James Madison-
4th President of the United States; member of the Continental Congress and rapporteur at the Constitutional Convention in 1776; helped frame the Bill of Rights (1751-1836)
United States Constitution-
the constitution written at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787 and subsequently ratified by the original thirteen states
Legislative Branch-
the branch of the United States government that has the power of legislating
Executive Branch-
the branch of the United States government that is responsible for carrying out the laws
Judicial Branch-
the branch of the United States government responsible for the administration of justice
Three Fifths Compromise-
The Three-Fifths Compromise was a compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the enumerated population of slaves would be counted for representation purposes.
Great Compromise-
The Connecticut Compromise was an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution.
United States Bill of Rights-
The Bill of Rights is the collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.

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