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Linguistic & Literacy Development, History of Natural Language Development & Learning Disabilities
Transcript of Linguistic & Literacy Development, History of Natural Language Development & Learning Disabilities
The scientific study of language and its structure, including the study of morphology, syntax, phonetics, and semantics.
Four kinds of linguistic knowledge:
refers to the set of basic units of speech: phonemes.
is the stage at which the individually meaningless phonemes are assembled to produce meaningful portions of language, called morphemes.
refers to the form or structure of the language, and deals with the rules that specify how words are combined in order to express meanings.
is the knowledge of the social complications of communication
Language implies a
complex set of mental processes:
1. Extraction of meaning from words and sentences.
2. Recalling verbal symbols from memory.
3. Associating verbal symbols with referents.
4. Organizing sentences that convey specific meaning and that follow prescribed syntactic orders, and precise phonological rules etc.
Lesions to the left hemisphere produce:
Disorders of reading and writing
Loss of verbal memory
Defects in left right orientation
Oversimplification and lack of detail in drawings
Inability to perform certain kinds of movements
Lesions to the right hemisphere produce disorders in:
Certain emotional responses
Grossly distorted drawing
3 different types of crying:
The cry starts as a quiet and intermittent cry which gradually becomes louder and more rhythmical.
the angry cry follows the same sequence as the basic crying pattern, but which is characterized by different lengths of sound and pause.
The cry of pain is sudden and loud from the start and consists of a long cry followed by a long silence, then a series of short gasping sounds.
From 0 ; 1 onwards
babies are able to make a
cooing sound that seems
to be produced in response
to pleasurable sociable interactions.
From 0 ; 6 to 0 ; 9
the baby enters the babbling or echolalia stage, in which the baby reproduces
vowels and some consonants.
At the age of 0 ; 9
What is Linguistic?
Echolalia is the frequent repetition of syllabic sounds such as /adadadadada/ or /mamamamama/
From around 1;0
babies begin to use words consistently to refer to things that they want, or to name people or objects.
The Holophrastic Period
single word phrase stage. It starts at around the age 1 ; 0 and ends at about 1 ; 6
At the age around 1 ; 6
the child's vocabulary begins to grow
From 1 ; 6 to 1 ; 9
a child's vocabulary will expand
from around 20 words to 200 words.
The telegraphic period is so called because of its terseness and lack of function words such as
tense endings, verb endings,
prepositions, conjunctions and articles.
It occurs between the ages of 1 ; 6 to 3 ; 0
The Telegraphic Period
The Complex Period
Between the ages of 2 ; 6 and 5
the Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) increases dramatically. Sentences become considerably more sophisticated.
The Intuitive Linguistic Period
After age 6 children will tend to produce \tag" questions.
Tag questions are placed at the end of declarative sentences,
Children will be using larger words and longer
and more complex sentences. They will also develop the capacity to think about language itself in a way which was previously impossible. This is the so called "linguistic intuitive" period.
The understanding of semantics grows throughout the period, by 6 the child is likely to understand
between 8000 and 14,000 words,
Stages of Literacy Development
Emergent literacy is a gradual process that takes place over time from birth - until a child can read and write in what we consider to be a conventional sense.
Frith (1985) described this development in three phases:
Vocabulary knowledge is a core component in language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how learners speak, listen, read and write (Carr, 2005).
The US National Reading Panel in 2000 described fluency as the ability of readers ‘to read orally with speed, accuracy, and proper expression’
Nichols, Rupley and Rasinski (2009) expand on this definition by describing ‘speed’ as ‘automaticity of word recognition’
Comprehension has been described as the ‘essence’ of reading (Durkin, 1993).
literacy includes the capacity to read, understand and critically appreciate various forms of communication including spoken language, printed text, broadcast media, and digital media.
(DES, 2011, p. 8)
The Reading Process
sequentially-ordered set of transformation
Smith (1971) and
Goodman (1967, 1994)
emphasize the role of text context in identify words that are not known to the reader
letter -> to phoneme ->
to lexical level -> deep structural representation
four processors that interact and cooperate
to deliver information to the reader:
context processor constructs a coherent interpretation or message.
The most important system in this model is the orthographic processor which receives information directly from the printed page, and, if the word is known to the reader, its meaning is accessed automatically.
refers to the use of visual or graphic features to read words
refers to the use of spelling patterns
refers to the use of grapheme-phoneme relations to process words
children do not make letter sound connections to make words – they rely on selected visual features.
They will form connections between only some of the letters and sounds, often just the first and final letter sounds.
children use mainly grapheme phoneme connections correspondences to identify words.
represents the child’s growing knowledge and use of specific orthographic patterns, knowledge of morphological patterns and syllabic units.
L E A R N I N G
Flynn, M. & Flynn, P. (1998). Thinking about having a learning disability. London:
Girod, C. M. (2001). Diseases and disorders: Learning disabilities. San Diego: Lucent
Landau, E. (2004). Dyslexia. New York: Franklin Watts.
Silverstein, A., Silverstein V., & Silverstein Nunn, L. (2001). Dyslexia. New York:
"How Not to Diagnose ADHD" Contemporary Pediatrics Archive, Nov. 1996 by Martin Baren MD, James Swanson, PhD
"The Clinical Characteristics of Behaviors of ADD/ADHD People Vary with Age" ADD Medical Treatment Center of Santa Clara valley
The Gardner School online site. www.gardnerschool.org
"Georgetown researchers to present evidence of biological cause of dyslexia" Press release Feb 14, 2001. Georgetown University Medical Center
Learning Disabilities Association of America www.ldanatl.org
The International Dyslexia Society, www.interdys.org
Learning Disabilities Association of America 4156 Library Road Pittsburgh, PA 15234 (412) 341-1515
President's Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities 1331 F Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20004 (202) 376-6200
National Center for Law and Learning Disabilities P.O. Box 368 Cabin John, MD 20818 (301) 469-8308
Allow students to use calculators during Math, when the goal is concept attainment (and not automaticity of math facts)
Allow students to tape record lectures and/or tape notes for students.
Allow students who cannot speak clearly to use a speech synthesizer
Allow for alternate forms of assessment by allowing students to demonstrate learning through such things as portfolios, slide presentations, photographic essays, or taped interviews.
OTHER ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY
Students with learning disabilities may suffer from
emotional problems/depression, and/or low
self-esteem. This may cause students to withdraw
from social interaction.
These same students may turn to drugs or alcohol for relief
from feelings of low self-worth.
As many as 35% of students with learning disorders,
drop out of High School (Girod, 2001, p. 31).
“Teenagers with dyslexia …[are] more likely to…think about
and to attempt suicide than other young people their age” (Landau, 2004, pp. 48-9).
Because many people with dyslexia are right-brained thinkers, they may be more artistic and creative, becoming poets, actors, inventors, and artists.
Children with dyslexia use “almost five times as much brain area as other children while doing a simple language task” (Silverstein et al., 2001, p. 22).
“In the past, doctors…tried to prevent [children with disabilities] from being born; they…also…tried to stop some [people with disabilities] from having children of their own” (Flynn, 1998, p. 11).
For writing assignments, students with LD should be allowed to use a computer (if available) so that they can get spelling support through the spell check program.
Students with dyslexia may find that writing assignments are more easily completed on a computer.
Consider trying computer software, like Kurzweil 3000, which reads textbooks and other materials to students.
ASSISTANCE DURING ASSESSMENTS:
Does my student have dyslexia?
Today, only after a student has reading difficulties can dyslexia be diagnosed
Dyslexia may have “biological roots”
Psychological testing can determine if a child has dyslexia
Approaches used to diagnose dyslexia
Evaluate student’s behavior
Continuous performance test (CPT)
Diagnosis should be based on multiple pieces of information and observations
Approaches to diagnose ADD and ADHD
NO real causes
Might be caused by:
Causes or Presumed causes of Learning Disabilities
What is a learning disability?
Supporting learning with visuals
Stressing step-by-step instructions
For students with ADHD, teachers should:
Give only one assignment at a time.
ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONAL IDEAS
Teachers may find the following helpful:
Repeat and summarize oral lecture notes and give students written versions of key points.
Verbalize what is being written on the chalkboard and read aloud material contained in handouts.
Send students a copy of booklist for upcoming semester/school year so that students can “get a jump on” the reading assignments.
ASSISTANCE WITH AUDIO AND VISUAL ASPECTS OF LEARNING
Central Auditory Processing Disorder Difficulty processing and remembering language-related tasks
Non-Verbal Learning Disorders Trouble with nonverbal cues, e.g., body language; poor coordination, clumsy
Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit Reverses letters; cannot copy accurately;
Language Disorders (Aphasia/Dysphasia) Trouble understanding spoken language; poor reading comprehension
A language and reading disability
Problems with arithmetic and math concepts
A writing disorder resulting in illegibility
(Sensory Integration Disorder) Problems with motor coordination
Types of Learning Disabilities
Celebrities with ADD/ADHD
Henry “The Fonz” Winkler
Celebrities with dyslexia
How will I know if my student has a LD?
Most students exhibit uneven areas of ability
Student is physically “normal”
Average or above average intelligence
Commonly found in gen ed classes: dyslexia and ADD/ADHD
Many LDs need to be medically diagnosed
Characteristics of Learning Disabilities
Unreasonable emotional negativity
Frustration over minor issues
(All characteristics may vary with age)
Does my student have ADD or ADHD?
A 'learning disability' is a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding and using language spoken or written which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, spell, or do mathematical calculations.
The teacher may wish to:
Choose an alternate exam site away from the general education classroom. Ensure that this alternate locale is free from auditory and visual distracters.
Avoid confusing or complicated language and/or consider a substitute exam/assessment.
Allow student extra time to complete exams/assignments, especially if there are unique demands regarding reading and writing skills.
Quinnie D. Alpuerto