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INTR10612:

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Natalie Martin

on 14 October 2015

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Transcript of INTR10612:

INTR10612: IR AND GH
Dr Natalie Martin
Week 12 - 16th October 2015

The Thirty-Years War, Nation-States and Sovereignty
Pre- Westphalian System
Thirty Years War
The Westphalian Order
Nation-States and Sovereignty
Current situation?

Middle Ages and Thirty Years War
Treaty of Westphalia
Signed 1648 in Osnabruck and Munster (Westphalia)
Nations and States
Nation:
“A named community occupying a homeland, and having common myths and a shared history, a common public culture, a single economy and common rights and duties for all members." (Smith, 2001, p. 13).
State:
“A set of autonomous institutions, differentiated from other institutions, possessing a legitimate monopoly of coercion and extraction in a given territory." (Smith, 2001, p. 12).

Ref: Smith, A.D., (2001) Nationalism, Polity Press

In other words
How did the Treaty of Westphalia come to be?

Who was involved?

What have been the consequences of it?
Treaty of Westphalia

Peace treaty after Thirty Years War

Signed 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster (which are in Westphalia)

Pre-Westphalia states did not exist as we know them
The Treaty of Westphalia

City states

Empires

Religion

Pre-Westphalia: a world without nation-states
eg:
Athens, Sparta, Thebes, and Corinth

Rome, Venice, Florence

South America - Maya city-states
Central Asian cities along the Silk Road.
City states
Empires
Roman - 27BC - 450AD
Byzantine - 450AD-1453
Eastern half of what was the Holy Roman Empire - what is now Greece and Turkey

Capital Byzantium (Istanbul) until 1453
Ottoman - 1299-1917
Charlemagne - Carolingian Empire - c800AD
Arabic Empire - MENA c800AD
Chinese dynasties
Mogul Empire
Persian Empire
South American - Mayan, Aztec
African - Somali, Sahelian, Mutapa



Others
Europe - Catholic Church

Took the role of the Roman Empire

Very influential - shared legal powers with local and national monarchs in areas of church, state, and foreign affairs.

Religion
Later Middle Ages 1000-1600
Weakening feudalism
Weakening Catholic influence

Primitive global commercial ties develop

Beginnings of European territorial expansion.

Rise of Ottoman Empire

*Rise of feudalism;

*Growing influence of Roman Catholic Church in Europe

*Three dominant civilizations: Arabic, Byzantine, and Carolingian

Beginnings of religious faultlines?

Early Middle Ages 400-1000AD
Causes:

Bourbon-Habsburg political rivalry

European power politics

Protestant-Catholic conflict ie: sectarian.
Thirty Years War
Changed the relationship of subjects to their rulers.

Primary loyalty to the "nation" - rather than church for example

Consolidation of the role of the "State"
Defender = army
Provider = tax collector


Implications
Fixed territorial boundaries

Ended sectarian wars in mainland Europe
Established core group: Austria, Russia, Prussia, England, France, the United Provinces (future Netherlands and Belgium).

Arguably pushed religious wars overseas - colonial race (South America, Asia and Africa
Consequences
Nation state and nationalism
The ideal is that “a nation" (understood as “a people") should be matched to “a state". In other words, a nation for each state, and a state for each nation.

This expresses an ideal of self-determination which seems impossible to fulfill in practice because there are potentially thousands of nations around the world, and they are constantly shifting and changing.

Theories of Nationalism
Primordial - in our DNA

Inevitable - human nature

Socially constructed
Imagined Communities
Nationalism emerged in the 18th century in Europe
17th and 18th centuries – Enlightenment - Age of Reason
God no longer necessarily regarded as "absolute truth"
Anderson links the decline of religious belief with the rise of nationalism
Something to believe in – a certainty
As such though it is a construct – not an absolute

“All communities larger than….villages of face to face contact are imagined.”


Why does nationalism matter?
"People are prepared to die for these “imagined communities” because they see them as primordial
“The great wars of this century are extraordinary not so much in the unprecedented scale on which they permitted people to kill as in the colossal number persuaded to lay down their lives.” (IC: 144)

Dying for one’s country assumes a moral grandeur which dying for the Labour Party ….or Amnesty International does not.” (IC: 144)

Sovereignty
Power - as assumed by a state

Where does it come from?

Do failing states have sovereignty?

Self declared "de facto" states?
Current World Order
Pre or post Westphalian
Post Westphalian...
Europe
UN
International Law
Rise of non-state actors (non-governmental organisations, civil society movements, multinational corporations).



Pre-Westphalian
Parts of Africa - unsuccessful imposition of the nation state paradigm

Failing states
Syria?
Somalia
ISIS????
Seminar reading
Seminar Document: The Treaty of Münster (1648), available online: http://www1.umassd.edu/euro/resources/dutchrep/14.pdf.

Essential reading:
Baylis and Smith - Pg 23-24 and Chapter Two. 327 BAY

A.D.Smith, (2010 – 2nd ed.) Nationalism, Cambridge: Polity Press. Chapter One. 320.54 SMI

B. Anderson (1991), Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, London: Verso. Introduction 320.54 AND



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