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Assessment of Acculturation

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Miriam Cotterill

on 3 February 2015

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Transcript of Assessment of Acculturation

Acculturation and Enculturation Processes
When What Used to Work No Longer Works
Acculturation Dynamics
Relationship between Cultural Identity and Acculturation
Assessing Level of Acculturation
The Role of Accultration and Emotions in Learning
Informal Assessment of Accultuturation
Formal Assessment of Acculturation
Tools to use for formal assessment:
Acculturation Quick Screen (AQS)
Often used as pre-instructional assessment
Capable of measuring level and rate of acculturation to grade-level school culture
Used to make decisions about modification of testing, evaluation, and other assessment procedures
Used to provide early warning and other aspects of schooling that may be compounding student's acculturation challenges
Informed Instruction
Chapter 4:
Assessment of Acculturation

By: Haley Krehbiel &
Miriam Buckley

Enculturation is an individual's initial socialization to the norms of his or her own culture group. The process by which people acquire the foundational values, behaviors, and language appropriate for the contexts in which they will physically, cognitively, and socially develop. (Herrera, Murry, & Cabral, 2007, p. 81)






"Acculturation is the type of culture change that occurs when an enculturated individual comes into proximity with a new or different culture" (Collier, 2004, p. 6)


Impact of Acculturation of Appropriate Methods of Assessment
Traditional assessment practices typically value individual achievement, competition (ranking), speed, verbal prowess, and recitation of knowledge.
CLD students may not:
Understand cultural assumptions of assessment prompts grounded in dominant culture
Be comfortable demonstrating knowledge in ways perceived as condescending
Be motivated by competition, speed, or nonsocial reinforcers

Because the goal of assessment is to determine
what
and
how
the student learns in order to inform instruction, assessment methods that do not account for acculturation only serve to cloud the teacher's ability to gain anything valuable from their results.

Using Acculturation Information to Inform Instruction
Cultural Differences as Learning Assets
Program-Related Issues: Assessment of Acculturation
Identification
Placement
Levels of acculturation and the degrees of difference between the home and host culture can help determine the most appropriate instructional placement and approaches for CLD students.
Resources

Students come to the U.S.A. for many different reasons . . .
How might additional background information cast new light on the ability of assessments to provide critical information about the students?
How might stressors associated with the acculturation process affect learning for this student?
In what way do the student's acculturation process and the teacher's own culture interact to accelerate or hinder learning?
Religion
Media
Entertainment
Literature
Education
Language
Educators must . . .
understand the values and belief to which they encluturated themselves
understand how these values and beliefs influence their response to and relationship with their students
Monitoring
Exit
Enculturation leaves the individual with a sort of filter through which he/she interprets the behaviors and interactions of others

Teachers who are able to identify their own cultural lens (or way of viewing the world) are generally much better able to recognize how:
that lens colors or distorts their perceptions of other people and events
how CLD students new environment makes her/his lens and unreliable guide to interaction (compounding misperceptions)
Acculturation can affect people in different ways . As the degree of difference between cultures increase, so does the likelihood that the norms of one will violate the other which results in

culture shock
!
Culture Shock
When the novelty of the unfamiliar evolves into the frustrating reality
Sudden changes in language (language barriers)
Loss of friends, family, & community
Increased family tensions & insecurities
Social isolations, finances, work schedules
Students who experience culture shock may demonstrate . . .
anger
irritability
disorderly behavior
signs of depression
emotionality
increased complains
home sickness
excessive sleeping
overeating/ loss of appetite
social withdrawl
loss of intrest in activities
Culture Shock
May Be Caused By:
These symptoms may cause concern, but remember
"The effects of acculturation are similar to and may be confused with some of the behaviors for which children are referred to special education" (Collier, 2004, p. 2)
An understanding of the multiple factors contributing to a student's behavior enables educators to make more informed decisions about instruction, programming, placement, and assessment.
1. Euphoria- curiosity & enthusiasm
2. Culture Shock- novelty gives way to reality
3. Anoime- - sorting out role in each culture
Feelings of being in a cultural "no man's land" (estranged vs. not accepted)
This period can be short-lived or last entire life (deculturation)
4. Adoption/ Adaptation- fully adopt new culture as replacement for primary culture/ function authentically within both
Acculturation does not occur at the same rate or same degree among individuals.
Assimilation occurs when a student replaces native cultural patterns/ language with the new community. Assimilation represents a sacrifice rather than integration or adaption to new norms
Integration/Adaption reflects the degree to which the CLD is capable of participating in the new norms
Rejection= conscious choice to shun a culture
Deculturation describes the disconnection from the home culture and positive acculturation to the new community (dissatisfaction/conflict)
Acculturation Experience
Ethnic identity is the strongest predictor of overall wellness for CLD students (Dixon Rayle & Myers, 2004).

Students who are able to maintain a positive ethnic identity throughout the acculturation process demonstrate:
Better mental health
Fewer somatic symptoms
Improved academic achievement
Lower teen pregnancy rates
Less drug/alcohol use
Teachers who encourage CLD students to maintain their cultural or ethnic ties promote their personal and academic success!
Identity surveys are authentic informal assessments that help the teacher better understand the student's perspective.
Acculturation develops in two continua:
Behavioral
Psychological
Values
Belief System
Attitudes
Preferences
Language
Social Skills
Customs
It is important to avoid making assumptions and drawing conclusions about a student's level of acculturation based only on a single source of information. Thus, using informal & formal assessments help educators make informed decisions about a CLD student.
Learning occurs interdependently with an individual's emotional state.
The emotional climate of a learning situation can either hinder or facilitate a student's ability to make authentic and enduring meaning from learning experiences.
"Events and learning that tap into our emotions will be remembered and how you feel about a topic or subject is critical"(Jensen, 2000, p. 346).
Educators should assess student's feeling in addition to his/her concrete knowledge and skills.
Make real-world connections
Assess prior knowledge
Incorporate existing knowledge
Connect emotionally charged prior experiences
Connect Emotions to Learning!
Informal assessment of acculturation can take many forms:
Observations/Impressions
Home Visit
Reviewing School Records
Surveys
Conferencing and conversations
Collecting data- rubrics and checklists
Physical Indicators- absences, nurse visits, complaints
Creative Activities
Place of Origin Map- Map labeled with students home country
School Puzzle-poster board-sized puzzle piece with aspects of students identity
Heritage Paper- personal narrative project with information gathered about family background
Cultural Quilt- timeline of illustrations of journey to USA/ life story
The Essentials Book-illustrated responces to prompts "The most important . . . "
Cultural Mosaic- illustrated mosaics about their perceptions
Sociocultural Mind Map- graphic organizers which incorporate relationships among concepts & ideas
See Table 4.2 pg 106
Ways to incorporate and affirm strengths and cultural assets of CLD students with available resources:
Provide linguistically adapted instruction
Have staff and/or volunteers do read-alouds in native language, preteach/review content vocab.
Manage a language-specific calling tree keeping parents informed
Translate pertinent notes about student progress, school news, and conferences to and from parents
Without available resources:
Emphasize second language acquisition in the context of academic language
Pair peers who share the same culture or language in cooperative groups including native English speakers
Provide native language materials
Remember - effective student instruction and accommodation require the combined efforts of students, parents, and the community.
The ability to identify cultural assets to which one is not accustomed and view them from an alternate perspective is similar to experiences with optical illusions.
Think about Joel (pg 109)
Individualism, Collectivism, Familism
Promoting independence
Promoting interdepence
Valuing family and family goals above individual goals


Students with lower levels of English language proficiency may experience culture shock. It is important to allay student fears during formal assessment and emphasize informal assessment information.
Monitor across settings; Deculturation or rejection requires attention to both individual student needs and educational environment. May use home visits and conversations with parents to provide insight.
Students who have met the language and achievement criteria to exit may continue to require supports and affirmation. Students who integrate aspects of the host culture to form a bicultural identity are able to draw on the strengths of both cultures overcoming personal and academic challenges.
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