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Transcript of Qing Dynasty
~Daniel Hinton First Opium War 1839-1842 A.D. Taiping Rebellion 1850-1864 A.D. The First Opium War was fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing Dynasty over control of the opium trade. Opium was a major market and the flow of opium to and from China was crucial. Whoever controlled this flow, controlled the opium market. The Qing lost because of their inability to come up to par with the technological advances used by the British. The Qing's desire for such control follows the concepts and philosophies underlined by an imperialist dynasty. The Taiping Rebellion was a huge civil war in southern China between the Qing Dynasty and the followers of Hong Xiuquan, who believed he in visions he received that he was the younger brother of Jesus Christ. The rebellion pressed for social reforms such as "property in common", equality for women, and the replacement of Confucianism, Buddhism and Chinese folk religion with their form of Christianity. The war eventually ended when the Qing Dynasty assisted by French and British forces destroyed the rebels. The war yielded 20 million casualties. 1856-1860 A.D. Second Opium War The Second Opium was a result of the failure of
the treaty of Nanking. It was fought between England and the Qing Dynasty. The aftermath resulted in the true exposure of the Chinese culture to the world because it opened up 10 ports and allowed for the entering of all foreigners into China. The war was one of the contributing causes to the fall of the Qing Dynasty. 1894- 1895 First Sino-Japanese War ~First Sino-Japanese War was fought between Qing Dynasty, China and Meiji, Japan primarily over the control of Korea.
~After more than six months of continuous successes by the Japanese army and naval forces, as well as the loss of the Chinese port of Weihai, the Qing leadership sued for peace in 1895.
~ The loss of this battle was a major blow to the prestige of the Qing Dynasty and the classical tradition in China. Daoguang Emperor (Qing emperor
during this time period) Sir Charles Elliot- administrator of British trade with China Xianfeng Emperor- Qing emperor during this time period) Emperor Li Hongzhang- (Qing Emperor during this time period) Ito Hirobumi- (Japanese Prime Minister during this time period) Michael Seymour- (Commander-in-Chief of the China station) Hong Xiuquan- (Leader of the rebels) Xiafeng Emperor- (Qing emperor at the time) Major-General Charles George Gordon- British commander Admiral Auguste Leopold Protet- commander of French allegiance forces with Qing dynasty Sino-French War 1884-1885 - The Sino-French War, also known as the Tonkin War, was a limited conflict fought to decide whether France should replace China in Tonkin (northern Vietnam).
-The Belligerents were France against the Qing dynasty, Vietnam, and the Black Flag Army.
-After the war there was initial hastening for a strong nationalist movement in the Qing Dynasty, which was a significant step in the decline of the Qing Empire.
-The loss brought to the public, a reason to doubt the Qing national defense capabilities.
-This was one of the major failures of the Qing's imperialist strategies. Amedee Courbet- (Commander of French forces in Tonkin War) Hoang Ke Viem- (Vietnamese Leader during conlict) Hoang Ke Viem's Tomb- (He was the leader of the Black Flag Army) Zhang Peilun- (naval commander of Qing Dyansty) Boxer Rebellion 1899-1901 ~The Boxer Rebellion was an anti-foreign movement by the Righteous Harmony Society in China. It opposed foreign imperialism and Christianity.
~The uprising took place against a background of severe drought and economic disruption in response to growth of foreign spheres of influence.
~The Qing Empress Dowager Cixi supported the Boxers and waged war on foreign powers such as the UK, Russia, Japan, France, U.S.A., Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary (8 nation alliance)
~The 8 nation alliance crushed the resistance, provided execution for government officials who supported Boxers, and gave the Qing a major debt of 67 million pounds that would have to be paid over a course of 39 years to the 8 nations.
~After the conflict subsided the Qing Dynasty was so weak that it was only being sustained by the Europeans. Representatives from each member of eight nations alliance Empress Dowager Cixi Portrayal of the Boxer Rebellion Xinhai Revolution
(Chinese Revolution) 1911 ~The Xinhai Revolution was a revolution that overthrew the Qing Dynasty and established the Republic of China.
~The revolution ended up with the abdication of the last emperor, Puyi on February 12, 1912, that marked the end of over 2,000 years of imperial rule and the beginning of China's republican era.
~The revolution arose in the response to the failure for the Qing Dynasty to modernize China, and was further emphasized because of the resentment against the rule of the ruling Manchu minorities.
~The revolution resulted in the transfer from imperialism to nationalism and republicanism. 1644 Establishment of Qing Dynasty The Qing Dynasty was formed after the fall of the Ming Dynasty. The majority of the Chinese population was Han Chinese, but a minority group that formed the Manchu state. The first emperor was Shunzhi. The Qing adopted a system very similar to the Mandate of Heaven system to decide who the succeeding emperors would be. The Qing gained power through their imperialistic views and desire to gain more territory with strengthened military arrangements and strategies. 1892 Hundred Days' Reform ~The hundred days' reform was a 104 day
failed attempt at reforming the national cultural, political and educational systems.
~The Guangxu Emperor and his supporters started this short lived coup d'etat that was suppressed by Empress Dowager Cixi.
~About a decade later in 1905 many of these reform measures were put into effect such as educational and military modernization modeled after Japan.
~The initial failure of the movement however allowed people to believe that the only true way to make change was to overthrow the Qing Dynasty, an event that would occur in approximately a decade. Guangxu Emperor Empress Dowager Cixi Initiation of Canton System 1757-1842 ~The Canton System served as a means for China to control trade within its own country. (Part of its imperialistic ideologies)
~It forced large amounts of direct trade between European merchants and Chinese civilians
The emperor appointed and official to take charge and collect taxes and goods traded.
~this sytem put the Qing in greater power over their trade rather than the power resting in the hands of the Western states. Artists' depictions of Canton trading environments during the reign of the Qing. Theme
IMPERIALISM The theme that suits the Qing Dynasty the most is imperialism. Imperialism is the use of military force for the creation and/or maintenance of a country. In the case of the Qing, they were a minority group, the Manchus, who were able to suppress rebellious forces during their initial uprising. This allowed them to create a solid foundation for the beginning of a new dynasty. The Qing. After the Qing came to power they expanded in practically all four directions through military campaigns. Also, the Qing dynasty had many military conflicts with foreign powers from the West that would have vital impacts on their ways of life as you will soon see...