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Transcript of AP History
France Finds a Foothold in Canada
1. Explain what caused the great contest for North America between Britain and France, and why Britain won.
2. Describe France’s colonial settlements and their expansion, and compare New France with Britain’s colonies in North America.
3. Explain how Britain’s colonists became embroiled in the home country’s wars with France.
4. Describe the colonists’ role in the Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War), and indicate the consequences of the French defeat for Americans.
5. Indicate how and why the British victory in the Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War) became one of the causes of the American Revolution.
Edict of Nantes- Granted limited religious freedom to French Protestants. It also stopped the religious wars between the Prostestants and Catholics.
*Issued by the crown of France in 1598.
* 1608- An empire was established in Quebec after the founding of Jamestown.
* It was led by Samuel de Champlain
* Samuel de Champlain was an intrepid soldier and explorer that with alot of energy and leadership came to earn the title of " Father of New France".
* The New France's government fell under the direct control of the king.
Samuel De Champlain
New France Fans Out
* Beaver was one of New France's valuable resource. ( Made hats out of it for warmth but yet also for opulent appearance.)
* Jesuits - French Catholic missionaries who tried converting the Indians to Christianity and also wanted to save them from the fur trappers.
*1701- Antoine Cadillac founded Detroit to thwart English settlers.
* The Mississippi and Gulf basin was explored by Robert de La Salle who ended up naming it Louisiana.
* 1718- New Orleans was founded by the French.
*Illinois was rich in grain which is why it became France's garden empire of North America.
Robert de La Salle
The Clash of Empires
* Coureurs de bois- The name for Beaver hunters who often littered the land with place names.
*French Voyageurs- Recruited Indians to hunt for beaver. Soon the population of beaver became extinguished.
King William's and Queen Anne's War
* English colonist fought the French coureurs de bois and their Indian allies.
*America wasn't considered important to neither of them.
* The British failed while trying to capture Quebec and Montreal.
*1713 The peace deal in Utrecht - It limited Britain's trading rights with Spanish America.
The War of Jenkins's Ear
* Jenkins an English Captain got his ear cut off by a spanish commander
* The war was restricted to Georgia and the Caribbean Sea.
*The war combined to form a single entity with the War of Austrian Succession
* In America it came to be called " King George's War".
* France allied with spain
King William's war
George Washington Inaugurates War with France
*The Ohio Valley was the battleground for the Spanish, British, and the French.
* It's land was very good that contained fertile.
* He was 21 at that times
* Was sent as a lieutenant colonel in command of 150 Virginia minutemen.
* Faced the Frenchmen 40 miles from Fort Duquesne which the troops began firing killing the leader of the French.
* A 10-hour siege occurred after the French surrounded Washington's hastily constructed Fort Necessity.
* The war was known to be fought as " Indian style" which meant hiding and guerilla fighting.
* Later when everything was finished his men and him marched away with great honor.
* 1752- George Washington was sent to Ohio by the governor of Virginia.
Global War and Colonial Disunity
*First three Anglo- French colonial wars started in Europe.
* The fourth struggle known as the French and Indian war began in America due to Washington's battle with the French.
* Seven Years' War( Seven-seas war) was another name for it.
* On one side it was England and Prussia vs. France, Spain, Austria, and Russia.
* Fredrick the Great- Won the title of "Great" by repelling French, Austrian, and Russian armies.
* Some Americans wanted the American colonies to unite.
* !754- Seven colonies out of the thirteen colonies gathered together for an inter-colonial congress
- Held in Albany and New York also known as the Albany Congress.
Braddock's Blundering and it's Aftermath
* 60 year-old Gen. Edward Braddock was sent by the British to lead inexperienced soldiers with slow and heavy artillery.
* French used " Indian tactics" during the battle with the British.
Pitt's Palms of Victory
* William Pitt also known as the " Great Commoner" took the lead when British was in trouble.
* 1757- The foremost leader of the London government. Earned the title of "Organizer of Victory" later on.
*Changes made my him- 1.) The assaults on the French West Indies where soft-pedaled.2.) Old cautious officers were being replaced by young and daring officers.
*1758- Louisburg fell which meant that it began to wither the New France vine since supplies where diminish.
*1759- Battle of Quebec is one of the most significant engagements in the British and American history.
* During the Peace Treaty at Paris in 1763 France was kicked out of North America.
- British gained Canada including the land all the way to the Mississippi River.
-French was allowed to get some small valuable sugar islands in the West Indies.
* France's final blow- When Louisiana was given to Spain as a compensation for Spain's loss in the war.
* Great Britain was now the leading naval power in the world including in North America.
Friction soon developed between the British officers and the colonial "boor."
* American officers where not ranked higher than captains because the British refused to recognize an American.
*The export of all supplies from New England to the middle colonies where being forbidden by the British.
* The American colonials did not help the French fight until they were offered a reimburse from pitt.
* Different Americans that came from other colonies found similarities such as language,ideals and tradition among one another.
* Occurred during the French and Indian War.
* It also broke the barriers that they had with one another.
War's fateful aftermath
* Ottawa Chief Pontiac led a couple French allied tribes into a bloody campaign that went through the Ohio Valley.
*The Proclamation of 1763 was established by the Parliament.
* It didn't allow any settlement to go beyond the area of the Appalachians. It was a form of oppression.
* The Revolutionary war was set due to the disobedience of the Americans.
The reason why Britain won was due to it's naval base that they had established across the Atlantic. Britain had the funds for it while the French didn't and where also not aware of the effective use of seapower. That prevented the French from being able to send supplies and reinforcements to North America.
1.) This occurred because everyone wanted and where seeking for a better and much greater empire. For example resources and new trade systems fell into that category.
2.) France's expansion was big. This expansion created different groups to form. For example some of those groups where fur trappers, traders, Fishermen, and permanent settlers. New France and the Britain's colonies were tied and bounded up together through water. It went from the Acadeia through the Great lakes and Mississippi Valley, later on expanding to New Orleans and to the Caribbean.
3.) Due to Britain's great power it allowed them to create a even more stronger military. The prosperity of it's growth caused an international rivalry among the other great colonial. They were Britain, Spain, and France.
4.) This war was fought due to the North American conflict that was part of a imperial conflict. It was between Great Britain and France. In began in 1754 and ended in 1763 thanks to the Treaty of Paris. Great Britain gain a great amount of territories. This was not good at all for the Americans because they had to pay the war's expenses which led to great discontent and disappointment.
5.) One of the causes was that they had to pay for all of the expenses that had been made. This was not fair to them at all.